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I 



The Philippine 
Journal of Science 



Volume 33 



MAY TO AUGUST 1927 
WITH 34 PLATES AND 5 TEXT FIGURES 




MANILA 

BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1927 



EDITORIAL BOARD 

William H. Brown, Ph.D., Editor 

R. C. McGregor, A.B., Associate Editor 

Anna B. Banyea, Copy Editor 

Chemistry 

Albert H. Wells, A.B.; T. Dar Juan, Phar.D.; F. Agcaoili, A.B. 

A. S. Arguelles, B.S.; Walter L. Brooke, M.S.; F. D. Reyes, B.S. 

A. P. West, Ph.D. 

Geology 

Victoriano Elicano, B.S.; Leopoldo A. Faustino, E.M., Ph.D. 

Experimental Medicine 

Otto Schobl, M.D.; H. W. Wade, M.D.; F. G. Haughwout 

Edward B. Vedder, M.A., M.D., D.Sc; A. P. Hitchens, M.D, 

Stanton Youngberg, D.V.M.; Arturo Garcia, M.D. 

Daniel de la Paz, M.D.; Cristobal Manalang, M.D. 

Clinical Medicine 

LiBORio Gomez, M.D., Ph.D.; F. Calderon, B.A., L.M. 

JACOBO Fajardo, M.D.; Vicente de Jesus, M.D.; Jose Albert, M.D. 

H. Lara, M.D.; Jose Rodriguez, M.D. 

Botany 

L. M. Gtjerrero, Phar.D.; C. F. Baker, M.A.; A. F. Fisher, C.E., M.F. 

J. K. .Santos, Ph.D.; P. L. Sherman, Ph.D.; Eduardo Quisumbing, Ph.D. 

Joaquin Maranon, Ph.D.; Rafael B. Espino, Ph.D. 

Zoology 

Albert C. Herre, Ph.D.; W. Schultze; C. F. Baker, M.A. 

Leopoldo B. Uichanco, M.S., Sc.D.; Marcos A. Tubangui, D.V.M. 

Manuel D. Sumulong, M.S., D.V.M. 

Anthropology 
H. 0. Beyer, M.A.; Otto Johns Scheerer, M.A. 
ii 






CONTENTS 

No. 1, May, 1927 

[Issued June 10, 1927.] 

Pagre. 

Faustino, Leopoldo a. Philippine coal resources and their ex- 
haustion 1 

One plate and five text figures. 

Manalang, C. Ancylostomiasis : Relation between number of ova 
per gram of formed stool and number of female worms har- 
bored by the host, 1 35 

Manalang, C. Ancylostomiasis: Relation between number of ova 
per gram of formed stool and number of female worms har- 
bored by the host, II 47 

Eggers, Hans. Neue Indo-Malayische Borkenkafer (Ipidae), II. 

Nachtrag 67 

FUNKHOUSER, W. D. New Philippine MembacidaB (Homoptera).... 109 

Four plates. 

No. 2, June, 1927 

[Issued June 28, 1927.] 

Macfarlane, J. M. The Philippine species of Nepenthes 127 

CoPELAND, E. B. Nomenclature of the abaca plant 141 

ParAs, Ernesto M. Blood-chemistry studies in leprosy, II. The 

alkali reserve 155 

Oreta, Adelaida T., and Augustus P. West. Salts of alpha linolic 
tetrabromide (sodium, potassium, zinc, barium, calcium, and 
strontium) from Philippine lumbang oil 169 

Aguilar, R. H. Composition and comparative service value under 

Philippine conditions of some imported prepared paints 177 

Seven plates. 

Herre, Albert W., and Heraclio R. Montalban. The Philippine 

species of Kuhliidse 199 

One plate. 

Elliott, E. A. New Stephanidae from Borneo and the Philippine 

Islands, II 211 

No. 3, July, 1927 

[Issued July 15, 1927.] 

Yasuyama, K. Inquiry into the serologic side-effects of the anti- 

rabic preventive treatment 233 

Manalang, C. Observations on the development of ascaris ova 249 

ill 



iv Contents 

Page. 

Almoradie, Pedro R., and Augustus P. West. Salts of linolenic 
hexabromide (calcium, magnesium, strontium, and nickel) from 
Philippine lumbang oil 257 

Santiago, Simeona, and Augustus P. West. Chaulmoogryl amino 

benzoic acids and chaulmoogra anilides 265 

Cockerell, T. D. a. Hymenoptera from Lucban, Philippine Islands.. 271 

Tyler-Townsend, Charles H. New Philippine Muscoidea 279 

Alexander, Charles P. New or little-known Tipulidse from the 

Philippines (Diptera), Part IV 291 

Two plates. 

Grandi, Guido. Hymenopteres Sycophiles recoltes aux lies Philip- 
pines par C. F. Baker, I. Agaonini. 22 "* contribution a la 
connaissance des insectes des figuiers 309 

Seven plates. 

No. 4, August, 1927 

[Issued August 30, 1927.] 

Garcia, Onofre. A pleomorphic and gas-forming bipolar bacillus 

isolated from the lymph glands of slaughtered cattle 331 

Two plates. 

JovELLANOS, Ceferino M., and Augustus P. West. Salts of alpha 
linolic tetrabromide (cadmium, cobalt, copper, magnesium, and 
manganese) from Philippine lumbang oil 349 

Maranon, Joaquin. The bitter principle of makabuhay, Tinos- 

pora rumphii Boerlage 357 

Del Mundo, Salvador. Notes on the analysis of phenol (carbolic 

acid) 363 

Faustino, Leopoldo a. Notes on Cebu coals 375 

EsPiNOSA, Jose C. Comparative strength properties of the principal 

Philippine commercial woods 381 

One plate. 

Herre, Albert W., and Heraclio R. Montalban. Philippine spa- 

roid and rudder fishes 397 

Nine plates. 

Errata 443 

Index 445 



The Philippine 
Journal of Science 

Vol. 33 MAY, 1927 No. 1 

PHILIPPINE COAL RESOURCES AND THEIR 
EXHAUSTION 

By Leopoldo a. Faustino 

Assistant Chief, Division of Geology and Mines, 
Bureau of Science, Manila 

ONE PLATE AND FIVE TEXT FIGURES 

CONTENTS 

Introduction. Structural features of Philippine 

The coal fields of the Philippine coal seams. 

Islands. Estimate of coal reserves. 

Estimate of areas and tonnage of j^^^j^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

coal m the Philippme Islands. t-. ^. ^ i ^ 

Theory of coal formation. Estimated tonnage of proven coal. 

Classification of coal seams. Production, importation, and con- 

Stratigraphic chart showing some sumption of coal. (Tables 4, 5, 

Philippine coal seams. (Table ^•) 

3.) How long will our coal last? 

Coal seams mined. Bibliography on Philippine coal. 

INTRODUCTION 

The importance of coal in the development of the industries 
cannot be overestimated. Coal represents the basic energy of 
civilization, and the future of commerce depends on its supply. 
Since 1842, when the first ton of coal was taken out of the ground 
in the Philippines, the coal reserves of the Archipelago have 
been drawn upon. Every ton mined and sold to consumers 
means so much less coal in the deposits. Every ton of coal left 
in the ground on account of poor mining methods and every 
ton burned by improper use means just so much coal wasted. 

225616 X 



2 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Philippine coal consumption averages half a million tons an- 
nually. The subject of the present inquiry is the nature and 
extent of the local supply. It is important to remember that 
local production amounts to only about one-tenth of the im- 
portations. It is desired to call attention to the fact that, while 
the local coal deposits cannot supply the entire demand, enough 
local coal can be made available, through improved methods of 
mining, to stabilize the industry. 

THE COAL FIELDS OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Coal occurs in all of the larger islands of the Archipelago and 
in most of the provinces. The following general coal areas are 
recognized : 

The Cagayan Valley field covers that portion of Cagayan 
Valley from Amulung to Nassiping, about 50 kilometers from 
Aparri, Cagayan. Coal outcrops have been located near Bag- 
gao and to the north of Alcala, and also 25 kilometers to the 
northeast of Nassiping. Although one of the earliest known 
coal areas, it has never produced one ton of coal. At one time 
the coal outcrops were on fire. The coal is of a poor quality, 
and on this account steamers calling at Aparri have not found 
it desirable to take part of their coal at that port. 

The Cordillera Central field includes isolated patches in Abra, 
Mountain, La Union, and Nueva Vizcaya Provinces. In Abra 
coal is found on Malanas River, near the town of Dolores. The 
Census of 1918 ^ records that "traces of copper, coal and iron 
pyrites have been discovered along the Abra River.'' In La 
Union coal is found at Aringay and also, according to Burritt,^ 
in the mountains of Bacnotan. The occurrence of coal in Nueva 
Vizcaya is reported in a letter of the governor of the province to 
the Director of the Bureau of Science requesting an examination 
of the coal deposits in his province. A small seam of coal occurs 
along the border of Ifugao and Nueva Vizcaya, near Cawayan. 
In Benguet Subprovince coal outcroppings have been found on 
Mount Kapangan. 

The Zambales Mountains contain scattered deposits of coal. 
It is reported to occur on the western flank on the northern 
slopes of Mount Maubanban near San Antonio. However, 
recent work of V. Elicano showed Mount Maubanban to be 
igneous and hence it cannot contain coal. In the vicinity of 
Candelaria and Santa Cruz coal outcrops have been located. 

'Census of the Philippine Islands 1 (1918) 75. 
'The Coal Measures of the Philippines (1901) 10. 



33,1 Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 3 

The eastern flank of the Zambales range is apparently devoid 
of any coal. The reported occurrence of coal in the immediate 
vicinity of the town of Ayuso, in Tarlac Province, described in 
Centeno's Monografias Geologicas, cannot be verified, as no 
town of that name can be found in the recent list of Philippine 
geographical names. Likewise, the reported occurrence of 
"carbon minerals" near San Miguel, in Pampanga Province, 
needs verification. 

The Eastern Cordillera field includes localities in Nueva Ecija, 
Bulacan, Rizal, and Tayabas Provinces. Reports of coal out- 
croppings in Nueva Ecija need confirmation, but deposits in 
Bulacan, Rizal, and Tayabas have been known since earliest 
times. Coal in Bulacan occurs in the vicinity of Norzagaray 
and San Miguel de Mayumo, and also in the mountains of Silao 
and Santo Cristo. In the region of the Manila water-supply 
reservation, east of Montalban and San Mateo in Rizal Prov- 
ince, thin beds of coal have been found. In Tayabas a consider- 
able number of coal prospects have been located from time to 
time, notably in that narrow neck of land between Pagbilao and 
Atimonan and also in the Pagbilao Islands. A few years ago 
coal was discovered in the vicinity of Mauban near Ligam River 
and Mount Batoc-toro. It is quite probable that this coal area 
extends to the northeast corner of Laguna Province. 

The most important deposit in Tayabas Province is on Polillo 
Island, in the vicinity of the barrio of Burdeos. The coal- 
bearing formations lie to the west of Burdeos at a distance of 
from 1 to 6.5 kilometers from Burdeos Bay. The development 
of this district has not gone beyond the prospecting stage. 
About 1907 the Polillo Land Company did some development 
work, consisting of crosscuts and shallow pits in the outcrops. 
At Guinibauan Creek a small entry was driven a total distance 
of 21 meters; 100 tons of coal resulted from the development 
work and were shipped to Manila. In 1908 J. B. Dilworth, of 
Philadelphia, made an examination of the Polillo coal district, 
but nothing resulted from his visit. Even during the coal- 
mining boom of 1920 this district was idle. The coal is bi- 
tuminous and of very good quality; the principal cause for its 
nondevelopment has been geologic disturbances of the strata 
which have made mining difficult and expensive. In Alabat 
Island a small outcrop has been located near the barrio of 
Gordon. 

Southeastern Luzon and adjacent islands coal field includes a 
number of well-known districts. In Caramoan Peninsula, along 



4 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Caramoan River, about 2 kilometers upstream from the Guijalo- 
Caramoan road, is a coal outcrop which has been known for at 
least eighty years. Also, near the barrio of Parubian coal is 
said to have been found. Across Caramoan Peninsula to the 
east is Catanduanes Island. Coal occurs in this island a few 
kilometers north of Virac near the barrio of Cabugao, and also 
to the north of Calolbon on the southeastern part of the island. 
To the south of Catanduanes are Cacraray, Batan, and Rapu- 
Rapu Islands. Practically the whole of Batan Island is under- 
lain with coal. Liguan, Caracaran, Calanaga, and East Batan 
are the important mining districts. The coal-bearing area of 
Batan Island is estimated at 34 square kilometers. 

Coal mining in Batan Island began in 1842 when the then 
governor of Albay, Juan Velarde, worked the large open de- 
posits of Calanaga and shipped the production to Manila. Dur- 
ing the following fifty years the major part of the work done 
in this district was location and relocation of claims. In 1904 
the United States Army reserved the western end of Batan Is- 
land and began development work. The exploratory work con- 
sisted in part of drilling; however, the results of the drilling 
were very confusing and difficult of interpretation. The mine 
workings yielded more information, particularly those at the 
so-called Big Tree and New Number 5. In 1909 approximately 
2,500 meters of galleries were opened up. The undertaking was 
not much of a success, and in January, 1911, all the mines and 
workings were abandoned. In July, 1921, the military author- 
ities turned the property over to the Civil Government which 
leased it to E. C. Walters on December 15, 1921. N. T. Hashim 
succeeded E. C. Walters, and the Liguan Coal Mines, Incorpor- 
ated, was formed, to undertake the development of the property. 
Some of the old workings of the army have been reopened and 
the company has ambitious plans for the future. A modern 
pier has been built, and interisland steamers coaling at Liguan 
have been able to load at the pier. The coal is of very good 
quality and finds a ready market. 

In 1905 the East Batan Coal Company on the eastern end of 
the island commenced extensive development work. In 1909 
the workings of the company consisted of 6,096 meters of gal- 
leries with a main entry of 295 meters. In 1910 the main slope 
reached a total distance of 550 meters and the face of the work- 
ings was approximately 50 meters below sea level. The mine 
produced consistently for five years, and then reverses came. 
In May, 1911, the company went into the hands of a receiver. 



33,1 



Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 



The failure of this company was due to several factors. In the 
first place too much money was spent for the surface plant and 
comparatively little on development work. Then, one of the 
slopes penetrated loose broken ground and salt water began to 
come in. In a short time the whole mine was flooded. The 
East Batan Coal Company was one of the few mines in the 
history of Philippine coal mining able to produce from 20,000 
to 30,000 tons annually for several years. It is to be regretted 
that the company lasted only five years. The property was 
afterward sold to the Government to satisfy its indebtedness. 

The Philippine Coal Mining Company started operations in 
1917, also on eastern Batan, at a place about 2 kilometers from 
the East Batan Coal Company property. This company pro- 
duced consistently until 1921, when it went into the hands of a 
receiver. During the early part of 1921 it produced between 
300 and 500 tons a day. At present the property of the Phil- 
ippine Coal Mining Company is in the hands of the Philippine 
National Bank. There are persistent rumors that the bank has 
subleased the area to E. J. Haberer, who is getting a little coal 
from one of the abandoned workings. The Albay Gulf and Pa- 
cific Company did some development work and produced some 
coal from the property west of the Philippine Coal Mining Com- 
pany. At the present time A. U. Betts is operating near the bar- 
rio of Dapdap. He has driven three tunnels on the strike of the 
main coal seam, and is driving his rooms up and down the dip. 
The East Batan coal is principally lignite but finds ready sale 
among the interisland steamers. 

The old Minas de Batan on the northeastern portion of the 
island near Calanaga Bay were worked by a Spanish company 
during the early days of American occupation. Considerable 
money was spent, but the production was small and the company 
finally went bankrupt. Japanese miners next took up the prop- 
erty, but their methods were crude and wasteful, and the pro- 
duction was small. Later, in 1923, the Calanaga Coal Mining 
Company did some development work and was able to produce 
som.e coal. At one place a pocket of coal more than 40 meters 
thick was encountered. Near Caracaran, in the middle of the 
island, on the opposite side of Calanaga Bay, J. E. Barker had 
several shafts and tunnels. In April, 1925, the activity in 
this central district was confined to near Calanaga Bay, where 
the Strittmatter-Karolchuck Coal Mining Company is doing 
some development work. Cacraray is known to contain coal, 
but the exact locality is not known. On the mainland of Luzon, 



6 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

in Camarines Sur, coal is reported near Pasacao and in the Ra- 
gay hills about 9 kilometers southwest of Bato Lake. North of 
the lake, in the vicinity of the town of Nabua, coal is also found. 
In Sorsogon coal occurs in the Sugod district, about 5 kilometers 
southeast of Bacon. This was one of the more important coal 
districts. The history of coal mining in this district was de- 
scribed by Pratt ^ as follows: 

About the year 1874 an association called "La Paz" was organized to 
exploit certain deposits of coal which outcrop in the vicinity of San Este- 
ban, a barrio of Bacon, Sorsogon. The outcrops appear to represent 
several beds, but the principal work was confined to a single bed, which, 
according to Jose Centeno, an engineer in the Spanish mining inspectorate, 
varied in width from 4 to 8 meters. All of the beds are nearly vertical 
and strike about north 20° west. The coal lies near the base of the 
Tertiary sedimentaries, and at the western edge of the sedimentary 
area — ^below the coal — ^there are outcrops of holocrystalline rocks which 
probably are part of the base upon which the beds were laid down. 

The workings executed by the La Paz association, according to Centeno, 
included 6 shafts varying in depth from 22 to 34 meters and 5 galleries 
and crosscuts aggregating 66 meters in length. Ramon Marty, an en- 
gineer employed by the company, states that 130 meters of gallery were 
driven at a level 11 meters below the surface and 188 meters of gallery 
at a level of 24 meters below the surface, beside the 6 shafts mentioned 
by Centeno. No faults were encountered, but the width of the coal 
varied from 4 to 8 meters, and there were zones near the surface in which 
the coal was broken and contaminated with fragments from the walls. 
Marty observed that the deepest workings were in good, solid coal and 
concluded that the broken condition of the coal was superficial only. 

The coal was considered to be of excellent quality, 200 tons of it having 
been used for steaming tests by the Spanish navy. It was admitted, 
however, that the fuel tended to disintegrate, or slack, upon exposure. 
Both Centeno and Marty thought that mining could be carried on suc- 
cessfully and expressed no doubt as to the adequacy of the tonnage 
probably available. Nevertheless, very little was accomplished subsequent 
to the date of the reports quoted above. The company. La Paz, failed, 
apparently because of a lack of capital, and the mines were abandoned, ^gp 

I visited the old mines in 1910, and while nothing remained of the 
former workings I found several outcrops, upon one of which a short 
tunnel had recently been driven. This bed is vertical and strikes north 
20° west; its full width was not revealed but must exceed 2 meters. The 
tunnel was about 10 meters long and entirely in coal, neither wall being 
exposed. The coal appeared to be much contaminated with clay along 
fractures and in inclosed blocks or horses. 

It may be concluded that the coal at San Esteban (designated variously 
as the Gatbo coal, the Sugud coal, and the Bacon coal) shows evidence of 
faulting in the broken condition of parts of the beds. The variation 
in width, also, may be due to the movements which caused the faults 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. § A ia (1915) 290-291. 



33.1 Faicstino: Philippine Coal Resources 7 

or it may be due to irregularities in deposition. The testimony of the 
Spanish engineers that conditions improved with depth suggests that 
faulting, not irregular deposition, is really the cause of the nonuniformity 
encountered, and the exploration so far as it goes indicates persistent 
coal beds. 

Since the failure of the La Paz nothing has been done in this 
district, and at the present time not even a revocable permit 
for coal prospecting has been applied for for the area. 

The Visayan Islands coal field comprises isolated areas in 
Masbate, Panay, Negros, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, and 
Siargao Islands. Cebu is purposely omitted from this list, as 
it deserves consideration by itself. 

The best-known area in this field is the Cataingan deposit near 
the lower end of the eastern prong of Masbate Island. The 
area is estimated to be about 5 square kilometers. Work on 
this deposit started in 1887, and desultory mining was carried 
on until 1895; a total production of 625 tons was reported for 
the whole period. The work done consisted mainly of open 
cuts along the outcrops, and no regular system of mining was 
followed. The production was hauled over a distance of 15 
kilometers on the backs of carabaos to Cataingan, where it was 
stored and sold to the steamers of Compania Maritima, which 
called there for cattle. Shortly before the American occupation 
an English engineer made an examination of the mines, but 
nothing resulted from this visit. During the insurrection 
against the Americans the insurgents took out a small amount 
of coal from the place for use in their launch. Since American 
occupation the district has been visited by prospectors, but up 
to the present no work has been done on these coal deposits. 

In Panay coal is known to occur near Buruanga and is reported 
from north of Libacao and Balete, in Capiz Province. In 1920 
a few revocable permits were issued for coal prospecting around 
Buruanga, but the work did not go beyond the prospecting stage. 
According to Abella, coal is also known from Valderrama, which 
he places in Capiz Province but which is near the western shore 
of the island and is in Antique Province. The same authority 
noted the occurrence of coal in Dingle in Iloilo Province. The 
Bureau of Education reports that thin coal seams have been 
discovered at the nearby town of Janiuay. 

In Negros the deposit near Calatrava and Talabe on the north- 
eastern part has been known since Spanish times. From 1874 
to 1899 several expeditions and entries had been made in this 
district but there was no development. At the northern end of 



8 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

the island, near the barrio of Salamanca, Escalante, coal has 
been discovered and this was the subject of an investigation in 
1918. In the southwestern part, to the east of Cabancalan, 
occurrences of coal have been reported but no detailed infor- 
mation can be had. 

Samar's coal deposits are little known. The reported occur- 
rences are at Centeno's locality Loquilocon and at Gandara and 
Paranas, as recorded by Abella. Loquilocon is about 11 kilo- 
meters northeast of Paranas, which is now called Wright. 
During the Philippine Carnival of 1918 Samar Province exhibited 
samples of lignite said to have been collected from a locality 11 
kilometers southeast of Wright. 

In the neighboring island of Leyte coal is said to have been 
found, according to the Census of 1918, in the towns of Leyte, 
Ormoc, and Jaro. Near the northern end of the island, in the 
municipality of Babatngon, coal is also found. Burritt recorded 
the occurrence of coal in the town of Hagna (probably Jagna, in 
the neighboring island Bohol), on the southern coast, and the 
Bureau of Education noted the existence of a small amount at 
Calape on the eastern coast. 

In Dinagat Island coal is reported at Tuba j on, Mabua, and 
Aliton, the last two localities not shown on any of the maps 
available. Recent work of V. Elicaiio showed the occurrence 
of coal within the municipality of Loreto. 

In Siargao the reported occurrence is in the vicinity of the 
town of Dapa. According to Becker coal also occurs at Nu- 
mancia on the west coast and at Cabantug on the east coast. 

The Bureau of Education records the existence of coal at 
Hinatuan Island. According to V. Elicaiio, this island is vol- 
canic, and the town of Hinatuan on the eastern coast of Surigao 
is probably the locality meant. 

Cebu Island contains a number of well-known coal districts. 
The coal-bearing area extends from Sogod and Asturias on the 
north to Boljoon and Malabuyoc on the south. The most im- 
portant districts, however, are Cajumayjumayan, Compostela- 
Danao, and Uling. The Cajumayjumayan coal district lies north 
of Sili peak and Lantauan ridge. The Compostela-Danao, lying 
just to the south of Cajumayjumayan, consists of Masaba, Man- 
tija, Camansi, and the area west of Mount Licos. The Uling 
coal district extends from a point on Mananga River known in 
the literature as Guila-Guila, west to Toledo and southwest to 
Alpaco ; Mount Uling is in the center of this district. The com- 
plete history of the discovery of coal and coal mining in Cebu is 



33.1 Faitstino: Philippine Coal Resources 9 

given by Burritt in The Coal Measures of the Philippines, which 
is a compilation and translation of records obtained from the 
Spanish Inspeccion General de Minas. The following is a sum- 
mary by Smith * up to 1908 : 

Coal was discovered in Cebu in 1827. The first concessions in the 
Compostela-Danao region were solicited by Isaac Conui in 1871. A wagon 
road was built from Cot-cot cove to the workings at Dapdap in 1877. The 
formation of the association known as the Sociedad Nuevo Langrea and 
the beginning of actual work took place about 1890. The construction of 
a tramroad from Danao to Camansi, and from Compostela to Mount Licos, 
was undertaken in 1895. The Spanish-American war in 1898 occurred. In 
this year all the concessions in this district came into the hands of Mr. 
Enrique Spitz. These have changed hands again and are controlled by the 
Insular Coal Company, which is now in the field carrying on exploratory 
work. 

In 1907 and 1908 two companies were engaged in vigorous exploration 
of this field, the Insular Coal Company in the Mount Licos and Camansi 
region and a New York syndicate in the Cumayjumayan Valley, but there 
has been no further work. It is understood that negotiations are under 
way for the formation of a large company to mine this coal in the very 
near future. 

In October, 1912, Camansi was visited by a severe typhoon, 
which destroyed part of the railway and buildings. This 
brought operations in the district to a temporary halt and it 
was not until about 1917 that a new company, the Danao Coal 
Mining Syndicate, commenced driving tunnels and sinking 
shafts, not only at Camansi, but also at Masaba and Mantija. 
This company changed hands in 1922. In 1924 there were per- 
sistent rumors that the new owners were supplementing their 
exploratory work by hand drilling, using Chinese labor especially 
imported for the purpose. Underground development work has 
also been carried on, and the workings have been producing 
some coal. A 12-kilometer tramway connects the mines with 
the Philippine Railway Company at Danao. 

The Camansi district has been honeycombed with tunnels, 
drifts, shafts, and paquiao workings. At one time, according 
to reports, the mine workings aggregated several thousand lineal 
meters and some 10,000 square meters of rooms. 

Development in Mount Licos district began in 1918 when the 
National Coal Company acquired the property by lease. Several 
tunnels were driven, but in November, 1925, the bulk of the pro- 
duction came from No. 8 slope, which was driven approximately 
halfway between the north and the south boundaries of the prop- 

^ Mineral Resources of the Philippine Islands for 1909 (1910) 39. 



10 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

erty. The main entry was driven on the strike of the Abella 
seam. Late in 1923 the main entry struck an east-and-west 
fault, which is about 500 meters north of the main opening and 
has been known since Spanish times as the general fault. After 
driving through 70 meters of rock coal was again encountered ; 
the strike of the seam, however, changed and curved until it 
assumed the form of a fishhook. 

Transportation in the Mount Licos coal district is by means of 
a 4-kilometer aerial cable tramway from Licos to Basak and 
by a spur of the Philippine Railway Company from Basak to 
Compostela.** 

Coal-mining operations in the Mount Uling district commenced 
about 1860. The most important work was that by Doiia Mar- 
garita Roxas, who had a tunnel driven at the base of Mount 
Uling near the junction of two streams. This tunnel reached 
a length of 649 meters and, according to the records of the 
Spanish inspectorate, struck a large seam of coal. However, 
Doiia Margarita died soon afterward and her work was allowed 
to fall into ruin. She also carried on exploration work at Lutac 
and Alpaco. She constructed a 15-kilometer mountain road 
from Uling to Alpaco which was used to transport her produc- 
tion to the sea coast. In 1913 some systematic exploration 
work was done in the district under the direction of the division 
of geology and mines of the Bureau of Science. In 1915 a tun- 
nel was driven at a higher elevation than that of the tunnel of 
Doiia Margarita Roxas, under the supervision of Wallace E. 
Pratt, formerly chief of the division of geology and mines, and 
coal was reached at 121 meters. A slope was then driven on 
the dip and carried 98.4 meters, when the old workings were 
encountered. In 1920 another tunnel was driven near the 
mouth of the old Doiia Margarita tunnel and at about the same 
elevation. On account of several interruptions this tunnel, at 
present known as Doiia Margarita No. 1, was driven only 471 
meters and did not reach coal. 

Production from this district was resumed in 1917 when 
Bryan and Landon commenced to supply the Cebu and Iloilo 
electric plants with coal from their Mount Uling coal workings. 
The Uling-Naga Coal Company, successors to Bryan and Landon, 
has several tunnels driven at right angles to the strike of the 
coal beds, and has done important development work. At the 

* The National Coal Company stopped operations in this district in April, 
1926, and the tram line was dismantled and all mine equipment sent to 
Malangas, Mindanao. 



33,1 Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources H 

present time (June, 1925) the Cebu Portland Cement Company 
is diamond drilling the area for the purpose of determining the 
amount of workable coal contained in the property with a view 
of purchase. 

Near Toledo the Toledo-Cebu Coal Mines, Incorporated, is 
doing some development work and has been producing a small 
amount of coal. At Cantabaco, on the banks of Masaba Creek, 
where in 1920 there were numerous paquiao workings, only 
Quintin Rivera is doing a little work. 

The activities in the other districts will be briefly mentioned 
here. Guila-Guila, in Mananga Valley, was worked by the 
Spanish about 1853. In 1909 Mr. Mitkiewicz did some develop- 
ment work, and in 1920 the Toledo Coal Mines had some paquiao 
workings; the production from this district was small. Dala- 
guete district, in the southern part of the island, had a number 
of paquiao operators and contributed a small amount to the total 
coal production. 

The Mindoro coal field includes the deposit on the southeastern 
part of Mindoro Island near Bulalacao, and that of the neigh- 
boring island of Semirara to the south. The Mindoro coal is 
subbituminous and the seams are reported to be from 1 to 4 
meters in thickness. Becker, on the authority of Centeno, wrote 
that the outcroppings on Semirara are between high-water and 
low-water marks. Espina reported the occurrence of coal at 
Subaang on the north coast of Mindoro, but gave no details. 
A rather careful and extended examination of the Bulalacao 
coal district was made in 1898 by Fenton W. Hill. Two tons 
of coal were secured from outcrops in the area and tested on 
the steamer Bolinao. The results of the test were satisfactory 
and Hill concluded that the property was a valuable one, but 
up to the present time nothing has developed. 

Mindanao contains a number of coal localities, but with the 
exception of the Sibuguey district they have not assumed much 
importance and little is known of them. On the eastern coast 
coal is known from Bislig, Marihatag, Tarragona, Mati, Lanuza, 
and Hinatuan; also at a point on the southern coast said to be 
latitude 6° 4' and on the same meridian as Iligan. Coal is also 
reported from Naanan, a few kilometers north of Iligan. In 
Agusan coal is known at Jabonga, San Vicente, and Bunauan. 
The reported occurrence of coal around the volcano of Cami- 
guin in Misamis Province is extremely doubtful. Other coal 
localities are near Siacon in Zamboanga and at Craan in 
southern Cotabato. The Sibuguey district comprises the coal 



12 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

areas at Butong, Gotas, Lumbog, Dumaguete, Camp Wilmot, 
and nearby localities. The district is located about 144 kilo- 
meters northeast of Zamboanga. The coal from Butong is 
semianthracitic, high carbon bituminous, and subbituminous. 

The first record of coal from the Sibuguey district is contained 
in two reports, dated 1855 and 1856, from a commission under 
the direction of the commandant of engineers at Zamboanga. 
This report states that 36 tons of dirty coal were obtained from 
Mount Marasigan, by one hundred prisoners in seventeen days. 
It is very probable that the expedition obtained this coal from 
the vicinity of Siay River district, as some of the old Spanish 
maps show coal in that vicinity. Williams and Redding did 
some desultory mining on Sibuguey River in Ganyangan district 
and, according to reports, tried to ship 10 canoes (lankons) of 
coal on Sibuguey River to Sibuguey Bay. Unfortunately, seven 
of the canoes capsized in the river and only three reached the 
bay. In 1907 J. 0. Cleveland did some prospecting in Manab- 
ing district and produced a small amount which the Subanos 
carried in sacks to the coast. In 1917 the National Coal Com- 
pany was organized and the Civil Government reserved the entire 
Sibuguey coal field for the scene of its operations. The first 
attempt to produce coal was at Payao, during the latter part of 
1917, and the company tried to follow the method of Williams 
and Redding of transporting coal by way of Sibuguey River by 
means of scows. Several cascos were bought but, after the 
river was cleared, it was found that the water in the river was 
not deep enough for loaded scows. The following year the 
scene of activities was transferred to Malangas, where a 12- 
kilometer railroad, a wharf, coal bunkers, and loading equipment 
have since been constructed. 

The Butong deposit is worked by a shaft sunk on the top of a 
dome structure. At Gotas the company has done some develop- 
ment work, while at Lumbog the present production comes from 
paquiao workings. The production of Gotas and Lumbog is 
trammed by hand to the foot of an incline, where it is pulled 
to the top of the flat ridge separating the district from Butong. 
Then the coal is trammed again across to Butong where the 
railroad cars await it. At the present time some paquiao work 
is being done at Camp Wilmot. 

ESTIMATE OF AREAS AND TONNAGE OF COAL IN THE PHILIPPINE 

ISLANDS 

The first attempt to estimate the areas and tonnage of coal 
in the Philippine Islands was made by F. A. Dalburg, in the 



33.1 



Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 



13 



Mineral Resources for 1911, when he presented the table which 
is here reproduced as Table 1. 

Table 1. — Estimate of areas and tonnage, Philippine coal fields. 



Field. 


Class of 
coal. 


Coal 


seams. 


Tonnage in metric tons. 


Cnal 

lands 

(art-as 
actual- 
ly con- 
taining 

mar- 
ketable 

coal). 


Coal 
lands 
(areas 
proba- 
bly c n- 
laining 

coal). 


Coal 

fields 
(areas 

POBBi- 

bly cen- 
tal ing 
coal). 


Num- 
ber. 


Thick- 
ness. 


Actual. 


Probable. 


Possible. 


East Batan - 

Liguan 

Calanagra... 

Cajumay- 
jumayan. 

Camansi 

Mount Li- 
cos. 

U.ing 

Burdeos 

Cataingan>_ 
Sibuguey — 
Bulalacao . . 
Sugud 


Lignite 

(black). 
Subbitu- 

minous. 
Lignite 

(black). 
Subbitu- 

minous. 

do 

do 

do 

Bitumi- 
nous. 

Sub bitu- 
minous. 

Bitumi- 
nous. 

Lignite- 
(black). 

Subbitu- 
nous. 


2 

8 

4 

4 

4 
4 

8 
2 

3 

2 

6 

3 


Meters, 
L5 

» 10.5 

» 5 

« 9 

» 5 
» 4.5 

• 8 
1.2 

1.5 

2.5 

» 12 

» 5 


3,340,000 
61,600 


20,960,000 

216,000 

2,560,000 

14,592,000 

4.505,600 
6,352,000 

4.992,000 
1.331,200 

612,000 

3,628,000 

4,096,000 


Moderate. 

Small 

Moderate. 
Small 


Sq. km. 
2.0 

0.3 


Sq. km. 
5.00 

0.60 

1.25 

2.50 

L25 
1.25 

1.25 
0.30 

0.60 

0.60 

0.30 

5.00 


Sq. km. 
15.6 

6 

13 

6 

15.5 
23 

13 
18 

5 

5 

8 

10 






do.... 

do...- 






800,000 


do.... 

do_... 

.... do 


0.3 




do-... 

do.... 






154,000 


do.... 


0.1 



a Total. 



In this table Dalburg included — 

all coal of economic value in seams containing not less than 30 centimeters 
of merchantable coal and situated within a mineable depth; that is, not 
more than 1,220 meters below the surface. The quantities are stated as: 1, 
Actual tonnage, based on a knowledge of the actual thickness and extent 
of the seams; 2, probable tonnage, based on an approximate estimate; and 
3, possible tonnage, for which an estimate in figures can not be given. 

For the purposes of the present paper another estimate is 
made, based on minable seams, which should not be less than 
30 centimeters in thickness, containing merchantable coal and 
occurring at a depth not greater than 300 meters below the 
surface. From our present knowledge of conditions Philippine 
coal seams less than 30 centimeters; in thickness and at greater 



14 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



depths than 300 meters below the surface cannot be profitably 
mined. 

In Table 2, in the column showing the number of coal seams, 
are given only those that have been actually worked. The areas 
of the coal-bearing formations in the more-important districts 
are given and an estimate is made as to the portion probably 
productive. In estimating the original tonnage the peculiar 
depositional conditions of Philippine coal have been considered. 

Table 2. — Estimate of areas and tonnage, Philippine coal fields. 



Field. 


Coal seams. 


Area of 

coal- 
bearing 
forma- 
tions. 


Probably 
produc- 
tive. 


Tonnage. 


Total pro- 
duction to 
1924. 


Num- 
ber. 


Thickness. 


Cagayan Valley 

Cordillera Central _ . - 


2 


Meters. 
0.5-1.0 


Sq, km, 
6 


Per cent. 
5 


Metric tons, 
100,000 


Metric tons. 





Zambales l^ountain 















Eastern LAizon and Polillo 















Burdeos, Polillo Island 


3 


0.6-1.5 


18 


15 


1,000,000 


100 


Southeastern L\izon and adjacent 
islands 




Batan Island ..^ __ 


4 
3 


0.3-1.7 
3.0-8.0 


34 
16 


50 

ao 


5,800,000 
1,600,000 


144,382 


Sugod, Sorsogon 

Visayan Islands (except Cebu) 


200 


Cataingan, Masbate.. _ __ 


3 

4 
4 
5 


0.7-2.0 

0.5-3.75 

0.5-1.6 

0.3-4.5 


5 

6 

42 
14 


10 

50 
25 
50 


200,000 

2,500,000 
3,400,000 
2,400,000 


623 


Cebu: 

Caiumayiumayan _ _ 




Compostela— Danao __ 


118,233 


Uling 


91,223 


Other districts 


335 


Mindoro 


6 
3 


1.0-4.0 
0.3-2.5 


9 
51 


25 
20 


800,000 
3,400,000 


2 


Sibuguey, Mindanao 


57,182 


Total -- 












21,200,000 


412,280 















The difference in the total tonnage as given in Tables 1 and 2 
can further be explained by the fact that in Table 2 only the 
main seam has been considered. Philippine coal seams do not 
extend over great areas, and not one seam can be traced over 
great distances. While in one locality four seams may be pres- 
ent, in another locality, not very far distant, in the same coal 
area, none may be found. It has been deemed convenient for 
purposes of the present paper to consider only one seam under- 
lying a coal area and to assume that the other seams will com- 
pensate for those areas under which all the seams have either 
petered out to nonminable thickness or have disappeared 
entirely. 



33,1 Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 15 

The total production of each of the coal districts up to and 
including 1924 is given in order to show how much work has 
been done on them. It is desired to call attention to the fact 
that losses in mining are not included in the figures, and there- 
fore the amount does not represent total number of tons for- 
ever lost. 

THEORY OF COAL FORMATION 

It is common knowledge that there are two opposite theories 
to account for the formation of coal beds; namely, the "in 
situ," or "peat bog," theory and the "drift," or estuary, theory. 
In the in-situ theory it is held that coal has resulted from vege- 
tation which grew in the place where it is now found, while 
the drift theory claims that plants were drifted to great dis- 
tances and deposited at the mouths of rivers. It is held that 
either the in-situ theory or the drift theory, taken by itself, 
fails to explain the formation of most of the coal fields of the 
world; but a combination of the two will probably explain all 
the phenomena attendant upon the formation of coal. It is 
also believed that the coal regions were at one time a part of 
the sea and that the accumulations of vegetable matter oc- 
curred along the shores. 

It is known that peninsular and archipelagic conditions 
have existed in the Philippine Islands since the early Tertiary. 
The irregular coast lines of some of the islands gave rise to 
inland bays and swamps, and arms of the sea extended far into 
the interior of the land. Given a mild tropical or subtropical 
climate, more or less humid, conditions were favorable for the 
profuse growth of plants and trees. It was in these small ba- 
sins, more or less irregular in form and outline, that the mate- 
rial necessary for the formation of coal beds accumulated. 
Underclays, which are claimed by some observers to be essen- 
tial to the growth of luxuriant vegetation, have been found 
under some of the seams. The lowest seam in the Compostela- 
Danao district of the Cebu coal field has a fire-clay floor. It 
will be recalled that one of the arguments of the exponents of 
the in-situ theory is the almost invariable presence of fire clay 
underlying the coal seams. The lowest coal seams were prob- 
ably formed from plants and trees, growing in place in accord- 
ance with the peat-bog theory. Slight subsidence followed, 
during which the accumulation of vegetable material was 
covered by a deposit of silt and sand. A period of quiescence 
succeeded this period of subsidence, at which time masses of 



16 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



Rocff 



Na3 coal seam 

bard sandy shak 



con^lomera'te vjith 
cjudHz pebbles 



NoA coal seam 



z^hdle^-fhor^ 
a 



^e:^ /vs 5 j/ifero us^sha/e roof 






coal 
\ sandy sha/e parting 

coal 

.sandy shdie parf/np 

coa/ 

sandy sha/e parfmg 

coal 



m^m^W(i^'''''^^ 



WS^S.hdhffgc^ 



coal 



Small shale parting 



coat 



ir-d ^Shale^-floocF^ 
c 



ESl2^^Aale^ro_o^^2 ^- 



carbonaceou^ shafe 

coal 
\ hard sandy shale 

coal 
-Small shale parting 

coal 



z-€:^FE=iS}Ta/e£f/oo/^l 
d 



Fig. 1. Sections from different coal mines: a, 11 meters from station 2, tunnel No. 7, 
Lijoian coal mines, Batan Island; b, face of tunnel No. 1, Betts's mines, Batan Island, 
September 19, 1924; c, average section of big seam, west tunnel No. 3, Uling-Naga Coal 
Co., Mount Uling coal district, Cebu, May, 1925 ; d, face of side entry No. 6, water-level 
tunnel, Gotas, Sibuguey, Mindanao, January 21, 1925. 



33,1 Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources Yl 

water-logged drift brought down by rivers were deposited, 
which provided materials for a coal deposit. Similar oscilla- 
tions of sea level and periods of comparative rest for the 
earth's crust following can be held to account for most of the 
coal seams later formed. 

In the Mount Licos area of the Compostela-Danao district 
there are four seams; namely, the Carmen, the Esperanza, the 
Abella, and the Enriqueta, named in the order from lowest to 
highest. One of the reasons for belief in the drift, or estuary, 
theory is the presence in the roof of marine strata. In the 
roof of the Esperanza seam marine fossils are found. The 
floor of neither the Esperanza, the Abella, nor the Enriqueta is 
fire clay. It is, however, true that all these three upper seams 
have pretty pure coal, which is one of the arguments for 
believing that deposition occurred in situ; but it should be 
borne in mind that we have only small basins, and that the 
source of material was not far distant and the transported 
sediment small. Another reason for believing in the drift 
theory is the presence of prostrate tree trunks. In one of the 
workings of the Liguan coal mines in the Batan Island coal 
district a prostrate tree trunk has recently been found in the 
so-called seam No. 3. This seam No. 3 occurs above the lowest 
coal seam in the area. Again, in the Uling district of the 
Cebu coal field, near the town of Toledo, in one of the workings 
of the Cebu Coal Mines, Incorporated, the lowest coal seam 
lies immediately on the basal igneous rocks. 

The foregoing testimony seems to point to the conclusion that 
the lowest seams were formed in situ, whereas the upper seams 
consisted for the most part of transported material deposited 
in a slowly subsiding area. 

On account of the very nature of conditions (namely, the 
peninsular and archipelagic character of the land masses), 
the formation of extensive coal areas cannot be expected. The 
areas are comparatively small in extent and the basins irregular 
in form and outline. 

CLASSIFICATION OF COAL SEAMS 

A tentative stratigraphic chart, showing in general the clas- 
sification and the names of the most-important coal seams 
found in the Philippine scale, is here presented. It must be 
remembered that the correlation is tentative and subject to 
revision. 

225616 1 



18 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

When the classification of coal seams was first attempted in 
the United States in the Appalachian region in the limited 
states the coal seams were named alphabetically in the order 
of their occurrence beginning with the lowest in the scale. 
For Ohio coals the same order was adopted but they were 
named numerically instead of alphabetically, from the bottom 
upward. On account of the peculiar conditions attending the 
deposition of Philippine coals, which resulted in the formation 
of small, widely scattered and disconnected areas, the prepara- 
tion of a general stratigraphic chart is beset with difficulties. 
In the Liguan district of Batan Island the seams were num- 
bered from top to bottom; in Mount Licos of the Compostela- 
Danao district of the Cebu coal field the coal seams were given 
proper names, while at Camansi, some 4 kilometers to the north, 
both proper names and numbers were used; in the Sibuguey 
district of the Mindanao coal field the coal seams are not referred 
to by any special names or numbers. 

In Smith's Geology and Mineral Resources of the Philippine 
Islands ^ attention was called to the similarity between the En- 
riqueta seam of Mount Licos, Cebu (the thickness of 1.2 meters 
and 5 to 7 centimeters shale parting about 45 centimeters from 
the roof) ; No. 5 of Camansi, Danao, Cebu ; a seam in tunnel 
No. 14 at Gotas, Sibuguey district, Mindanao; and a seam on 
East Batan which measures 1.67 to 1.75 meters in thickness 
with a shale parting of 7 to 12 centimeters about 55 centi- 
meters from the roof. Owing to geologic conditions, these 
seams cannot be parts of a continuous bed from southeastern 
Luzon to southwestern Mindanao; but the similarity is very 
suggestive of similar depositional conditions. It will be re- 
membered that in correlating coal seams several methods are 
used. Of these methods the palseontological is the most con- 
vincing, wherein a bed is identified by a certain fossil or an 
association of fossils. Another method is the comparison of 
the coal and associated strata. Still another method, which 
has gained considerable prominence during the last few years, 
is by examination of thin-ground sections of coal under the 
microscope. The present tentative correlation is based on the 
evidence of the well-defined top coal above the rather persistent 
shale parting. The thickness of the top coal, the shale parting, 
and the bottom coal is fairly uniform in the three fields. The 
seams exhibit the same mining characteristics; namely, the 

6 Bureau of Science Pub. No. 19 (1924) 379. 



33,1 



Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 



19 



top coal is strong and can be left to protect the roof from 
caving in, while the bottom, coal contains minor impurities 
such as bone, shale, or resin that are not easily removed in 
mining. 

If the above-mentioned seam is taken as a key bed, all the 
other seams occurring either above or below can be named 
with reference to it, and a classification of the Philippine coal 
seams is possible. It is proposed that the Philippine coal 
seams be named alphabetically in the order of their occurrence, 
beginning with the lowest in the scale. According to this clas- 
sification the lowest Philippine seam is named A, the next 
higher B, and so on. Table 3 shows the names and the position 
of the coal seams in the different coal fields. 



Table 3 


,—Stra 


tigraphic chart, showing some Philippine coal 


seams. 






New 
names. 


Old names. 


Period. 


Series. 


East Batan. 


Mount Li- 
cos, Cebu. 


Camansi, 
Cebu. 


Sibuguey, 
Mindanao. 


Thickness 
of seam. 
















Meiers. 






E 




Pilarica. 


San Luis. 




1.4 






D 


"East Batan." 


Enriqueta. 


No. 5. 


"Gotas." 


1.2-1.76 


01igocene(?) 


Batan. 


C 




Abella. 


No. 2. 




1.00-1.50 






B 




Esperanza. 


No. 3. 




.50 






A 




Carmen. 


Carmen. 




1.6 



COAL SEAMS MINED 

As many as eight seams of coal have been recorded in the 
Philippine Islands, but only in five is coal mined in greater or 
less quantities. Several thin seams of about 30 centimeters 
in thickness are mined, but these are mined along their out- 
crops and the workings do not extend to any great depth. The 
seams in the regular mines are about a meter or more in 
thickness. 

In the Batan district there are three minable seams. In 
East Batan the coal is lignite, while at Liguan it is subbitumi- 
nous. At Caracaran near the center of the island the coal 
is also subbituminous, but at Calanaga both subbituminous and 
lignite are present. The thickness of the mined seams varies 
from 30 centimeters to about 4 meters. 

Near Burdeos, Polillo Island, the minable seams are three, 
and they vary in thickness from 60 centimeters to 1.5 meters. 
The coal is of bituminous rank. 



20 The Philippine Journal of Science 1027 

At Sugod, Sorsogon, there are three minable seams. These 
range in thickness from 3 to 8.5 meters, and the coal is of 
subbituminous rank. 

In southeastern Masbate, near Cataingan, three distinct 
seams occur, which vary in thickness from 1 to 1.5 meters. 
The coal here is also of subbituminous rank. 

Cebu has the greatest number of minable coal seams in any- 
one district. In Cajumayjumayan there are four seams, 
ranging in thickness from 50 centimeters to 3.75 meters, while 
at Camansi near Danao mining has been carried on in five 
seams; the smallest seam is 50 centimeters and the largest 1.5 
meters. On Mount Licos, near Compostela, five seams are pres- 
ent and these vary in thickness from 50 centimeters to 2.7 
meters. At Guila-Guila the Spanish Government carried on 
mining in a seam of coal which varied in thickness from thin 
layers intercalated with rock to 1 and 2 meters. In the Mount 
Uling district mining has been carried on in five seams, ranging 
in thickness from 30 centimeters to 4.5 meters. The coals of 
Cebu are all of subbituminous rank. 

Six minable seams have been claimed for the Bulalacao dis- 
trict in southeastern Mindoro, but these need verification. 
They are recorded as varying from 1 to 4 meters in thickness. 
The coal is of subbituminous rank. 

In the Sibuguey district, Mindanao, there are three minable 
seams. These range from 30 centimeters to 2.5 meters. Both 
high carbon bituminous and semianthracitic and subbituminous 
coals are present in this district. 

STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF PHILIPPINE COAL SEAMS 

Perhaps the single factor that has contributed most to the 
nonexistence of well-developed coal mines in the Philippine 
Islands is the discontinuity of the beds. The peculiar physio- 
graphic conditions existing in the Philippine Islands at the 
time these coals were laid down, coupled with faulting and 
igneous intrusions, have resulted in the seams petering out 
sooner or later. Not one of the seams mined in any of the 
coal districts has remained unbroken or of uniform thickness 
or quality over any considerable area. In a few cases the 
gradually decreasing thicknesses along the outcrops have been 
shown to be due to the fact that the original bed was of re- 
stricted lateral dimensions. In other cases the seams have 
failed by simply pinching out. In a great many cases, how- 
ever, faulting and folding have played a considerable part. 



33.1 



Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 



21 



Igneous intrusions not only have cut through or bowed up the 
seams, but also have produced local metamorphism, which has 
changed the quality of the coal. On account of the pecuHar dep- 
ositional conditions and the subsequent folding and faulting 
the continuity of all the minable seams has been more or less 
uncertain. The continuity of these beds can only be deter- 
mined by underground exploration work and diamond drilling, 
properly directed, after the surface geology has been thoroughly 
studied. A few of the structural features of Philippine coal 
seams are given in the diagrams shown as fig. 2. The most 
important thing that I wish to bring out is the fact that Phil- 
ippine seams structurally will not permit mining on a large 
scale. 




Fig. 2. Specific examples of irregularities of Philippine coal seams (diagrammatic) : a, 
Abella seam. Mount Licos, Cebu, mine No. 8, National Coal Company, showing the 
fishhook character of the strike of the seam; 6, Margarita seam. Mount Uling, Cebu. 
west tunnel No. 2, Uling-Naga Coal Company, showing bulging up of upper member 
probably due to lateral compression; c, principal seam at Butong, showing igneous-dike 
intrusions, d. 

ESTIMATE OF COAL RESERVES 

Any estimate of the coal reserves of the different coal districts 
of the Philippine Islands must be accepted with a great deal of 
caution. It is necessary to call attention to the fact that esti- 
mates made are based on measured distances on the surface 
and that underground development and drilling are not far 



22 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

enough advanced to define the areas of proven coal. In Table 
2 I have tried to be conservative and have given the various 
fields credit for all the coal which present knowledge warrants. 
These estimates must necessarily represent minimum tonnage, 
certainly much less than the amount actually present in the 
ground. The thickness of the coal used in the computation of 
the coal reserves is taken from the average measured sections 
of the coal seams now being mined. It is well to remember 
that the coal seams dip at all angles, up to 90°; that they 
vary in thickness within a few meters, sometimes disappearing 
entirely; and that they are folded and faulted. In several of 
the districts two or three beds occur, but in the compilation of 
the tonnage shown in Table 2 only the principal seam has been 
considered. To make an accurate estimate of the tonnage of 
the Philippine coal districts it would be necessary to divide the 
districts into many sections, each section to be estimated 
on the basis of the coal known to occur under the area. But 
present workings are small, and the greater portion of the area 
supposed to contain coal has no workings at all. Some of the 
sections will have very little or no tonnage. It has been as- 
sumed that the resulting tonnage for any district by this method 
will be the same as if the estimate were made on the basis of 
one horizontal bed underlying the probable production area of 
the district. Fourteen hundred tons run-of-mine coal per ver- 
tical foot per acre has been used as a constant for all coal in 
estimating the tonnage. 

METHODS OF MINING 

The several methods of mining coal in the Philippines can 
be grouped under two classes ; namely, the contract, or paquiao, 
method and a modified form of the room-and-pillar system. The 
contract, or paquiao, method is neither more nor less than out- 
crop mining. An operator with a small working capital and 
a handful of workmen starts mining on a coal outcrop. The 
coal outcrop has been located in an area, usually about 4 hec- 
tares, permission to work on the area having been previously 
secured from the Bureau of Lands under the terms of the so- 
called "revocable permit for coal prospecting." Mining is done 
by pick and shovel and the coal is taken out on improvised wheel- 
barrows and in baskets. Both men and small balsas, or sleds, 
drawn by carabaos or oxen are used to transport the coal from 
the mine to a main road or railway terminal. As most of the 
Philippine seams lie at a fairly high angle of inclination, these 



33,1 Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 23 

operators do not go very deep underground, their drifts or 
slopes rarely exceeding 25 meters. The cost of timbering and 
haulage up the slope increases correspondingly with the length 
of the workings and sooner or later the water drives the work- 
men out. When conditions become such that the coal can no 
longer be taken out with profit the drifts or slopes are abandoned 
and work is started on another outcrop. This method of mining 
is exceedingly wasteful and dangerous. Coal Mountain in west- 
ern Batan Island, Albay Province, is full of these "rabbit holes," 
as one operator appropriately calls them. They make the work- 
ing of the coal beyond the outcrop difficult and costly, and some- 
times impossible, on account of cavings and the water which 
usually accumulates in the abandoned workings. 

These paquiao workings would have been of some value to 
the coal-mining industry had they been properly located and 
the results properly recorded; but in a great many cases the 
operators did not even know the thickness of their seams, let 
alone the dip and the materials composing the roof and the 
floor. On account of the absence of maps it is very difficult 
to locate any of the workings. A monthly report is required 
by Government regulations, but before the report (which in 
many cases does not give the desired information) reaches Ma- 
nila, the operator has transferred to another place and has 
started another gopher hole. 

The contract, or paquiao, method of work is responsible for 
a number of deaths in the coal-mining industry. In 1920 in 
Masaba Creek, barrio of Cantabaco, in the Mount Uling Coal 
District, Cebu, a number of people were killed by the falling of 
a portion of the overlying formation. Three coal seams outcrop 
on a bluff at the stream bed, and several paquiao operators 
were working on them. At one place the men had gone far into 
the interior without using much timber. One midday, while 
the crowd consisting of men, women, and children were eating 
luncheon at the drift entrance, the great portion of the bluff 
that had been weakened by the workings came down with a 
crash upon the unsuspecting crowd, burying a score of people 
alive. In May, 1925, in the Mount Uling coal district, a Japanese 
operator sank a small shaft near an abandoned slope working 
filled with water. At the bottom of the shaft he started an 
entry in the direction which he thought was opposite the slope. 
In driving his slope he had followed the coal and had driven a 
curved entry. The entry at the bottom of the shaft had not 
advanced more than 2 meters when the workmen struck the 



24 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 








°ri?^^&t. 



Fig. 3. Plan of undeo^round workings of the Albay Gulf and Pacific Company's coal mine 
on Batan Island, Albay Province. Coal seam, 4 feet. July 1 to December 31, 1917, and 
January 1 to June 30, 1918. Scale 1 : 240. 

lower end of the slope. The water that had accumulated in 
the slope broke through, filling the shaft almost to the top 
instantly. Two other workmen from the top of the shaft 
plunged into the onrushing waters in an heroic attempt to 
rescue their companions, but not one of them came up alive. 

The better method of working Philippine coal mines is the 
room-and-pillar system. The single-entry system is used where- 
by the main entry is usually driven on the strike of the seam and 
rooms are driven up and down the dip. The main entry is the 
main haulageway, and oftentimes the air is conducted along it 
to the last room, then through all the working faces, and thence 
by a small air course to the upcast. On account of the generally 
poor roof the rooms are made not more than 3 meters wide. 
Close timbering is often required. Pick mining is the rule and 



33.1 



Faustina: Philippine Coal Resources 



25 




-■77Z7Z:7:^'77//777-/, 
^^^ 

[DinDDDiGmin 




Fig. 4. Plan and section of mine No. 8, Mount Licos. Cebu. National Coal Co. September 

31, 1924. Scale 1 : 1000. 

the mined coal is sent down in chutes to be loaded on half-ton 
cars at the main entry. These mine cars are either pushed by 
men to the outside bunkers or, in case of slopes, are hauled up 
by means of wire rope. 

The cost of mining a ton of coal varies between wide limits. 
Paquiao operators mine it much more cheaply than do the reg- 
ular companies, as the mining of the former consists only in 
digging the coal outcrops. All the men employed are utilized 
in mining. There is no plant depreciation, no interest on 
capital invested, and no amortization as in the case of the com- 
panies. With the large mines the cost of maintaining haulage- 
ways is very high and the more extensive the workings the 
higher the maintenance. The deterioration of mine timbers 
is so rapid and the advance of the main entries so slow that, 
in case of long entries, while one set of workmen is timbering 
the advance another set is already engaged in retimbering some 
portions behind. Available data seem to point to the cost of 
mining a ton of coal in the Philippines as between 2 and 10 
pesos. When to this cost are added the transportation charges 
to the market, it can readily be seen why the coal companies 



26 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



have a very close margin of profit and sometimes none at all. 
In 1920 a few operators made money on account of the price of 
coal ranging from 50 to 60 pesos; but at present local coal is 
selling at only 11 to 18 pesos per ton. 



ESTIMATED TONNAGE OF PROVEN COAL 

On account of the peculiar mining conditions the total ton- 
nage of proven coal is small. It is necessary to state here that 
by proven coal is meant coal blocked in three directions. With 
Philippine seams it is not safe to predict thickness and exten- 
sion beyond the distance of the actual workings because, as 
pointed out elsewhere in this article, conditions of deposition and 
subsequent folding and faulting have been responsible for the 
petering out of some seams and the total absence of others. 
The development of most of the mines has not gone very far 
beyond the initial stage, and on not one of them has enough 
development work been done to insure an output beyond a 
year's work. If development work were stopped and all work 
directed toward mining the coal already blocked out, there 
would not be enough coal to mine for one year, and the amount 
produced would not exceed the average annual production 
during the last five years. In other words, the total tonnage 
of proven coal for the whole of the Philippine coal districts 
to-day will not exceed 50,000 tons. 

PRODUCTION, IMPORTATION, AND CONSUMPTION OP COAL 

Table 4. — Production of coal in the Philippines from 18J^t to 192 Jt^ 

inclusive. 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1842-1906 - 

1907. 


Metric ions. 

•30,000 

4,123 

10,035 

30,336 

28,655 

•20,000 

2,720 

(^) 
(^) 
(^) 


Pescs. 

450,000 

26,800 

77,166 

197,184 

176.255 

130,000 

20,200 


1917 


Metric tons. 
5,748 
15,663 
32,892 
58,888 
40,076 
42,420 
43,446 
47,278 


Pesos. 
141,425 
385,400 
822,300 
1,452,200 
808,626 
856,345 
874.441 
581,286 


1918— _ 


1908 


1919 -._ 

1920 


1909 


1910. 


1921 


1911 


1922 -_- - 


1912 


1923 


1913 


1924 


1914 




Total 


412,280 








1915 




1916 __ 









^ Estimated. 



^ No commercial production. 



33, 1 



Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 
HOW LONG WILL OUR COAL LAST? 



27 



In Tables 4 to 6 are presented in tabulated form, by years, 
the production, importation, and consumption of coal in the 
Philippine Islands from 1908 to 1924. In fig. 5 the relation 
between them is graphically presented. In Table 2 the esti- 



Tablb 5.- 



-hnpoj'tation of coal in the Philippines from 1908 to 192Uy 
inclusive. 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1908 » 


Metric tons. 
494,209 
398,446 
427,547 
518,326 
436,711 
561,422 
597,131 
477.633 
463,387 


Pesos. 
2,807.598 
2,262,526 
2,688,010 
3,157,018 
2,263,996 
3,168.134 
3.499,490 
2,865.041 
2.607,988 


1917 


Metric tons. 
403,507 
405,110 
400,637 
640,055 
461,889 
461,478 
465.286 
479,698 


Pesos. 
3,076,470 
4,662,349 
7,781,807 
10,792,077 
6.987.004 
6,009.362 
4,997,802 
4,581,516 


1909* 


1918 


1910* 


1919 


1911 a 


1920 


1912» 


1921 


1913 


1922 


1914 

1915 


1923 

1924 


1916 





■ Twelve months ending: June 80. 

Table 6. — Coal consiiviption of the Philippine Islands from 1908 to 192U, 

inclusive. 



Year. 



1908 ». 

1909 « 

1910 • 
1911*. 
1912 •. 
1913-. 
1914.. 
1915.. 
1916-. 



Quantity. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value, 


Metric tons. 
504,244 


Pesos. 
2.884,764 
2.459.710 
2,864.265 
3.287,018 
2,284,196 
3,168,134 
3,499,490 
2,865,041 
2,607,988 


1917 


Metric tons. 
409,255 
420,773 
433,429 
598,943 
501,965 
503,898 
508,732 
526,976 


Pesos. 
3,217,895 
5,047,749 
8,603,607 
12,244,277 
7,795,630 
6,865,707 
6,871,743 
6,162,801 


428,782 
456,202 


1918 

1919 


538,326 
439,431 


1920 

1921 


561,422 


1922 


597,131 


1923 


477,633 


1924 


463,387 





" Twelve months ending June 30. 

mated tonnage of Philippine coal reserves is placed at 21,200,000 
tons. Of course, this represents the minimum quantity avail- 
able and it is to be expected that a great deal more is present in 
our coal measures; but, under the present conditions of mining, 
these figures should be used in the consideration of the ques- 
tion of when our coal reserves will be exhausted. 



28 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



570 

540 

510 

460 

450 

420 

390 

"^360 

^^330 

^300 

^270 

S 

^240 

210 

180 

150 

120 

30 

60 

30 



/6 












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Curvi 


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coal IndL 


fstry 






















Production 

Importation — — ~— — 






















Consamptio 

1 1 


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wa /m /m m im m i$!4 m im /si? im im iszo m/ 1922 /323 



Fig. 5. Curves of the Philippine coal industry. 



Philippine coal consumption averages about 500,000 tons 
yearly, although only about one-tenth of the total is produced 
locally. If all the coal needed by the Philippine Islands were 
produced at our own mines, our coal would be exhausted in 
forty-two years. However, the time when the Philippine Is- 
lands will be able to produce all the coal she needs is very re- 
mote. As a matter of fact, total production of coal for the 
Philippines since 1842, or a period of eighty-two years, is only 
412,000 tons, or just a little more than the coal consumption 



33.1 Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 29 

for 1917. During the last five years our average annual pro- 
duction has not exceeded 50,000 tons. At this rate total deple- 
tion of our own supply would be reached in four hundred twenty- 
five years. Assuming that we should be able to double the 
capacity of our mines and produce 100,000 tons annually, then 
total exhaustion would be reached in two hundred twelve years. 
From our present knowledge of the conditions in the coal dis- 
tricts a total production of 100,000 tons would not be reached 
during the next ten years, and probably not in twenty years. 
Structurally, none of the Philippine coal seams will admit min- 
ing on a large scale. An annual production of 100,000 tons 
should be the limit of our local production. It is important 
that we be brought to realize that our coal supply is not in- 
exhaustible and that enough of it should be conserved to 
stabilize the industry. Our coal supply is small, and steps 
should be taken to prevent wastage, both in mining and in 
consumption. Loss in mining could be materially reduced by 
raising the standard of competency of all those engaged in the 
coal-mining industry, both by the employment of men who un- 
derstand coal mining and by the use of methods applicable to 
our own peculiar conditions. A note of warning is sounded at 
this time because our losses in mining are enormous. The 
use of improper methods of working (namely, the gopher meth- 
ods or the paquiao system) is here condemned, as such methods 
leave a great deal of coal underground which could be recovered 
and render difficult the working of that which is still minable. 
This condition is to be regretted, because some of the large com- 
panies are responsible jointly with the paquiao operators. Our 
coal supply is definite. We may not know how much we really 
have, but we do know that every ton mined, every ton left in 
the ground which can no longer be mined at some future date, 
and every ton not properly used reduces our available resources 
by just so much. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON PHILIPPINE COAL 

Abella y Casariego, Enrique. Rapida descripcion fisica, geologica y mi- 
nera de la isla de Cebu. Madrid, Tello (1886) 8% 187 pp., 6 pis., 1 
map; also Bol. de la Com. del Mapa Geol. de Espana 13 (1886). 

Becker, George Ferdinand. Report on the Geology of the Philippine 
Islands. U. S. Geol. Survey 21st Ann. Rep. 3 (1901) 493-644, 2 maps, 
1 pi. 



30 "^he Philippine Journal of Science im 

Bureau of Lands. The Coal Land Act (No. 2719) and regulations govern- 
ing the leasing and development of coal lands in the Philippine Islands 
promulgated August 15, 1917. Manila, Bureau of Printing (1918). 
(English and Spanish.) 

Bureau op Science. Pulverized coal and its advantages as fuel in tlie 
P. I. Press Bull. 89. (Issued December, 1918.) 

BuRRiTT, Charles H. The coal measures of the Philippines. Washington, 
Government Printing Office 2 (1901) 269 pp., 4 maps. 

Centeno y Garcia, Jose. Carbon de piedra de Cebu. Revista Minera 1 8 
(1867.) 

Cox, Alvin J. Philippine coals and their gas-producing power. Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 877-902, 1 pi. 

Cox, Alvin J. The proximate analysis of Philippine coals. Philip. Journ. 
Sci. § A 2 (1907) 41-65. 

Cox, Alvin J. Classification of Cebu coal. Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 2 

(1907) 400. 

Cox, Alvin J. On the analysis of lignite and sub-bituminous coals. Journ. 

Am. Chem. Soc. 29 (1907) 775. 
Cox, Alvin J. Summary of the chief characteristics of Philippine coals. 
Min. Resources P. I. for 1907 (1908) 34-39; cf. Eng. & Min. Journ. 86 

(1908) 1058 and 1059. 

Cox, Alvin J. The relationship between the external appearance and the 

ash content of Philippine coal. Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 3 (1908) 91-93. 
Cox, Alvin J. Philippine coals as fuel. Philip. Journ. Sci. ,§ A 3 (1908) 

301-356, 13 pis. 
Cox, Alvin J. Calorimetry, and the determination of the calorific value 

of Philippine and other coals from the results of proximate analysis. 

Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 171-203. 
Cox, Alvin J. Chemical and physical characteristics of Philippine coal. 

Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 7 (1912) 1. 
Cox, Alvin J. The oxidation and deterioration of coal. Philip. Journ. Sci. 

§ A 7 (1912) 297. 
Dalburg, Frank A. The coal resources of the Philippines. Min. Resources 

P. I. for 1911 (1912) 54-62. 
Dalburg, Frank A. Coal mining in 1912. Min. Resources P. I. for 1912 

(1913) 38-40. 
Dalburg, Frank A. The coal resources of the Philippine Islands. The 

coal resources of the world. An inquiry made upon the initiative of 

the Executive Com. of XII International Geological Congress, Canada 

(1913), 8% Toronto 1 (1913) 107-123. 
DiLWORTH, J. B. Philippine coal fields. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 39 

(1908) 653-664, 1 map; also Bull. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 36 (1909) 

39-50. 
DiLWORTH, J. B. Coal mining in the Philippines. Eng. Mag. 37 (1909) 

111-113. 
DiLWORTH, J. B. Die Kohlenfelder der Philippinen. Bergm. Rdsch. Kat- 

towitz 8 (1912) 249-254. 
Faustino, Leopoldo a. Coal mining in the Philippines. Min. Resources 

P. I. for 1917 and 1918 (1920) 28-37. 
Faustino, Leopoldo A. Coal. Min. Resources P. I. for 1921, 1922, and 

1923 (1925) 31-40. 



33,1 Faustino: Philippine Coal Resources 31 

Ferguson, Henry Gardiner. Coal in the Cagayan Valley. Philip. Journ. 

Sci. § A 3 (1908) 535-537, 1 map. 
Ferguson, H. G., and R. N. Clark. Coal in the Cagayan Valley. Min. 

Resources P. I. for 1909 (1910) 41 and 42. 
Hawxhurst, Robert. Mining coal in the Philippine Islands. Eng. & Min. 

Journ. 88 (1909) 879 and 880. 
Hernandez, Antonio. Carbon de piedra de Filipinas. Revista minera, 

Madrid 5 (1854). 
Hernandez, Antonio. Carbon mineral de la isla de Cebu. Revista minera, 

Madrid 5 (1854). 
Lava, V. G. The possible use of Philippine coals for liquid fuel. Philip. 

Journ. Sci. 28 (1925) 193-204. 
LflGDNiCKY, Victor E. Coal mining possibilities in the Philippine Islands. 

Min. Resources P. I. for 1916 (1917) 17 and 18. 
Mechain. Combustible mineral de la Isla de Cebu. Ann. des Mines (1865). 
Pratt, Wallace E. On briquetting Philippine coals. Min. Resources P. I. 

for 1910 (1911) 79 and 80. 
Pratt, Wallace E. Coal mining in 1913. Min. Resources P. I. for 1913 

(1914) 32 and 33. 
Pratt, Wallace E. The persistence of Philippine coal beds. Philip. Journ. 

Sci. § A 10 (1915) 289-302. 
Pratt, Wallace E. Coal in the Philippines. Coal Age 9 (1916) 491-497. 
Reinholt, O. H. Coal mining in the Philippines. Eng. Mag. 30 (1906) 

491-517. 
Reinholt, O. H. United States enterprise in the coal trade of the Phil- 
ippines. Eng. Mag. 30 (1906) 510. 
Rice, G. D. Coal fields of the Philippines; Facts in regard to their location, 

extent, quality of the coal and the opportunity for profitable operation. 

Mines and Minerals 21: 205. 
Smith, Warren Duprb. The coal deposits of Batan Island. Min. Bur. 

Bull., Manila 5 (1906) 56 pp., 11 photographs, 11 maps and sections; 

abs. Far Eastern Review 2 (1906) 301, 304-310. 
Smith, Warren Dupre. The geology of the Compostela-Lanao coal field. 

Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 2 (1907) 377-403, 14 pis., 3 maps; Rev. Geol. 

Mag. 5' (1908) 279; partial reprint in Mining World 28 (1908) 333; 

rev. Journ. Geol. 16 (1908) 586; ex Far Eastern Review 4 (1908) 

298-302; 4, 14. 
Smith, Warren Dupre. The coal resources of the Philippine Islands. 

Econom. Geol. 4 (1909) 224-238, 1 map. 
Smith, Warren Dupre. Philippine coal; subheads "Coal in Albay Prov- 
ince** and "Coal in Cebu.'* Min. Resources P. I. for 1909 (1910) 36-40; 

ex Far Eastern Review 7 (1910) 121-124, includes Albay, Cebu, and 

Cagayan Valley. 
Smith, Warren Dupre. The coal resources of the Philippine Islands. 

Min. Resources P. I. for 1910 (1911) 37-56. 
Smith, Warren Dupre. Coal deposits and mines of the Philippine Islands. 

Trans-Pacific (Oct.-Nov., 1921). 
Smith, Warren Duprb. Geology and Mineral Resources of the Philippine 

Islands. Bureau of Science Pub. 19 (1924) 363-384. 



32 The Philippine Journal of Science 

Smith, Warren Dupre. Coal in the Philippines. The Far Eastern Re- 
view (1925) 558-563. [Reprint from Geology and Mineral Resources, 
Bureau of Science Pub. 19 (1924).] 

WiGMORE, H. L. Report of the investigation of coal deposits on the Batan 
Military Reservation, Batan Island, P. I. Washington, Government 
Printing Office (April, 1903). 

WiGMORE, H. L. Philippine coal deposits. Mines and Minerals 26 (1906) 
529-536. 

Wright, Luke E. (By order of). Successful test of Polillo (Philippine 
Islands) coal and reports of experts on the same. Far Eastern Review 
2 (1906) 223-224. 

YCASIANO, F. R. Philippine coals and their use. Min. Resources P. I. for 
1915 (1916) 32-36. 

YCASIANO, F. R. A recalculation of certain data on steaming tests of Phil- 
ippine coals. Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 13 (1918) 341-346. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 1. Map of the Philippine Islands, showing location of coal districts. 

TEXT FIGURES 

Fig. 1. Sections from different coal mines: a, 11 meters from section 2, 
tunnel No. 7, Liguan coal mines, Batan Island; 6, face of 
tunnel No. 1, Betts's mines, Batan Island, September 19, 1924; 
c, average section of big seam, west tunnel No. 3, Uling-Naga 
Coal Co., Mount Uling coal district, Cebu, May, 1925; d, face of 
side entry No. 6, water-level tunnel, Gotas, Sibuguey, Mindanao, 
January 21, 1925. 

2. Specific examples of irregularities of Philippine coal seams (dia- 

grammatic) : a, Abella seam. Mount Licos, Cebu, mine No. 8, 
National Coal Company, showing the fishhook character of the 
strike of the seam; 6, Margarita seam. Mount Uling, Cebu, west 
tunnel No. 2, Uling-Naga Coal Company, showing bulging up of 
upper member probably due to lateral compression; c, principal 
seam at Butong, showing igneous-dike intrusions, d. 

3. Plan of underground workings of the Albay Gulf and Pacific Com- 

pany's coal mine on Batan Island, Albay Province. Coal seam, 
4 feet. July 1 to December 31, 1917, and January 1 to June 30, 
1918. Scale, 1: 240. 

4. Plan and section of mine No. 8, Mount Licos, Cebu. National Coal 

Co. September 31, 1924. Scale, 1 : 1000. 

5. Chart showing curves of the Philippine coal industry. 

225616 3 S3 



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ANCYLOSTOMIASIS: RELATION BETWEEN NUMBER OF 
OVA PER GRAM OF FORMED STOOL AND NUMBER 
OF FEMALE WORMS HARBORED BY THE HOST, I 

By C. Manalang 
Of the Philippine Health Service, Zamboanga 

For the past few years the Department of Medical Zoology, 
School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 
with the cooperation of the International Health Board, Rocke- 
feller Foundation, has been carrying on intensive investigations 
on the control of hookworm disease. Cort(l, 4, 7) and his as- 
sociates, particularly Stoll,(2, 3, 9) (the latter devised the egg- 
counting method (3)) have shown in Porto Rico (5, 6) the appli- 
cability of the egg-counting method (on **random" specimens 
per gram "formed basis") in hookworm-control work in the 
field and, from an economical and technical point of view, they 
consider it distinctly superior to other procedures heretofore 
used. 

For the purpose of testing the applicability of this procedure 
(so that it might be adapted to other parts of the Philippines 
having a population similar to that of this locality) I subjected 
patients of a Philippine Health Service hospital to egg counts 
before and after (four to five days) anthelmintic treatment. 
I saved and classified all worms recovered for forty-eight hours, 
to determine whether or not any definite or approximate cor- 
relation could be shown to exist between the number of ova 
per gram of formed faeces and the number of female worms 
discharged or harbored by the host. 

The patients were all Filipinos (except one, a Chinese), 
adults, representing both sexes ; they were walking patients who 
had fully recovered from their admission ailments and were on 
full diet and, I believe, could very well be compared with field 
cases. Their diet was uniform in quality (large quantities of 
rice and vegetables and a lesser ration of fish and meat) but 
varied in quantity. The laboratory technic was essentially the 
same as that used by StoU, although slightly modified on ac- 
count of lack of large slides, cover glasses, 50-cubic-centimeter 

35 



36 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

test tubes, and a mechanical stage. The collection of stools was 
under the direct supervision of an experienced graduate nurse 
and a well-trained senior student of the training school. The 
patients were well instructed, particularly in the collection of 
the forty-eight-hour stools. Each bed pan had a large, black, 
2-inch number painted on cover and body, besides the paper 
label, so that, should the chambers be kept in the toilet room, 
no mistake could occur. Usually, however, the chambers were 
at the bedside. The numbers were intended especially for those 
who could not read. The stools were screened through a sieve 
(80 meshes to the square inch) at the end of each twenty-four- 
hour period. 

The personnel engaged in this work consisted of a well-trained 
nurse technician and a screener. The egg counts were made 
either by the technician or by me. The screening was also 
directly supervised and watched. All worm classifications were 
made the same day by me. Before observations were made on 
the series reported, we practiced on about 150 stool counts on 
bed patients. 

TECHNIC 

The stools were all "random" specimens and were received 
in enamel sputum cups labeled with name, etc. The character 
(diarrhoeic, mushy, or formed) was noted at once on the label. 
White, wide-mouthed bottles (137-cubic-centimeter capacity to 
the neck and marked to the 45-cubic-centimeter level) were 
used, owing to lack of 50-cubic-centimeter test tubes. A bottle 
was put in one pan of a pharmacists' balance (sensitive to 0.1 
gram), a 3-gram weight was placed opposite the bottle, and 
exactly enough stool was put into the bottle by the aid of a coco- 
leaf midrib to balance the 3-gram weight on the opposite pan. 
If the stool was diarrhoeic it was first thoroughly stirred. Then 
enough 0.1 N sodium hydrate was carefully poured into the 
bottle to the 45-cubic-centimeter mark, about a dozen glass beads 
were added, the bottle was stoppered with a tightly fitting rubber 
cork, and the mixture vigorously shaken for at least one minute, 
or until it was very thoroughly emulsified. The pipette used 
was graduated to 0.1 and 0.01 cubic centimeter to the tip. Or- 
dinary laboratory slides were used, without cover glass and with- 
out a mechanical stage. Where the ova were very few, those on 
three or four slides of 0.1 cubic centimeter each were counted; 
otherwise, those on two slides were counted and recorded on 
the back of the original label of the specimen. The computa- 



33,1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, I 37 

tion was made by multiplying the average number of ova per 
slide of 0.1 cubic centimeter by 150, to obtain the number of ova 
per gram. 

Using bottles made unnecessary the use of racks for holding 
them, and they probably received more-vigorous shaking. By 
closing the top end of the pipette with the tip of the index finger 
and tilting the bottle slightly, it was easy to get about 0.25 cubic 
centimeter of the shaken content and, after releasing the extra 
material to the 0.2-cubic-centimeter mark from the tip, touch- 
ing the inner wall of the mouth of the bottle, 0.1 cubic cen- 
timeter was slowly transferred on the slide by rotating the 
pipette with the thumb and middle finger and, at the same 
time, the material was spread over an area of about 7 square 
centimeters. The remaining 0.1 cubic centimeter was not used. 
We covered this area by manual manipulation of the slide in 
about one hundred fields under a | objective, eyepiece No. 4. 
This was probably our greatest source of error tending to di- 
minish the count, as it was probably easier to move the slide 
too much to miss some fields than to go over the same field 
twice. Had we used 0.15 cubic centimeter, the quantity used 
by Stoll, the entire ordinary slide would have been covered rea- 
sonably thinly, and thus handling would have been prevented; 
so 0.1 cubic centimeter was used. Plane slides were used and 
the microscope stage was well leveled. These precautions were 
taken to avoid the flowing of material to one side or the other 
of the slide. By taking only about 0.25 cubic centimeter in the 
pipette error in the settling of ova, which might occur if a higher 
column of material were used (particularly if the ova were 
numerous), was probably averted. 

The treatment stools were dumped into the screen and the 
chamber was rinsed into it. The paper was washed piece by 
piece under running water into the screen. All particles of 
formed stools were crushed in gloved hands and the material 
was thoroughly washed until only vegetable particles remained. 
The gloved-hand manipulation was necessary as stools in this 
locality contain large quantities of debris and firm or pasty 
lumps. The worms were picked up with a pointed coco-leaf 
midrib and transferred into a Petri dish with tap water. No 
stool was discarded as free from worms until after at least 
four or five washings, when the last one or two washings failed 
to reveal an adult worm. The classification was done by the 
naked eye; all doubtful specimens and broken males were ex- 
amined under the microscope. 



38 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

The medicament given was oil of chenopodium. The patient 
was given soft-boiled rice for supper. At 6 a. m. 1.5 cubic 
centimeters of the oil, freshly filled into gelatine capsules, were 
given and the dose was repeated at 8 a. m. At 10 a. m. a dose 
of 45 cubic centimeters of saturated watery solution of magne- 
sium sulphate was administered. 

Stool collection began from the time the oil was given, and 
continued until 6 a. m. the next day. Sometimes there was no 
bowel movement the following twenty-four hours, and in such 
case the third twenty-four-hour stools were saved. 

In the interpretation of results all egg counts on diarrhoeic 
or mushy stools were multiplied by 4 and 2, respectively. The 
factor 44 ova per gram of stool "formed basis" per female worm 
was used. All pretreatment and posttreatment egg counts were 
on "random" stools. 

INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF DATA 

Considering the series collectively it will be seen that the 
eighteen patients showed a total egg count of 15,710 per gram 
"formed basis," or 873 ova per case before treatment (see Table 
1). The treatment removed 363 females, or an average of 20 
per patient. The posttreatment count showed 4,275 ova, or 237 
ova per patient, a diminution of 73 per cent. 

The total theoretical number of females was about 357, or 
about 20 per patient. It is very apparent therefore that the 
correlation was almost perfect, as the actual total number of 
females recovered (363) did show a pretreatment egg count on 
eighteen stools reduced to "formed basis" of 15,710 ova, or 43.3 
per female recovered. 

A perusal of the table showed, however, that four patients 
(4, 7, 9, and 13) only contributed to the ova found after the 
first treatment and the number of ova from patients 4, 7, and 
9 (1,275) did not correlate with the number of females recovered 
(two) by the second treatment. These four cases contributed 
22 per cent of the series. 

Taking the remaining fourteen patients as a whole, we find 
that 10,760 ova, or 769 per patient, constituted the total pre- 
treatment count. There were 287 female worms removed by 
treatment, or 20 per patient. Each female worm was therefore 
represented by 38 ova per gram. The theoretical number of 
females, based on the pretreatment count, is 245, or about 17 
per patient. The posttreatment count was 0, or 100 per cent 
cure. This is visible evidence of the inferiority of the egg-count- 



33.1 



Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, I 



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40 I'h^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

ing method in microscopic diagnosis ; my experience showed that 
only 40 per cent were cured by one chenopodium treatment con- 
trolled by a concentration method. 

For the purpose of determining the number of variants for 
high or low Qg^ count and the degree of variation in each in- 
dividual case or group of similar cases, and how they neutralized 
to give such perfect correlation in the series when taken as a 
whole, an analysis of the cases was made, as the possibility 
did not seem to be excluded that this remarkable correlation 
was accidental. 

Patients 5, 12, and 15 correlated exactly — ^that is, if all worms 
were discharged and recovered, a premise which seemed rather 
impossible. 

Patients 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 11, 16, 17, and 18 showed apparent 
good correlation, as previous experience with chenopodium 
showed that about 10 per cent of the worms (males and females) 
were left after one treatment, when a certain percentage of 
loss was allowed. 

Patients 10 and 14 showed a low count for the actual number 
of females found. 

Patients 4, 7, and 13 showed negative valid correlation. The 
rise of the egg count in patient 4 after treatment may be due 
to error in reducing diarrhoeal to *'formed basis'' counts; but 
the nonrecovery of even a female in the second treatm.ent did 
not seem to justify the count of 675 ova per gram. 

In patient 7 the discrepancy between the actual (60 females) 
and the theoretical (27 females) may also be explained by the 
reduction of diarrhoeal to ''formed basis;" but in the second 
treatment the reduction of diarrhoeal to ''formed basis'' worked 
just the opposite, the theoretical number being about 7 while 
the actual was only 1. Of course, some females might have been 
lost or retained by the patient. 

Patient 13 was unfortunately not given a second treatment, 
but the control count was significantly high after the first treat- 
ment. 

Patient 9 showed a pretreatment count of 2,550 ova per gram, 
which theoretically represented 58 females. Treatment removed 
4 females and the control count showed 300 ova per gram, or 
a reduction of 88 per cent in ova, or 88 per cent of egg-laying 
females. 

Four females removed represented 7 per cent of the theoreti- 
cal 58. This is contradictory to the experience with chenopo- 



33,1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, I 41 

dium which removed about 90 per cent by the first treatment ; 
but, supposing this low recovery of worms (females) was due 
to loss in screening and the recovery be placed at 15 per cent, 
this would mean that 50 females, or about 85 per cent, were 
still left. 

The control count, as stated above, was 300 per gram or, 
theoretically, 7 females. The second treatment removed 1 fe- 
male and reexamination showed no ova. Granting that in the 
second treatment some females were again lost and some re- 
tained, a correlation could be made with the 300 egg count; but 
the discrepancy between the theoretical 50 females left after 
the first treatment and the theoretical 7 females, based on the 
count after the first treatment, is so apparent that some other 
explanation seems needed. 

It will be seen that patients 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 11, 16, 17, and 18 
appeared to show reasonable correlation; but, when the figures 
are put together, they will show the following: 

Total ova per gram for the nine patients 4,460 

Female worms recovered by first treatment 46 

Average ova per gram per case 495 

Average female worms per case 5 

Average ova per gram per female worm 100 

This is a high count, even if a certain percentage be allowed 
for retention and loss after treatment. 

The abnormal cases (4, 7, 9, and 13) showed a total number 
of 4,950 ova per gram, or 1,237 per case. The actual number 
of female worms was 76, or 19 per case. In this group one 
female was represented by 65 ova per gram in the pretreatment 
stool. 

It is significant that patients 4, 7, and 9 were given two 
treatments, with a count of 1,275 ova after the first treatment 
for the three patients representing about 30 female worms still 
left ; but the second treatment, which cured, gave only 2 females 
for the three patients. Of course, some were lost. 

Patients 5, 10, 12, 14, and 15 were all low variants, as the 
total ova per gram before treatment was 6,300, or 1,260 per 
patient. These five patients discharged 241 female worms, or 
48 worms per patient. Each female therefore was represented 
by 26 ova per gram in the pretreatment stool. Posttreatment 
examination (four to five days later) was negative as to egg 
count. The actual number may even have been lower than 26 
ova per female, as some females were either retained or lost in 
screening. 



42 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

From the above discussion it will be seen that thirteen high- 
count variants with low female worm counts were neutralized 
by five low-count variants with a high number of females re- 
covered. Nine of the series, or 50 per cent, were high-count 
variants; four, or 22 per cent, moderately high-count variants; 
and five, or 28 per cent, low-count variants. 

Were this neutralization always to occur in field work, the 
egg-counting method would be very advantageous; but, since 
neutralization is governed by the number of unknown variants 
and the unknown degree of variations in egg counts and female 
worm population of the hosts, the result of the work would be 
uncertain and figures would have to depend on luck. 

The perfect correlation observed is probably accidental. 
Sweet, (8) working in Australia, noted a higher theoretical num- 
ber of female worms than were actually recovered by treatment, 
and he thought that this might be due to higher egg output of 
Ancylostoma duodenale. 

My views in explanation of the observed variabilities are as 
follows : 

Volumetric. — Given a constant number of ova, the number 
per gram of ''formed basis" should be inversely proportional 
to the volume of stool. 

Biological. — The existence of one good or poor egg-laying 
"race" or "strain" of hookworm or different species, or both in 
the same host, or the existence of many young or old non-egg- 
laying females will cause variability. 

Immunological. — The inability of Ancylostoma caninum, for 
example, to infect man the way the other species do, is evidence 
of resistance of the host or susceptibility of the parasite (A. 
caninum). It may be possible that even with Necator some 
hosts are more resistant than others and are capable of minimiz- 
ing the egg production of the females living under such op- 
position. The reverse may also happen, and the resistance of 
the host may also vary. 

Mechanical. — The ova may adhere to the niucosa after pro- 
trusion and particularly behind rugae and thus escape mechanical 
transportation by the intestinal contents. There may be stasis 
in some parts of the gut, particularly the caecum, and this stasis 
may accumulate ova and the faecal matter be moved at irregular 
intervals. Lastly, partial or complete intestinal obstruction may 
impede the passage of ova-containing stool. The condition, 
however, that seems most likely to occur in the apparently 
healthy is the occurrence of transitory spastic functional con- 



33.1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, I 43 

striction rings, something like those which occasionally cause 
intestinal obstruction without external or internal evidence of 
cause outside or inside the gut, which happens in Hirschsprung's 
disease or syndrome. 

Chemical. — Probably a certain reaction of the contents of the 
small intestine is required for the best existence of the worm. 
Should this reaction change, some effect may be felt by the egg- 
producing females. The decomposition of intestinal contents 
due to bacterial proliferation, or the liberation of split protein 
products, or starch fermentation may influence egg production 
and protrusion. In normal hosts the character of the foodstuff 
and ingestion of drugs and alcohol may influence the oviposition. 
Lastly, ovolysis may occur in some pathologic cases. 

From the above briefs, it seems evident that the analogy found 
by Stoll(9) in egg output, as measured by the egg-counting 
method, between the egg harvests of a chicken coop with 100 
hens and one with 10 and one human host with 100 female hook- 
worms and another with 10, should be subjected to serious con- 
sideration before being accepted. In the first place, the coop 
cannot and should not be compared with the human host. The 
generalized 10-to-l ratio of the number of eggs gathered from 
the two chicken coops would occur only were the hens all 200- 
eggs-per-year white Leghorns, reared or bred in the same way, 
fed the same food, housed in equally proportioned sanitary 
coops, and observed in the same locality and under the same 
climatological conditions. It must also be taken for granted 
that the egg gatherers in both cases were equally efficient and, 
lastly, that eggs were not lost either from the coop or by robbery, 
or by destruction by the hens themselves or by other animals. 
The above conditions could easily be controlled so that uniform 
results in chickens could be obtained ; but it is doubted if such 
control, outside of reducing human-stool egg counts in "formed 
basis," could very well be applied in ancylostomiasis. 

Some studies are being undertaken in the hope of confirming 
or disproving the validity of at least a few of the points advanced 
as possible causes of the noted variability of egg counts. Tech- 
nical errors in methods, counts, etc., have not been considered, 
but the greatest care was exercised to minimize them. 

SUMMARY 

1. Eighteen hospital patients, all adult Filipinos (except one 
Chinese), representing both sexes, walking patients, fully re- 
covered from their admission ailments and under the same diet, 



44 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

were subjected to hookworm-egg counts and treated with oil of 
chenopodium (3 cubic centimeters with a saline purge). The 
treatment stools passed during forty-eight hours were searched 
for expelled adult worms and control stools were reexamined 
four to five days later by the same method {egg count). Three 
patients were treated a second time and similarly controlled. 
These cases, I believe, could very well be compared with field 
cases. 

2. The stool counts were all on "random" specimens and all 
counts were reduced to "formed basis" in the interpretation of 
results, using the factors 1, 2, 4 of Stoll for formed, mushy, and 
diarrhoeal stools, respectively. The factor 44 ova per gram per 
female worm was also used; the technic was similar to Stoll's, 
though slightly modified owing to lack of some equipment. 

3. Extreme care was taken in the collection and search for 
adult worms in treatment stools. It must however be assumed 
that a small percentage was unavoidably lost. 

4. Taken as a whole, the series showed perfect correlation 
between the number of ova per gram of stool "formed basis" 
of "random" specimens and the number of females expelled, 44 
ova per gram per female. 

5. By analysis of cases individually, high- and low-count va- 
riants were classified and grouped. 

6. Nine cases, or 50 per cent of the series, which on first sight 
showed apparently reasonable correlation, on analysis were 
found to be variants (100 ova per female). 

7. Four anomalous cases, or 22 per cent of the series, were 
also moderately high variants (65 ova per female). 

8. Five cases, or 28 per cent of the series, were low variants 
(26 ova per female) . 

9. The series was made up entirely of either high or low 
variants, thirteen cases of the former and five cases of the latter. 

10. The perfect correlation obtained is believed to be acci- 
dental rather than usual. 

11. The accuracy of results obtainable in field work, where 
the egg-counting method is to be applied for the first time, will 
therefore have to depend on pure luck, as under such conditions 
the neutralization of high variants by low variants cannot be 
anticipated, unless determined first by a test series such as the 
one reported. 

12. Judging by the results here discussed, it may be safe to 
use the egg-counting method in this locality (Zamboanga). 



33.1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, I 45 

13. The view is advanced that volumetric, biological, im- 
munological, mechanical, and chemical factors have influenced 
the variability noted in the per-gram egg counts on "random" 
specimens in this series v^hen considered individually and in 
groups. The cases studied were few, but the views advanced 
seem justified. 

14. That the number of ova per gram of stool "formed basis" 
is directly proportional to the number of females harbored by 
the host cannot be denied ; but the correlation in the test cases, 
though almost exact when taken as a whole, showed variants 
in all, and variable degrees of fluctuation in both egg and female- 
worm counts; these factors govern neutralization, and a test 
series should be observed before the method is applied in any 
given locality. Where localities and population are similar this 
]ieed not be done. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I wish to acknowledge with gratitude the courtesy of the In- 
ternational Health Board in furnishing me with literature on 
the subject. 

REFERENCES 

1. CORT. Am. Journ. Hyg-. 4 (1924) 213-221. 

2. Stoll. Am. Journ. Hyg. 3 (March, 1923). 

3. Stoll. Am. Journ. Hyg. 3 (1923) 59-70. 

4. CORT. In Cort, Hegner, and Root, Outlines of Medical Zoology. Mc- 

Millan Co. (1923) 87-89. 

5. Payne, Cort, and Riley. Am. Journ. Hyg. 3 (May, 1923). 

6. Hill. Am. Journ. Hyg. 3 (July, 1923). 

7. Cort. Am. Journ. Hyg. 5 (January, 1925) 49-89. 

8. Sweet. Am. Journ. Hyg. 4 (November, 1924) 691-698. 

9. Stoll. Am. Journ. Hyg. 4 (September, 1924) 466-500. 



ANCYLOSTOMIASIS: RELATION BETWEEN NUMBER OF 
OVA PER GRAM OF FORMED STOOL AND NUMBER 
OF FEMALE WORMS HARBORED BY THE HOST, II 

By C. Manalang 
Of the Philippine Health Service, Zamboanga 

For the purpose of determining some of the causes of the dis- 
crepancies noted between the number of hookworm ova per 
gram of formed stool and the number of female worms dis- 
charged by the host, in a series of chenopodium-treated patients 
controlled by the egg-counting method, I made a series of 
observations on eighteen fresh cadavers (none later than 
twenty-four hours after death) sent to me for autopsy. This 
paper deals with the egg counts in stools from the sigmoid or 
rectum in five cases and regional egg counts from the ileum, 
caecum, transverse colon, and sigmoid in thirteen cases, with 
corresponding worm counts and classifications. 

TECHNIC 

After exposing the abdominal cavity and before any manip- 
ulation of the viscera was done, the ileum was severed with 
scissors at its junction with the csecum, the cut end pinched, 
the mesentery cut, freeing about 0.5 meter of the gut, and then 
the contents were gently squeezed with the fingers into a marked 
Petri dish. A small hole was punched in the caecum and with- 
out manipulation its contents were pressed through the hole di- 
rectly into another Petri dish. The same procedure was fol- 
lowed with the transverse colon. When there was no palpable 
stool in the rectum, this was cut, freed from its attachment, and 
the faecal matter in the sigmoid expressed into a fourth Petri 
dish. Then the gut was removed, beginning either from the rec- 
tum or from the duodenum (care having been taken that no in- 
testinal content should escape from either end or from the 
punctures in the caecum and transverse colon) directly into a 
large deep sieve, 80 meshes to the square inch. The gut was 
opened and washed with running water directly into the sieve, 
and formed stools were macerated with gloved hands. During 

47 



48 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

the washing the fingers were passed several times over the mu- 
cosa and this at the same time was inspected inch by inch, as 
attached hookworms were often found hidden behind intestinal 
rugae ; this was particularly true in case of recent death. When 
the postmortem was made in the morning the egg counting and 
classification were done the same day. When the autopsy was 
made in the afternoon or evening the counting was sometimes 
postponed until the following morning. Under such circum- 
stances, the screen with the washed intestinal contents was put 
in the sink and the water allowed to drip from the faucet all 
night to keep it moist. Extreme care was taken in inspecting 
the autopsy table and body cavity for worms if spilling of in- 
testinal contents accidentally happened. The screen was al- 
ways washed many times before it was discarded, as the 
overturning of food debris often revealed a hidden worm. 
Sometimes as long as five hours' search was made on bulky 
stools. In spite of these precautions it must be assumed that 
worm counts were usually short a very few that were lost or 
overlooked. 

The technic of egg count and classification was the same as 
that described in the preceding article.^ The cases submitted 
for this study were five for rectal or sigmoidal counts and 
thirteen for regional counts ; namely, one American, one Chinese 
two Mohammedan Filipinos, and fourteen Christian Filipinos. 
Twelve were males and six females; two were infants, 12 and 
13 months old, and the rest were adults from 17 to 52 years of 
age. Among those subjected to regional counts were one 
healthy adult Filipino laborer, who committed suicide by 
stabbing himself in the chest and died in fourteen hours; a 
well-developed and well-nourished Filipino multipara who died 
a few hours after the beginning of labor ; one case who died of 
cerebral haemorrhage; and, lastly, a case of murder. These 
cases might very well be considered representative normal cases 
because of absence of pathological lesions. Four other cases 
without lesions in the gastrointestinal tract can be considered 
fair controls. 

No attempt will be made to express percentages of male and 
female parasites or the Ancylostoma formula, as those points 
can be better dealt with in a larger series. It is evident, how- 
ever, that the Necator predominate over the Ancylostoma and 
the female worms over the male. 

* Antea p. 36. 



33,1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, II 49 

ANALYSIS OF DATA 

For the purpose of analysis I used StoU's factors 1, 2, 4 for 
formed, mushy, and diarrhoeal stools, respectively. The factor 
44 ova per gram of formed fseces per female was also used, 
and it was also taken for granted that the stools removed at 
postmortem represented **random" samples. It was also as- 
sumed that in normal alimentary physiology the stool lost fluid 
by dehydration in its course to the rectum. 

For pathological and biological reasons the eighteen cases 
were divided into three groups, as follows : 

Group 1. — Normal controls, four cases (7, 11, 17, and 18), 
death sudden, or due to violence, in apparently healthy persons. 

Group 2, — Death due to disease of an organ or organs not 
directly related to the alimentary tract, four cases (5, 6, 8, and 
14). 

Group 3. — Cases with intestinal pathology, ten cases (1, 2, 3, 
4, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, and 16). 

GROUP 1 

Case 7 showed perfect correlation in the transverse colon 
stool, slightly high count in the sigmoid, and higher in the 
ileum and caecum, or 74,183 and 105 ova per gram, respectively, 
per female found ; high counts, therefore, in 75 per cent of the 
regions examined. 

In case 11 correlation was evident in three regions (ileum, 
transverse colon, and sigmoid) but not in the caecum with 114 
ova per gram per female; also a rather high count in 25 per 
cent of the regions. 

Case 17 showed correlation in three regions (ileum, caecum, 
and transverse colon) but not in the sigmoid with 120 ova per 
gram per female found ; high count in 25 per cent of the regions. 

In case 18, assuming that one or two worms were lost in 
screening, correlation would be evident though the sigmoid 
count was slightly high ; high count in 25 per cent of the regions^ 

Viewing the data from the standpoint of the theoretical 
number of females based on the regional eg^ counts, if case 7 
had not committed suicide and if an Qgg count had been per- 
formed after he had passed his sigmoidal stool, he would be said 
to have had about 140 females; when he had passed the trans- 
versal stool, he would be said to have had at least 83 females ; in 
the caecal stool, more than 200 females ; and in the ileal stool, over 
354 females (the intestinal content losing more and more fluid 

226616 4 



50 The Philippine Journal of Science mi 

in its course to the rectum) , while the actual number of females 
was only 83. 

If this case were presented or were examined in a survey 
there would be three chances out of four of missing the actual 
number of females he harbored. 

Cases 11, 17, and 18 would each give a field investigator only 
one chance out of four of missing the actual number of females. 
The last two cases were very light infections. 

Of the regions surveyed in these four control cases six, or 
about 38 per cent, showed high egg counts. This is significant, 
as it is what may happen in field work. 

GROUP 2 

Case 5 (sigmoidal stool only) showed positive correlation. 

Case 6 showed very low egg production in three regions 
(ileum not counted) ; for the csecum, 4 ova per gram per female, 
found in the transverse, and 8 ova per gram per female in the 
sigmoid, when the actual number of females recovered was 135. 
This was one of the cases likely to occur in field work, in which 
theoretical females would be (?) for the csecum, 13 for the 
transverse, and 26 for the sigmoid. 

Case 8 presented a very high count in all regions; namely, 
712, 1,106, 1,720, and 362, for ileum, csecum, transverse, and 
sigmoid, respectively, theoretically representing 65, 100, 157, and 
33 females in the host, when the actual number recovered was 
4 — ^another type of case likely to be met in field work, as the 
case was beriberic and had some anaemia, oedema, and weakness 
of the lower extremities. It is possible that the perinephric 
abscess and confinement in bed had something to do with the 
increased count, indirectly. 

Case 14 showed low egg counts in all four regions, being 20, 
25, 25, and 10 ova per gram per female in the ileum, csecum, 
transverse, and sigmoid, respectively; of course, the dehydra- 
tion of stools higher up (the sigmoid excluded) in their course 
to the rectum will raise the number of ova per gram. 

In these four cases without intestinal lesions, thirteen re- 
gions were surveyed and in only one (case 5) did the number 
of ova per gram show a valid positive correlation with the 
actual number of females recovered, or about 92 per cent lack 
of correlation by regions; low counts in two cases (3 and 14) 
and high in one (5), or lack of correlation in 75 per cent of the 
cases. 



33.1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, II 51 

GROUP 3 

Case 1 showed very poor egg production. Ova might have 
been lost in the fistula or ovolysis have taken place. Unfor- 
tunately, a count on the fistula stool was not made. 

Case 2 showed good correlation in spite of the tumor and fis- 
tula. No count was made on the fistula stool. 

Case 3 showed good correlation in typhoid with haemorrhage. 

Case 4 showed good correlation in acute catarrhal enteritis, 
had the females been recovered. 

Case 9 gave very low egg counts in all regions, which may be 
due to the intestinal haemorrhage, poor egg laying of females 
due to unfavorable intestinal contents, or ovolysis. The counts 
were (?), 6, 6, (?), ova per gram for ileum, caecum, transverse, 
and sigmoid, respectively, per female recovered. There were 
127 females actually found. 

Case 10 gave very low egg counts in all regions (as did case 
9) but associated with intestinal obstruction without fistula. 
The retention of faecal matter in the jejunum either decreased 
egg production or destroyed the already discharged ova, or it 
may be that the worms were naturally poor egg layers. 

Case 12 showed good correlation in spite of haemorrhage. 

Case 13 showed fair correlation. 

Case 15 gave very low egg counts. Intestinal stasis, the 
rule in the insane in my post-mortem experience, might have 
hindered egg production, or the low count might have been 
due to the presence of many young and old nonegg-laying fe- 
males or to naturally poor egg layers. The very low count 
in the dry rectal stools in the form of balls (300 ova per gram) 
suggests egg destruction. 

Case 16 showed high counts in the caecum and the transverse 
colon but (?) in the ileum and sigmoid. Possibly, the case 
being one of ptomain, or food, poisoning, she had vomiting and 
very frequent stools. The administration of large quantities 
of opiates stopped the intestinal peristalsis so rapidly that only 
few or no ova in diarrhoeal stools reached the recently emptied 
sigmoid and rectum. This may be the reason why no ova were 
seen in that region. The ova in the transverse and the caecum 
were probably old extruded ova held in stagnant stools in the 
caecum. The absence of ova in the ileal contents may be due 
to the kerosene and other unknown drugs taken by her, which 
acted on the ova already extruded, or on the females, thus 



52 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

decreasing their production. The high counts in the csecum and 
transverse seemed evidence of good egg-laying females, 190 
and 125 ova per gram per female having been found in the 
csecum and the transverse colon, respectively. Other data on 
these cases v^ill be found in the tables. 

Correlation is evident in about 50 per cent of the cases (2, 
3, 4, 12, and 13) with intestinal pathology. This fact is signif- 
icant and should be borne in mind in tropical countries where 
intestinal diseases are prevalent. 

Correlation in cases without intestinal pathology was evident 
in four cases ; namely, case 18 with 1 female worm, case 17 with 
5 female worms, case 5 (sigmoid) with 2 female Ancylostoma 
braziliense, and case 11 in all regions except the caecum, with 
38 female worms. Negative correlation was evident in four 
cases; namely, case 7 with 83 female worms, case 14 with 30 
female worms, case 8 with 4 female worms, and case 6 with 135 
female worms. Closer correlation seemed more frequent with 
lower numbers of females. 

It was noted that in seven cases without intestinal pathology 
three (cases 7, 11, and 8) had a high csecum count and four 
(cases 17, 18, 6, and 14) either low (6 and 14) or normal (17 
and 18) counts. 

Perusal of the tables will show variabilities in the regional 
counts in the same case. The noted lack of correlation in three 
cases (6, 7, and 14) without intestinal pathology with many 
female worms may be due, in part, to uneven distribution of 
the worms in a long stretch of the small intestine. Thus, a 
variable number of ova is deposited in the contents of different 
regions and such contents reach the rectum without thorough 
mixing. 

It is noted that in those cases (thirteen) in which regional 
counts were made there were no marked changes in the con- 
sistency of stools from the different regions of the colon. The 
ileal contents were mushy in all except cases 9 and 16. In case 
10 the diarrhoeal nature of the colon contents might have been 
due to retained enema or to continued proctoclysis. 

Evidence of the physiological dehydration of the stool in its 
course to the rectum was shown by the slightly higher counts 
in the rectal or sigmoidal than in the transversal stools of cases 
6, 7, 17, and 18 (cases without intestinal pathology). 

If in group 1 (deaths by violence or sudden deaths) the 
number of ova per gram per region of "formed basis" were 
all added (sixteen regions in four cases) and the number of fe- 



33,1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, II 53 

male worms found in each case were multiplied by 4 (the four 
regions counted in each case) and added, we would have 44,275 
ova and 498 female worms from sixteen regions, or 89 ova per 
female per gram of stool "formed basis/* 

If two regions were counted, the number of females from that 
case was multiplied by two, three regions by three, and so on. 
Thus, group 2 (deaths without intestinal pathology) case 5 ex- 
cluded, would give 19,825 ova and 678 female worms from 
twelve regions, or 29 ova per female per gram of stool ; group 3 
(deaths with intestinal pathology) would give 28,650 ova and 
2,701 female worms (twenty-eight regions), or 10 ova per fe- 
male per gram of stool. The total for groups 1 and 2 (groups 
without intestinal pathology) was 64,100 ova and 1,176 female 
worms, or 54 ova per female. The totals for the three groups 
counted would be 92,750 ova and 3,877 female worms for fifty- 
six regions, or 24 ova per female per gram of stool "formed 
basis." 

The above computations were made to match, in a measure, 
field conditions with morgue and laboratory findings, each in- 
testinal region being represented by an individual. The above 
grouping and results of computations show how neutralization 
between high and low variants (shown in the preceding paper) - 
took place. 

If the average number of ova in four regions per case were 
taken and divided by the number of female worms found in 
that case, the number of ova per female per gram of stool 
*'f ormed basis'* would be as follows : 

Group 1: 

Case 7, 103 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 11, 55 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 17, 56 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 18, 150 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 

Group 2 (only those counted regionally) : 

Case 6, 4 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 8, 976 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 14, 20 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 

Group 3 (only those counted regionally) : 

Case 9, 3 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 10, 2 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 12, no ova counted per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 13, 74 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 15, 9 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 
Case 16, 79 ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 

'Antea p. 42. 



54 The Philippine Journal of Scierice 1927 

According to the above data, group 1 showed variation of 
ova per female per gram of stool from 55 to 150; group 2, 
from 4 to 976; group 3, from 2 to 79. 

It is interesting to note that in group 3 the two high egg 
outputs were from case 13 (amoebiasis) and case 16 (ptomain 
poisoning). Additional data on these cases will be found in 
the tables. 

DISCUSSION OF TABLES 

In Tables 1 to 18 will be found the history of each case, 
clinical observations, pathology, and other data actually noted 
by me while performing the autopsy. 

Case 1, M. A., male, 22 years old, autopsy 492, January 15, 
1925. Cause of death was intestinal obstruction and perito- 
nitis due to fsecal impaction 0.75 meter above the csecal valve. 
There were hard fseces in the entire colon. The patient was 
operated upon more than one week before death and a fsecal fis- 
tula above the obstruction was established. Unfortunately, 
ovum counts were not made on the fistula stool. Probably eggs 
were discharged via the fistula, which would account for the low 
count. The low count is also evidence of mechanical obstruc- 
tion which prevented the ova from getting into the colon. (See 
Table 1.) 

Table 1. — Showing hookworm and ovum couyits in case 1, sigmoidal 

or rectal stooL 

Type of stool Formed. 

Ova per gram 75 

Ova reduced to "formed basis'' 75 

Theoretical number of females 2 

Actual females found (Ancylo stoma y 5; Necator, 84) 89 

Ova per gram "formed basis" per female found 1 

Males found (Ancylostoma^ 3; Necatorj 100) 103 

Case 2, C.F., male, 40 years old, autopsy 495, January 15, 
1925. Cause of death, inanition due to lymphosarcoma of the 
jejunum and mesenteric glands. The correlation in this case 
is apparent in spite of the pathologic intestine and removal of 
the primary tumor one month before death, which resulted in 
a fsecal fistula two weeks before death. Some ova might have 
escaped from the fistula. There was no peritonitis. (See 
Table 2.) 



33.1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, II 55 

Table 2. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 2, aigmoidal 

or rectal stooL 

Type of stool Formed. 

Ova per gram 

Ova reduced to "formed basis" 

Theoretical number of females ? 

Actual females found (Ancylostoma, 2; Necator, 1) 3 

Ova per gram "formed basis" per female found ? 

Males found (Necator) 3 

Case 3, W.G., male, Chinese, 35 years old, autopsy 496, Jan- 
uary 25, 1925. Cause of death, typhoid fever with intestinal 
haemorrhage. Correlation apparent in spite of haemorrhage. 
(See Table 3.) 

Table 3. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case S, sigmoidal 

or rectal stool. 

Type of stool Mushy. 

Ova per gram 

Ova reduced to "formed basis" 

Theoretical number of females ? 

Actual females found (Ancylostoma) 1 

Ova per gram "formed basis" per female found ? 

Males found (Necator) 1 

Case 4, G.F., male, 1 year old, autopsy 498, January 29, 1925. 
Cause of death, acute catarrhal enterocolitis (nonspecific). 
Probably there was correlation, but the females were not re- 
covered. (See Table 4.) 

Table 4. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case J^, sigmoidal 

or rectal stool. 
Type of stool Mushy. 

Ova per gram 375 

Ova reduced to "formed basis"' 750 

Theoretical number of females 17 

Actual females found (probably lost in the morgue or 

in faecal debris) 

Ova per gram "formed basis'* per female found (if only 

one female present) 750 

Males found (Necator) 1 

Case 5, A.A., female, 13 months old, autopsy 503, February 
2, 1925. Cause of death, punctate hsemorrhages in the brain 
with congestion and oedema of the meninges (perhaps due to 
ascariasis) . Case was admitted with convulsions. Correlation 
apparent. (See Table 5.) 



56 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



Table 5. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 5, sigmoidal 

or rectal stool. 



Type of stool 

Ova per gram 

Ova reduced to "formed basis" 

Theoretical number of females 

Actual females found {A, brazUiense) 

Ova per gram "formed basis'' per female found 

Males found {A, braziliense) 



Mushy. 



7 

2 
1 



Case 6, R.D., male, 19 years old, autopsy 499, January 29, 
1925. Cause of death, anaemia and asphyxia due to massive pul- 
monary haemorrhage from chronic ulcerative and miliary tuber- 
culosis of both lungs. Stools contained tapioca and undigested 
vegetables. Only a couple of days in bed. The number of fe- 
males recovered was very high compared with the theoretical 
number based on the egg count. This seems to be a case of 
poor egg laying on the part of the female worms. The alimen- 
tary tract was normal and the contents were not unusual. Low 
egg count may have been due also to bulky stool. (See 
Table 6.) 

Table 6. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 6, 





Stooi from — 


Total parasites.'* 


Ileum. 


Caecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Ancy- 
lostoma. 


NeecUor. 


Type of stool 







(?) 


300 

600 

13 


(^) 
600 

1,200 

26 


Ova per gram . . - . 


«0 






Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 
sis" (counted) .-.__- _._ 






Theoretical number of females based on 
intestinal region count . __ 








Actual females found 




8 


127 


Ova per gram "formed basis" per female 
found by region. 




(?) 


4 


8 




Males found 




5 


123 








1 



■ Total parasites found, 263 ; 128 males and 135 females. ^ Mushy. ^ ^^t counted. 



Case 7, B.F., male, 28 years old, autopsy 500, January 31, 
1925. Cause of death, acute anaemia due to suicidal stab wound, 
left chest, and lung with haemothorax; died fourteen hours 
after incident. Subject well-developed and well-nourished 
farmer. Plenty of mushy stool containing plenty of grape- 
fruit grains and vegetable debris. Strongyloid larvsB, 100 per 
gram of ileum content. A lower actual female count when 



33,1 



Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, II 



57 



compared with the theoretical number based on rectum stool 
count. It coincided with the transverse colon count but was 
very low when compared with the csecum and ileum counts. A 
case of good egg-laying females. There was plenty of stool in 
the colon. (See Table 7.) 

Table 7. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 7. 



Type of stool 

Ova per gram 

Ova per gram reduced to "formed basis" 
Theoretical number of females based 

on intestinal region count 

Actual females found 

Ova per gram by region "formed ba- 
sis" per female found. _ 

Males found 



Stool from — 



Ileum. 



7,800 
15,600 

854 



183 



Caecum. 



(o) 
8,750 
8,750 

200 



Trans- 
verse 
colon. 



(«) 
3,650 
3,650 

83 



Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 



6,150 
6,150 

140 



74 



Total parasiteB.* 



Ancy- 
loBtoma. 



Neeaior. 



82 



« Total parasites found, 141 ; 58 males and 83 females. 



^ Mushy. 



' Formed. 



Case 8, A.F., male, 21 years old, autopsy 501, February 1, 
1925. Patient admitted for traumatic perinephric abscess 
(right), recovered, and then suffered pulmonary oedema. Au- 
topsy showed marked cardiac dilatation with hypertrophy of 
both ventricular walls. About eight weeks before death a chen- 
opodium treatment caused discharge of ten hookworms. A 
case with beriberic heart. This is also a case of good egg-lay- 
ing females. The stools were not bulky. (See Table 8.) 



Table 8. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 8, 






Stool from — 


Total parasites.' 


Ileum. 


Caecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Aney- 
lostoma. 


! 

Necatar, 


Type of stool 

Ova per gram. -- 

Ova per gram reduced to "formed basis". 
Theoretical number of females based 
on intestinal region count 


1,425 
2,850 

65 


(») 
4,425 
4,425 

100 


6,900 
6,900 

157 


(«) 
1,450 
1.450 

33 














Actual females found _ _ . 




4 


Ova per gram by region "formed ba- 
sip" per female found 


712 


1.106 


1,720 


862 




Males found _ 




3 






^ 1 





* Total parasites found, 7 ; 3 males and 4 females. '' Mushy. « Formed. 



58 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



l»27 



Case 9, L.O., male, 22 years old, autopsy 502, February 3, 
1925. Anatomical diagnosis, acute ulcerative enteritis with 
haemorrhage (typhoid fever). 

The low egg count in this case may be due to intestinal 
haemorrhage, poor egg laying, or ovolysis. (See Table 9.) 

Table 9. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 9, 





Stool from — 


Total parasites.' 


Ileum. 


Caecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Ancy- 
lostoma. 


1 

Necaior. 


Type of stool 





(?) 


(«) 
375 

750 

17 


(") 
375 

750 

17 


(0) 




(?) 




Ova per gram >_ 






Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 
sis" _ - 






Theoretical number of females based 
on intestinal region count. ._ 






Actual females found _ _ 


1 


126 


Ova per gram by region "formed ba- 
sis" per female found 


(?) 


6 


6 


(?) 


Males found 


do 


60 













» Total parasites found, 189 ; 62 males and 127 females. 
^ Diarrhoeal. 
« Mushy. 

* One of these Ancylcstoma ceylanicum? (A. braziliense) . The opinion of most tvriteni 
is that A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense are one and the same species. 

Case 10, J.T., a Mohammedan Filipino, male, 31 years old, 
autopsy 505, February 5, 1925. Illness, about three days. 

Autopsy findings, intestinal obstruction due to mesenteric 
band. Obstruction in the jejunum. 

An illustration is here afforded of the possible influence of in- 
testinal obstruction on decrease in the egg-laying ability of fe- 
males or destruction of extruded ova. The patient was operated 
upon, but no fistula was established, as he was in a state of 
collapse and died a few minutes after the operation. (See 
Table 10.) 

Case 11, P.C, multipara, 31 years old, autopsy 506, February 
5, 1925. Acute anaemia due to postpartum haemorrhage with 
retained placenta. Died soon after beginning of labor, without 
medical attendance outside the hospital. This is a case of 
fairly good correlation on the 44 ova per gram "formed basis" 
except in the caecum count. (See Table 11.) 



33.1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, II 59 

Table 10. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 10, 





Stool from — 


Total parasites.* 




Ileum. 

C') 




(?) 


Cacum. 

(«) 




(?) 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 

(«) 
40 

160 

4 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Aney- 
lostoma. 


1 
Necalor, 


Type of stool 

j Ova per gram 


C) 













Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 

8i8" - - 








Theoretical number of females based on 

intestinal region count 






Actual females found 


5 


22 


Ova per gram by region "formed ba- 
sis" per female found 


(?) 


(?) 


6 


(?) 


Males found. 


2 


8 













■ Total parasites found, 37 ; 10 males and 27 females. ^ Mushy. « DiarrhceaL 

Table 11. — Shotoing hookworm, and ovum counts in case 11, 



! 


Stool from — 


Total parasites.* 


Ileum. 


Csecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Aney- 
losioma. 


\ 
Neeator. 


Type of stool 


C) 

600 

1,200 

27 


(0 
4,350 

4.350 

100 


C) 
1,650 

1,650 

37 


(«) 
1,200 

1.200 

27 






Ova per gram 






Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 
sis" 






Theoretical number of females based on 
intestinal region count ._ 






Actual females found 




38 


Ova per gram by region "formed basis" 
per female found __ 


32 


114 


43 


32 




Males found.- 


1 


43 













« Total parasites found, 82 ; 44 males and 38 females. 



*> Mushy. 



c Formed. 



Case 12, P.S., female, 17 years old, autopsy 507, February 5, 
1925. Acute ulcerative enteritis with haemorrhage (typhoid 
fever). A good correlation in a light infection, though the 
effect of the haemorrhage on ova or worms could not be ap- 
praised. (See Table 12.) 

Case 13, A.S., male, 50 years old, autopsy 509, February 7, 
1925. 

Postmortem findings, large amoebic ''abscess" on the right 
lobe of the liver, communicating with the inferior lobe of the 



60 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1M7 



right lung, and chronic ulcerative colitis (caecum and ascending 
colon). 

Pain in the right chest complained of for two months. No 
dysenteric complaint at any time. A good correlation in a light 
infection. Motile Entamoeba hystolitica were recovered from 
abscess contents. (See Table 13.) 

Table 12. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 12. 





Stool from — 


Total parasites.* 


Ileum. 


Csecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Ancy- 
lostoma. 


Neeaior. : 

i 


Type of stool _ 

Ova per gram _ 









(?) 


(^) 




(?) 


(^) 




(?) 








1 


Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 
sis" 




1 


Theoretical number of females based on 
intestinal region count 




Actual f emal(^s found 




2 1 


Ova per gram by region "formed basis" 
per female found 


(?) 


(?) 


(?) 


(?) 






Males foimd 




I ' 













• Total parasites found, 3 ; 1 male and 2 females. b Mushy. 

Table 13. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case IS, 





Stool from — 


Total parasite?.* 


Ileum. 


Caecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Ancy- 
lostoma. 


Necator. 


Typeof stooL _ 


C) 
150 

300 

7 


(»>) 




(?) 


75 

150 

3 


225 

450 

10 






Ova per gram 






Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 
ais" 






Theoretical number of females based on 
intestinal region count 






Actual females found 


1 


2 


Ova per gram by region "formed basis" 

per female found 

Males found _ 


100 


(?) 


50 


150 


4 


3 













* Total parasites found, 10 ; 3 males and 7 females. 



^ Mushy. 



Case 14, L.I., male, 32 years old, autopsy 510, February 9, 
1925. Death was due to pneumococcic meningitis. Admission 
complaints, fever and severe headache. This case showed only 
a fair correlation on the 44 ova per gram "formed basis" per 
female, though still a low egg output. (See Table 14.) 



33,1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, II 61 

Table 14. — Showing hookworm aiid ovum counts in case 14- 



Type of stool 

Ova per gram 

Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 



Theoretical number of females based on 
intestinal region count 

Actual females found. _- 

Ova per gram by region "formed basis" 
per female found 

Males found 



Stool from- 



Ileum. 



300 



600 
14 



20 



Csecum. 



375 
750 

17 



Trans- 
verse 
colon. 



375 

750 

17 



25 



Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 



300 



800 

7 



10 



Total parasites. • 



Anry- 
lostoma. 



Neeator. 



29 



10 



» Total parasites found, 42 ; 12 males and 80 females. ^ Mushy. « Formed. 

Table 15. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 15, 





Stool from — 


Total parasites.* 




Ileum. 


Cecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Ancy- 
loMtoma. 


Neeaior. 




2,325 

4,650 

106 


8,100 

8,100 

187 


4.725 

4,725 

107 


300 
300 

7 






Ova per gram - .- 

Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 
sis" 










Theoretical number of females baaed on 








10 


460 


Ova per gram by region "formed basis" 
ner female found 


10 


17 


10 


1 


Nlales found 


8 


367 













« Total parasites found, 845 ; 875 males and 470 females. ^ Mushy. 



c Formed. 



Case 15, M.N.H., a tall, poorly nourished American, male, 44 
years old, autopsy 511, February 11, 1925, acutely maniac for 
about one month. Discharged from United States Army about 
fourteen years ago. Autopsy showed marked meningeal conges- 
tion and cBdema and small areas of meningeal and subdural 
haemorrhages with sclerosis of the basilar arteries but normal 
aorta, kidneys, and liver. The entire colon contained not less 
than 2 kilograms of impacted fsecal matter in the form of 
smooth-surfaced balls slightly smaller than a baseball. These 
balls were dark gray and very easily reduced to pulp on crushing. 
Large and small Neeator worms. A case of either very many 
young females or poor egg layers. The low count in the rectum 



62 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



suggests destruction of ova in long-standing stool in "vivo," 
(See Table 15.) 

Case 16, V.F., female, 37 years old, autopsy 512, February 
13, 1925. 

Cause of death, acute gastro-enterocolitis due to food poison- 
ing. Vomiting and diarrhoea stopped three days before death. 
A case of apparent overproduction of ova. Liquid in the ileum 
and little stool in the sigmoid. Woman said to have been de- 
mented; drank plenty of "kerosene" and other unknown drugs. 
(See Table 16.) 

Table 16. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 16. 





Stool from — 


Total parasites.* i 

1 


Ileum. 


Caecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
color. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Ancy- 
loatoma. 


i 

Necaior, \ 

i 


Type of stool 





(?) 


(0) 

2,250 

4.500 

100 


(0) 

1,500 

3,000 

68 


(«>) 




(?) 




i 
. j 


Ova per gram . _ 




- ! 

1 


Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 
sis" - 






Theoretical number of females based on 
intestinal region count . 






Actual females found 


2 


22 ^ 


Ova per gram by region "formed basis" 
per female found 


._ 

(?) 


190 


125 


(?) 




Males found 


1 


10 















• Total parasites found, 35 ; 11 males and 24 females. 



^ Diarrhceal. ^ Mushy. 



Case 17, L.L., female, 52 years old, autopsy 513, February 14, 
1925. Patient a v^ell-developed and well-nourished female, up 
and about, though she had complained of occasional severe head- 
ache for several months. Then she had an attack of uncon- 
sciousness and died (out of hospital). Autopsy showed cerebral 
haemorrhage left ventricle with arteriosclerosis, hypertrophy of 
the left ventricle, and chronic interstitial nephritis. This case 
could be considered a normal control. Fair correlation evident 
except in the sigmoidal stool. The higher number of ova may 
be due to lesser stool bulk or the extrusion of more ova at the 
time the worms were passed. (See Table 17.) 

Case 18, M.A., a Mohammedan Filipino, male, 33 years old, 
autopsy 514, February 14, 1925. A very large and deep, incised 
wound was inflicted on the right side of the neck during his 
sleep (?) and he probably died in a few minutes. Internal 
organs were normal, outside of anaemia. This case could also be 



33,1 



Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, II 



63 



considered a good normal control. Assuming the loss of a few 
females in screening the correlation could be made apparent. 
(See Table 18.) 

Table 17. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 17, 





stool from — 


Total parasites.* 


Ileum. 


Csecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Ancy- 
l09toma. 


Necator, 


Type of stool 

Ova per gram „ _ 




(?) 


(") 
300 

300 

7 


(«) 
225 

225 

5 


(•) 
600 

GOO 

14 










Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 
sis" 






Theoretical number of females based on 
intestinal region count __ 






Actual females found 




5 


Ova per gram by region "formed basis" 

per female found _ 

Males found - 


I?) 


60 


45 


120 






6 















"Total parasites found, 11; 6 males and 5 females. *> Mushy. « Formed. 

Table 18. — Showing hookworm and ovum counts in case 18. 





stool from — 


Total parasites.* 


Ileum. 


Csecum. 


Trans- 
verse 
colon. 


Sigmoid 

or 
rectum. 


Ancy- 
lostoma. 


Necator. 


Type of stool 




(?) 


(^) 
75 

150 

3 or 4 


f) 
75 

150 

3 or 4 


(»>) 
150 

300 

7 






Ova per gram 






Ova per gram reduced to "formed ba- 
sis" 






Theoretical number of females based on 
intestinal region count 






Actual females found 




1 


Ova per gram by region "formed basis" 
per female found.- 


(?) 


150 


150 


300 




Males found . . 



















* Only one female parasite found. 



SUMMARY 



^ Mushy. 



1. For the purpose of obtaining at least some explanation of the 
discrepancies noted between the number of ova per gram of 
stool "formed basis" and the number of females recovered by 
chenopodium treatment on a series of eighteen clinical cases pre- 
viously reported, eighteen fresh cadavers were subjected to egg 
and worm counts. Five were used for sigmoidal or rectal 



64 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

counts and thirteen for sigmoidal counts (ileum, caecum, 
transverse, and rectum, or sigmoid). 

2. The autopsy procedure is described and, in spite of the 
exercise of extreme care, the loss of a few worms must be 
assumed. 

3. The egg-counting method used was essentially that of Stoll 
with slight unavoidable modifications, described in the preceding 
article. * 

4. Of the eighteen cadavers, twelve were males and six fe- 
males; the ages were from 17 to 52 years, except two infants, 
12 and 13 months old. Fourteen were Christian Filipinos, two 
Mohammedan Filipinos, one an American, and one a Chinese. 

5. In the interpretation of results, all stools were reduced to 
''formed basis" using Stoll's factors 1, 2, 4 for formed, mushy, 
and diarrhoeal stools, respectively. 

6. The factor 44 ova per gram of formed stool per female was 
used throughout. 

7. For pathological and biological reasons the cases were clas- 
sified into three groups: Group 1, normal controls, four cases 
who died of violence or met sudden death; group 2, four cases 
whose death was not related to the alimentary tract, and in 
whom the intestines showed no pathology ; and group 3, ten cases 
with intestinal pathology. 

8. Of sixteen regions surveyed in group 1 six, or 38 per cent, 
had high egg counts. The other regions were either normal 
(around 44 ova per female) or had low counts. 

9. Of the thirteen regions surveyed in group 2, 92 per cent by 
region and 75 per cent of the cases showed lack of correlation 
between the egg counts and the number of female worms found. 

10. Positive correlation was evident in 50 per cent of the 
cases in group 3, cases with intestinal pathology. 

11. In three out of seven cases without intestinal pathology, 
in whom regional counts were made, the caecal counts were 
higher than the transversal. 

12. Closer correlation was observed in cases with low female 
worm counts. 

13. In thirteen cases counted regionally, no marked changes 
in the consistency of the stools in the three colon regions were 
noted in the same individual. 

14. The sigmoidal or rectal egg count was slightly higher than 
the transversal in four cases without intestinal pathology and 

•Antea p. 36. 



33,1 Manalang: Ancylostomiasis, II 65 

in a case of amoebiasis. Low counts were observed in two cases 
without intestinal pathology. 

15. Group 1 had 89 ova per female per gram of stool ''formed 
basis;'' group 2 had 29 ova per female; and group 3 had 10 ova 
per female. The number of ova per female in each group was 
determined by adding the number of ova per gram in four re- 
gions counted in each case and multiplying by four the number 
of females found in that case. Then the total number of ova 
in sixteen regions (four cases) was divided by the total num- 
ber of females in that group (the number of females in each 
case obtained as above). Where two regions were counted 
the number of females was multiplied by two, three regions by 
three. 

16. By averaging the three groups in which fifty-six regions 
were counted, each female was represented by 24 ova per gram 
of stool, the result of neutralization. 

17. When the average number of ova in four regions in each 
case was divided by the number of female worms actually found 
in that case, group 1 showed variation of from 55 to 150 ova 
per female per gram of stool "formed basis;" group 2, from 
4 to 976 ova per female per gram of stool ; and group 3, 2 to 79 
ova per female per gram of stool "formed basis." 

18. Variability in egg output noted in cases with a large num- 
ber of females may be due to uneven distribution of female 
worms in a long stretch of the small intestine, the contents of 
which, carrying a variable number of ova, failed to mix in their 
course to the rectum. 

19. The variability in the egg output of female hookworms as 
observed in passed stools may be due to mechanical influence, 
such as faecal fistula and intestinal obstruction, stasis in the 
caecum or elsewhere, good or poor egg-laying females, and egg 
destruction or ovolysis. Some intestinal factors that might in- 
fluence egg laying and egg destruction were noted. It is likely 
that different races or strains of Necator have different egg- 
laying capabilities. 

225616 6 



NEUE INDO-MALAYISCHE BORKENKAEFER (IPIDiE) 

II. NACHTRAG 

Von Hans Eggeks 
Stolberg (Harz) , Deutschland 

In 1922 erschien mein erster Beitrag zur Borkenkaferfauna 
des ganzen Indo-Malayischen Gebietes/ von der Strasse von 
Singapore bis zu den Philippinen und uber Neuguinea bis 
Nordaustralien, mit 127 Neubeschreibungen. 

In der Treubia befindet sich inzwischen ein erster Nachtrag 
im Druck mit 23 neuen Arten aus dem engeren Gebiet der 
Sundainseln bis Siidborneo und Neu Guinea. Ausserdem gebe 
ich dabei zahlreiche neue Fundorte aus dem ganzen Gebiet. 

Sehr umfangreiche Sammlungen von den Philippinen und 
Nordborneo geben mir nun Material fur einen zweiten Nachtrag, 
der sich nur mit diesem engeren Gebiet befasst. Der Hauptan- 
teil des mir vorliegenden Materials besteht aus der Bottcher- 
schen Ausbeute, die in den Jahren 1913 bis 1918 auf den Philip- 
pinen gesammelt wurde. Den grosseren Teil mit circa 2,400 
Stuck erv^arb ich selbst; ein kleinerer Teil aus Nord Palawan 
wurde mir von Professor Linnaniemi, Turku, Finnland, zur 
Bestimmung vorgelegt. 

Sehr schone und vielseitige Collectionen legten wir zum Ver- 
gleich und Bestimmung vor Herrn Professor Charles F. Baker, 
Los Baiios, und das Bureau of Science, Manila. Ein Teil davon 
ist noch nicht f ertig bearbeitet und enthalt noch weitere 30 neue 
Arten. 

DIAMERUS STRIATUS sp. nov. 

Langliche Koperform mit ziemlich parallelen Seiten, hell dicht 
beschuppt, auf den Flugeldecken durch die dunklen Punktstreifen 
gestreift erscheinend, auch Unterseite dicht hell beschuppt. 
Dunkelbraun, massiger Glanz, soweit die Beschuppung die Ober- 
flache durchscheinen lasst. 

Kopf bei alien Stucken einer zahlreichen Reihe gleichmassig 
flach gewolbt, dicht und kraftig punktiert mit feiner angedeu- 
teter Linie auf der oberen Stirn und schmaler undeutlicher 

'Zool. Med. Univ. Leiden (1922) Deel VII, 129-220. 

67 



gg The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Langsfurche iiber dem Munde. Zwischen Augen und Mund ist 
die untere Kopfhalfte dicht mit hellen langlichen Schuppen be- 
setzt. 

Halsschild etwas breiter als lang mit fast parallelen Seiten 
und gerundeten Vorderecken. Vorderrand gerade, keine Ein- 
schniirung hinter demselben; Oberseite sehr dicht und kraftig 
punktiert mit leicht angedeuteter Mittellinie und schwacher 
Seitenkante. Seiten und Basis der Oberflache dicht mit nach 
der Mittellinie zu gerichteten keulenformigen, langen, hellen 
Schuppen besetzt. 

Fliigeldecken kaum merklich breiter und 2.25 mal so lang als 
Halsschild, hinter der Basis etwas erweitert, dann leicht ein- 
gezogen, im letzten Drittel deutlich ausgebaucht und breit 
abgerundet, Naht bei zahlreichen Stlicken nur etwas abge- 
stumpft vorgezogen, bei anderen in eine scharfe Spitze ausgezo- 
gen (vielleicht Geschlechtsunterschied!). Oben flach und eben 
bis zum steil abgewolbten Absturz. Punktstreifen deutlich ein- 
gedriickt, infolge des ausgebauchten, gewolbten Absturzes hinten 
etwas nach auswarts gebogen. Zwischenraume flach, fein und 
deutlich punktiert und dicht mit hellen, anliegenden, langlichen 
Schuppen besetzt, nur auf dem zweiten Zwischenraume ist in der 
Mitte ein grosserer Fleck dunkelbrauner Schuppen, der auch 
unregelmassig auf den dritten und vierten Zwischenraum iiber- 
greift. 

Lange, 3 bis 3.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindoro, San Teodoro; Sammler Bott" 
cher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

DIAMERUS PUNCTICOLLIS sp. nov. 

Eine grossere Art, in der Form dem D. striatus sp. nov. ahn- 
lich, jedoch nicht beschuppt, sondern lang und dicht anliegend 
behaart. Dunkelbraun, massig glanzend, heller rotbraun be- 
haart, Unterseite hell behaart. 

Kopf dicht punktiert, beim Mann zwischen den Augen ausge- 
hohlt, beim Weib flach gewolbt, fein und dicht behaart. 

Halsschild breiter als lang, gut gewolbt, seitlich wenig ge- 
bogen und Vorderecken abgerundet. Oberseite dicht mit ziem- 
lich grossen, tiefen Punkten bedeckt und mit braunen, ziemlich 
langen Haaren besetzt. Angedeutete, f eine, erhabene Mittellinie. 
Unterseite unterhalb der schwach ausgebildeten Seitenkante mit 
kleinen Biischeln feiner, heller Harchen besetzt. 

Flugeldecken fast doppelt so lang wie Halsschild und kaum 
breiter als dieses. Hinten nach der Naht zu leicht abgerundet 



33.1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 69 

ohne Ausbauchung. Naht zu schwacher Spitze vorgezogen. 
Oberseite gestreift punktiert, Zwischenraume flach, dicht punk- 
tiert und anliegend, ziemlich lang, braun behaart in unregel- 
massigen, dichten Reihen. Seitenkante vor der Schulterbeule 
eckig vorgezogen. 

Lange, 4 bis 4.8 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen : Luzon, Provinz Rizal, Montalban : Pro- 
vinz Laguna, Los Banos. Masbate, Aroroy. Je 1 Stiick (2 
Manner, 1 Weib) ; Sammler Bottcher; in Sammlung Eggers. 

NEGRITUS MAJOR sp. nov. 

Etwas grosser als die beiden beschriebenen Arten, gekenn- 
zeichnet durch mehrreihige Schuppen auf den Fliigeldecken und 
schmalere, grosse, langliche Fiihlerkeule. Schwarz, massig 
glanzend, plump gebaut. 

Kopf gewolbt, dicht und fein punktiert mit kleinem Hocker 
auf der Stirn. F iihlerkeule schmal beginnend und etwas schief , 
keulenformig abgerundet. 

Halsschild stark gewolbt, breiter als lang, eben vor der Basis 
am breitesten, nach hinten wenig verschmalert, nach vorn 
starker verengt und abgerundet. Vorderrand in der Mitte leicht 
eingezogen. Hockerfleck, mit einzeln stehenden, ziemlich kraf- 
tigen Hockern, beriihrt den Vorderrand nicht, geht nach hin- 
ten bis uber die Mitte; hinteres Drittel stark runzelig gekornt. 
Schildchen breit, in der Mitte vertieft. 

Fliigeldecken etwas schmaler und um i langer als das Hals- 
schild; wie bei den anderen Arten gerundet. Die Naht selbst 
hinter dem Schildchen bis zur Mitte vertieft. Punktreihen deut- 
lich vertieft. Die breiten Zwischenraume dicht punktiert und 
mehrreihig mit unter sich gleichen, hellen, anliegenden Schup- 
pen bedeckt. Am Absturz die Naht etwas erhoht. 

Lange, 2.5 bis 2.6 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Surigao, Surigao. 
Basilan. Sammler, C. F. Baker; 2 Stiick in Sammlung Eggers. 

NEGRITUS MINOR sp. nov. 

Ein zierlicher, fein skulptierter Kafer von schmalerer Form. 
Dunkelbraun mattglanzend, fein punktiert, mit feinen Schiipp- 
chen bedeckt. 

Kopf glanzend, sehr fein punktiert, mit feinen Haaren iiber 
dem Munde; Fuhlerkeule lang, keulenformig, sehr gross, unge- 
gliedert, fein kurz grau behaart. 

Halsschild langer als breit, vor der Basis am breitesten, nach 
vorn langsam verschmalert und abgerundet, am Vorderrand mit 



70 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

vier Hockern besetzt. In der Mitte quer gebuckelt, nach vorn 
abschiissig, mit regelmassig gestellten Hockern versehen, hinten 
dicht und fein punktiert ohne glatte Mittellinie. Hinterrand 
doppelt eingebuchtet. Schildchen erhaben, weil die Fliigeldecken 
rundum etwas eingedriickt sind. 

Flugeldecken wenig schmaler und um i langer als das 
Halsschild. Punktreihen leicht vertieft mit kleinen Punkten. 
Zwischenraume ausserst fein und dicht punktiert, mit einer 
Mittelreihe grosserer, abstehender Schuppen in feiner dichter 
Grundbeschuppung. 

Lange, 1.7 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Zamboanga, Port 
Banga. Sammler, Bottcher; 1 Type in Sammlung Eggers. 

HYLESINUS PERSIMILIS sp. nov. 

Nahe verwandt mit H. papuanus mihi. Schwarz, matt glan- 
zend, schmal gebaut, flach gewolbt. 

Kopf fein und dicht punktiert mit schmaler, feiner Mittellinie 
iiber dem Munde; beim Mann hier mit flachem Eindruck, beim 
Weib leicht gewolbt. 

Halsschild ebenso lang wie breit, seitlich im Bogen nach vorn 
verschmalert, ohne Einschniirung hinter dem Vorderrande ; Win- 
kel an der Basis nach hinten ausgezogen, parallel zur Basis 
leicht eingedriickt; fein und dicht, flach punktiert ohne Mittel- 
linie ; seitlich ein Feld vom Vorderrand bis zum Hinterrande mit 
zerstreuten, feinen Kornchen bedeckt. Schildchen fast kreis- 
rund. 

Flugeldecken von gleicher Form wie bei papitanus, doch nach 
kurzer Wolbung noch schrager abfallend. Punktstreifen tra- 
gen deutlich getrennte, langliche Punkte. Zwischenraume flach, 
dicht punktiert und viel sparlicher mit kurzen braunen Bors- 
ten besetzt als bei papuxinus, 

Lange, 2 bis 2.4 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindoro, Provinz Mindoro, Calapan; 
Sammler, Webb; je 2 Typen, in Sammlung Eggers und Samm- 
lung Bureau of Science, Manila. 

SPHAEROTRYPES BICOLOR sp. nov. 

In die nachste Verwandtschaft des S. quadritMberciUattts 
Sampson gehorig, auch ohne erhabene Leisten auf den Zwi- 
schenraumen, jedoch mit anders verteilten Hockern, Halsschild 
zweifarbig, schwarz und hellgrau, Flugeldecken schwarzbraun, 
matt. 



33,1 Eg gets: Neue Borkenkdfer 71 

Kopf zwischen den Augen abgeflacht, hellgrau, ganz kurz 
behaart, daruber ein Bogen mit sehr kurzer, schwarzsamtener 
Behaarung. 

Halsschild breiter als lang, in der Mitte der Basis nach hin- 
ten vorgezogen, Seitenrand scharf gekantet, im Bogen nach vorn 
gerundet; hinter dem ersten Drittel nach den beiden Vorder- 
ecken hin eine flache Rille. Der von diesen beiden Rillen und 
dem Vorderrande eingefasste Kreisabschnitt und eine bis zur 
Mitte der Basis reichende schmale Verlangerung dieses Fleckes 
samtig schwarz, das tibrige Halsschild scharf abgesetzt silbrig 
grau. Vorn sparlich und fein, hinten dichter und kraftiger 
punktiert. Vor dem Hinterrand auf beiden Seiten drei steife, 
helle Borsten. 

Flugeldecken breiter als Halsschild und lang oval gebaut. 
Punktreihen gestreift und mit langlichen Punkten. Hinter der 
niedrigen Hockerreihe des Vorderrandes dicht unregelmassig 
gerunzelt, der Nahtzwischenraum einreihig, die ubrigen vorne 
doppelreihig punktiert und fein beschuppt, der dritte, funfte, 
und siebente auf dem Absturz mit zerstreuten, massig grossen 
Hockern besetzt, die ubrigen mit einzelnen kleinen Kornchen. 
Vor dem Ende des zweiten Zwischenraumes steht ein grosserer 
Hocker. Von quadituberculatus verschieden durch tiefere 
Punktstreifen, gewolbtere Zwischenraume, starkere Hocker. 
Die seitlichen Punktstreifen 8 und 9 gehen durch die Schulter- 
beule und sind vorne in Doppelcurve geschwungen; bei der 
anderen Art beginnt Punktstreifen 8 erst hinter der Schulter- 
beule und 9 zeigt an der Basis nur einen einfachen Bogen. 

Lange, 3 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Borneo, Sandakan, von Baker gesammelt; 1 Weib, 
Type, in Sammlung Eggers. 

SPHAEROTRYPES CARINATUS sp. nov. 

Ein kleinerer Kafer mit scharf gekielten Rippen auf den 
Flugeldecken und zwei starkeren Hockern am Hinterrand; 
schwarz, das Halsschild ausser dem Vorderrand rotbraun, ebenso 
die Gliedmassen. 

Stirn flach, ausserst fein punktuliert mit kleinem Hocker uber 
dem Munde. 

Halsschild mattglanzend, fein hautartig genetzt und zerstreut 
fein punktuliert; der seitliche Eindruck hinter dem Vorderrande 
ist nur schwach. Der schwarze Streifen hinter dem Vorder- 
rande ist in der Mitte schmal vorgezogen bis zur Mitte des Hals- 



72 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

schildes. Vor der nur massig nach hinten gezogenen Mitte des 
Hinterrandes eine angedeutete feine Mittellinie. 

Fliigeldecken etwa doppelt so lang wie das Halsschild und 
etwas breiter als dieses; tief gestreift mit feinen Reihenpunk- 
ten. Zwischenraume vorne sehr breit, flach, punktiert und 
runzelig gehockert, dann zu einer schmalen Kante hoch gekielt, 
auf dem Absturz weniger scharf mit feinen Kornchen, einrei- 
hig, ziemlich weitlaufig, hell beschuppt. Am Ende des dritten 
und sechsten Zwischenraumes steht je ein kraf tiger Hocker. 

Lange, 2.4 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Borneo, Sandakan, Sammler Baker; 1 Weib, Type, 
in Sammlung Eggers. 

SPHAEROTRYPES BOETTCHERI sp. nov. 

Am nachsten verwandt mit S. blandfordi Schaufuss aus 
Burma; in Grosse, Form, und Skulptur der Fliigeldecken kaum 
unterschieden. Schwarzbraun mit schwarzem Kopf, matt, Hals- 
schild massig glanzend, Flugeldecken ohne Leisten und Hocker. 

Kopf oben f ein genetzt, Stirn iiber den Augen im Dreiecke kurz 
samtartig behaart, zwischen den Augen sparlich kurz behaart, 
Augen grosser als bei S. blandfordi, mit abgerundeten Ecken. 

Halsschild breiter als lang, nach hinten weniger tief vor- 
gezogen, mattglanzend, hellgrau mit schwarzem Streifen hinter 
dem Vorderrande. An beiden Seiten hinter dem Vorderrande 
eine tiefe Linie eingedrlickt. Seitenkante scharf gerandet. 
Oben fein hautartig genetzt, fein punktiert; in den Punkten 
stehen feine, kurze Schiippchen. Bei blandfordi ist die Ober- 
seite stark und dicht kornelig gerunzelt und tragt eine erhabene 
Mittellinie und erhabenen Hinterrand, welche bei boettcheri feh- 
len. 

Flugeldecken breiter als Halsschild, schon oval geformt, in 
Streifen punktiert, die breiten flachen Zwischenraume runzelig 
gekornt und unregelmassig in drei Reihen mit langlichen, an- 
liegenden Schuppen bedeckt. Vorderrand mit breiten Hock- 
em, dahinter grobrunzelig quer gehockert. Auf Scheibe und 
Absturz weder Leisten noch grossere Hocker, nur vor dem Hin- 
terrand auf dem zweiten und dritten Zwischenraume eine kleine 
Querleiste. 

Unterseite fein, kurz grau behaart. 

Lange, 4 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: MiNDORO, Subaan, von Boettcher 
gesammelt; 1 Weib, Type, in Sammlung Eggers. 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 78 

SPHAEROTRYPES BANGENSIS sp. nov. 

Zu den grosseren Arten gehorig, mit Rippen auf den Zwi- 
schenraumen der Flugeldecken und grossen Hinterrandhockern. 
Kopf und breiter Halsschildvorderrand schwarz, iibriges Hals- 
schild rotbraun, Flugeldecken schwarzbraun. Kopf iiber den 
Augen schwarz, fein punktiert, kahl, zwischen den Augen fein, 
kurz grau beschuppt. Mann iiber dem Munde flach quer 
eingedruckt; Weib eben, mit kleinem, glatten Langshocker. 

Halsschild breiter als lang, Eindruck seitlich hinter dem Vor- 
derrande sehr flach, Oberseite fein punktiert und sparlich, fein, 
hell beschuppt. Schildchen schmal und lang. 

Flugeldecken breiter als Halsschild und fast doppelt so lang, 
nach hinten starker verschmalert und stark abfallend. Hinter 
dem schwach gehockerten Vorderrande breit unregelmassig 
gerunzelt. Punktreihen tief gestreift und dicht gross punktiert. 
Zwischenraume 2 bis 6 in der vorderen Halfte kielartig er- 
haben, und zweireihig punktiert, die seitlichen vorne mehrreihig 
punktiert, alle hinten einreihig, ziemUch dicht mit.massig gros- 
sen Hockern besetzt und ganz mehrreihig beschuppt, der Naht- 
zwischenraum einreihig punktiert und beschuppt. Der dritte 
und sechste Zwischenraum endigen in einen starken Hocker. 

Lange, 3.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: MINDANAO, Provinz Zamboanga, Port 
Banga; Sammler Bottcher; eine Reihe in Sammlung Eggers. 

SPHAEROTRYPES MOSERI sp. nov. 

In den Hauptmerkmalen wie S. bangensis sp. nov. Er un- 
terscheidet sich durch die etwas tiefer ausgehohlte Stirn des 
Mannes, das Fehlen des schwachen Stirnhockers beim Weib. 

Flugeldecken tragen ebenfalls auf dem zweiten bis sechsten 
Zwischenraume rippenartige Erhohungen hinter dem quergerun- 
zelten Vorderteil. In der hinteren Halfte tragen aber nur der 
dritte, funfte, und siebente Zwischenraum grosse, weitlaufige 
Hocker, wahrend dieselben bei S. bangensis klein und dicht ge- 
stellt auf alien Zwischenraumen sind. Die beiden grossen Hin- 
terrandhocker haben die gleiche Stellung vor dem dritten und 
sechsten Zwischenraum. Das Weib ist schwacher gehockert als 
der Mann. 

Lange, 3.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Zamboanga, Port 
Banga: Provinz Surigao, Surigao; Sammler Bottcher, in 
Sammlung Eggers: Provinz Lanao, Kolambugan, Sammler 
Banks, in derselben Sammlung und im Bureau of Science, Manila. 



74 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Von einer dieser beiden Arten besitze ich auch Frasstucke 
in der Rinde einer mir unbekannten Holzart, welche ahnlich wie 
die von Strohmeyer abgebildeten des S. philippinensis sind.^ 

SPHAEROTRYPES INSULARIS sp. noT. 

Kleiner und schmaler als S. bottcheri, in Farbe iind Skulptur 
des Halsschildes, auch in den Schuppen der Fliigeldecken sehr 
ahnlich. Die Basis der Fliigeldecken nur fein gekornt, die Zwi- 
schenraume weiterhin nicht gekornt, sondern mehrreihig unre- 
gelmassig punktiert, im hinteren Teil dicht einreihig schwach 
gehockert mit Ausnahme des ersten, zweiten, und vierten. Vor 
dem Ende des siebenten Zwischenraumes ein kraftiger Hocker, 
vor dem dritten und vierten eine starke Querleiste, welche am 
Ende des vierten einen Hocker tragt. Die Zwischenraume tra- 
gen dieselben Schuppen wie S, bottcheri. 

Lange, 3 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Kolambu- 
gan, 1 Weib, Type, in Sammlung Eggers. 

SPHAEROTRYPES PALAWANUS sp. nov. 

In Skulptur, Form, und Farbe nahe verwandt mit S. globulus 
Blandford, pila Blandford, und coimbatorensis Stebbing. Von 
letzterem unterscheidet ihn das seitlich hinter dem Vorderrande 
nicht eingeschniirte Halsschild; dagegen haben beide Arten den 
ersten Punktstreifen neben dem Schildchen parallel zur Naht 
nach vorn durchgefuhrt. Sphaerotrypes pila hat einen flache- 
ren Winkel am hinteren Halsschildrande und die ersten Punkt- 
streifen neben der Naht lauf en vorn in der Mitte des Schildchens 
zusammen ; S. globulus endlich, den Beeson ^ mit coimbatorensis 
vereinigen will, ist von alien drei Arten deutlich unterschieden 
durch ein auffallend langes und schmales Schildchen, hat da- 
gegen gemeinsam mit palawanus die etwas starker ausgepragte 
Punktierung des Halsschildes. 

Schwarz, matt, Zwischenraume auf den runzelig punktierten 
Fliigeldecken mit drei bis funf Reihen braunlicher Schuppen be- 
deckt, ohne vortretende Hocker oder Leisten. 

Lange, 2.4 bis 2.8 MiUimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Palawan, Binaluan. Sammler Bott- 
cher; 2 Typen in Sammlung Linnaniemi, Turku, Finnland, und 
Sammlung Eggers. 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 6 (1911) Tafel 1. 

*Ind. For. (1921) 514. Ich besitze Typen von S. pila und globulus und 
sichere Stiicke von coimbatorensis zum Vergleich. 



33.1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 75 

PHLOEOSINUS IMITANS sp. nov. 

Nahe verwandt mit P. latus mihi von Sumatra, doch grober 
in der Skulptur. Kurz oval, gelbbraun, mattglanzend. 

Kopf sehr fein punktiert, zwischen Augen und Mund mit ein- 
zelnen groberen Punkten durchsetzt, beim Mann leicht einge- 
driickt, kurz behaart. Augen tief geteilt, beide Teile ziemlich 
weit getrennt und nur durch eine schmale Linie am oberen Rand 
verbunden (auch bei P. latus ist diese feine Verbindung beider 
Augenteile vorhanden!) ; Augen grosser und breiter als bei P. 
latus. 

Halsschild breiter als lang, stark gerundet und nach vorn ver- 
schmalert, jedoch nicht eingeschniirt hinter dem Vorderrande; 
dicht und deutlich punktiert, Punkte nicht tief. In der hinte- 
ren Halfte eine schmale, nach vorn verbreiterte und abgeflachte 
Mittellinie (auch bei latus ist diese vorhanden!). 

Fliigeldecken so breit wie das Halsschild und um i langer als 
dieses, breit abgerundet; Vorderrand leicht erhaben und kre- 
nuliert. Punktstreifen vertieft mit grossen, langlichen Punkten, 
Zwischenraume breit, vorne flach mit Querrunzeln und feinen 
Hockerchen, die vom ersten Viertel an kraf tiger werden ; in der 
hinteren Halfte sind die Zwischenraume starker gewolbt, die 
Hocker auf dem ersten und dritten starker; auf dem zweiten 
und vierten erloschen sie auf dem Absturz ganz, auf dem sechs- 
ten fast ganz. Der achte Zwischenraum hat in der Mitte eine 
schwache, kurze Kante, der neunte hinten eine ausgepragte 
Seitenkante. Fliigeldecken tragen feine, kaum sichtbare Grund- 
behaarung und einzelne langere Haare. 

Lange, 3.2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Kolambu- 
gan, Sammler Banks; je 1 Type in Sammlung Bureau of Science, 
Manila, und Sammlung Eggers. 

CRYPHALOMORPHUS BANGENSIS sp. nov. 

Gedrungenere Form als C buruensis mihi. Braun, massig 
glanzend, fein und dicht behaart und beschuppt. 

Kopf fein genetzt, iiber dem Munde sparlich und sehr fein 
gekornt. 

Halsschild kaum langer als breit, von den fast geraden Hin- 
terecken an fast gleichmassig allmahlich abgerundet, vor der 
Mitte kaum merklich verschmalert. Basis leicht gerandet ; Vor- 
derrand in der Mitte etwas vorgezogen und mit vier Hockern 
besetzt. Hockerifleck ist gross und besteht aus ziemlich 
kraftigen Breithockern. Hinter demselben nur wenig einge- 



76 ^^2^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

driickt. Hintere Halfte seitlich und vor dem Hinterrande dicht 
punktiert, in der Mitte leicht und fein gekornt und mit hellen 
Schuppen dicht besetzt. Schildchen gross. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und 1.5 mal so lang wie Halsschild, 
hinten halbkreisformig gerundet. Ueber die ganze Flache 
gleichmassig dicht und ziemlich fein punktiert; Punktreihen 
sind nicht zu unterscheiden. Zwischenraume dicht mit feiner, 
kurzer Grundbehaarung bedeckt und mit einer Mittelreihe 
kurzer, kraftiger Schuppen besetzt. Oben gleichmassig gewolbt, 
ohne Eindruck hinter dem Schildchen oder an der Naht, 

Lange, 1.6 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Zamboanga, Port 
Banga, 29. Dezember, 1924. Sammler Bottcher; Typen in 
Sammlung Eggers. 

CRYPHALOMORPHUS MINOR sp. nov. 

Kleinere, gedrungene Form, braun, fein und dicht behaart, 
massig glanzend. 

Kopf leicht gewolbt, fein und dicht punktiert und fein und 
kurz behaart. 

Halsschild so lang wie breit, von den Hinterecken an leicht 
gerundet verschmalert ; Vorderrand leicht vorgezogen und mit 
einer dichten Reihe ausserst feiner Kornchen besetzt. Vordere 
Halfte sehr fein gehockert; hintere Halfte fein und dicht 
punktiert und gekornt. Hinter dem Hockerfleck seitlich leicht 
eingedriickt. 

Fliigeldecken von gleicher Form und Langenverhaltnis wie bei 
der grosseren Art C. bangensis, ohne Eindruck neben Schildchen 
oder Naht. Punktreihen kaum zwischen den feinen dichten 
Punkten der Zwischenraume zu erkennen. Die kraftig abge- 
rundeten und abgewolbten Fliigeldecken dicht mit feiner kurzer 
Grundbehaarung und Reihen langerer Haare bedeckt. 

Lange, 1.1 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Manila, 8. November, 1914; 
Sammler Bottcher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

CRYPHALUS MINIMUS sp. nov. 

Ein sehr kleiner, cylindrisch, aber gedrungen gebauter, 
glanzender Kafer, pechbraun mit hellen Gliedmassen und 
dunkler Fiihlerkeule. 

Kopf gewolbt, fein punktiert, beim Mann mit feinen, ziemlich 
langen Querkiel oberhalb der Augen. 

Halsschild so lang wie breit, mit abgestumpften Hinterecken, 
fast parallelen Seiten, vor der Mitte breit abgerundet. Dicht 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkafer 77 

hinter dem Vorderrande sechs feine Kornchen. Hockerfleck 
besteht aus verhaltnismassig grossen, ziemlich regelmassig 
gestellten, niedrigen Hockern. Hintere Halfte fein punktiert, 
jederseits mit einer kleinen, glatten Schwiele. Basis fein 
gerandet. 

Fliigeldecken kaum breiter und etwa 1.5 mal so lang wie das 
Halsschild, fast parallelseitig und hinten im Halbkreis gerundet. 
Oberseite ausserst fein, scheinbar unregelmassig dicht punktiert 
und mit feiner, mit Lupe kaum wahrnehmbarer, anliegender 
Grundbeschuppung versehen, in der, wohl auf den Zwischenrau- 
men, in weiten Abstanden einzelne steife Borsten stehen. 

Lange, 0.8 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: LUZON, Provinz Camarines Sur, Mount 
Isarog; Sammler Bbttcher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

STEPHANODERES BAKERI sp. nov. 

Eine der grossten bisher beschriebenen Arten, ausgezeichnet 
durch nur abwechselnd beborstete Zwischenraume der Fliigel- 
decken. Dunkelbraun, matt infolge rauher Skulptur, sparlich 
lang behaart, von lang ovaler, kraftiger Form. 

Kopf gewolbt, dicht punktiert, beim Mann iiber den Augen mit 
einer glanzenden, unten in der Mitte ausgerandeten Querschwiele. 
Augen gross, tief ausgerandet; Fuhlergeissel 4-gliedrig, Keule 
gross mit vier hell und dicht behaarten, doppelt geschwungenen 
Nahten. 

Halsschild wenig breiter als lang, Seiten in der hinteren 
Halfte fast parallel und deutlich gerandet, auch die Basis etwas 
verengt, Mitte des Vorderrandes etwas vorgezogen und mit zwei 
starken, etwas zuriickgebogenen Hockern besetzt, daneben 
jederseits einige kleinere Hocker. Fast die ganze Oberseite mit 
Hockern besetzt, die vorne gross, nach hinten immer schwacher 
und weitlaufiger werden. Die Vorderhuften gross, kugelig, 
abstehend lang beborstet. Schildchen unsichtbar. 

Fliigeldecken ebenso breit und gut um die Halfte langer als 
das Halsschild, mit anfangs parallelen Seiten, bald verschmalert 
und breit abgerundet. Naht im ersten Drittel eingedriickt. 
Punktreihen eigentiimlich flach gerunzelt, die breiten, leicht 
gewolbten Zwischenraume runzelig, abwechselnd (1, 3, 5 usw.) 
mit einer weitlaufigen Reihe langer, dunkler Borsten besetzt. 

Grosse, 2.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Catanduanes, Provinz Albay, Virac; 
Sammler Bottcher; Typen und eine grossere Reihe in Sammlung 
Eggers. Herrn Professor Charles F. Baker gewidmet. 



78 Tke Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

IPS PHILIPPINENSIS sp. nov. 

Dem Ips perexiguus Blandford von den Damma Insein sehr 
ahnlich in Gestalt, Bezahnung und Skulptur, braun mit helleren 
Gliedmassen. 

Kopf glanzend, dicht punktiert, eine sehr fein erhabene 
Langslinie auf der Stirn; Geschlechtskennzeichen an der Stirn 
nicht vorhanden. 

Halsschild um mehr als die Halfte langer als breit, bis uber 
die Mitte heraus parallelseitig, vorne kraftig gerundet, Basis 
fast gerade, Hinterecken nicht abgerundet. In den vorderen 
zwei Funfteln fein gekornt, in den hinteren drei Fiinfteln gleich- 
massig sehr fein gepunktet, ohne die glatte Mittellinie und 
Seitenflecken des /. perexiguus. 

Flugeldecken gleich breit und mehr als die Halfte langer (bei 
perexiguus "rather more than a third longer'') als das Hals- 
schild, parallelseitig; Punkte der Reihen, an der Basis sehr fein, 
werden bis zum Absturz gross und tief. Zwischenraume fein, 
aber deutlich, etwas weitlaufiger punktiert, in der hinteren 
Halfte deutlich behaart. Absturz wie bei perexiguus gebildet, 
bei dem Mann mit zwei kraftigen Zahnen auf dem zweiten und 
vierten Zwischenraum und einen kleinen Randhocker gleich 
unter dem zweiten Zahn. Das Weib tragt die zwei feinen 
Zahnchen am verengten und nicht tief ausgehohlten Absturz wie 
perexiguus, 

Lange, 1.5 bis 1.8 Millimeter. 

In Anzahl in Bottcher's Ausbeute ; Frasstiicke in unbekannter 
Holzart zeigen feine Sterngange mit sehr langen Armen. 

Fundort, Philippinen : Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Momungan ; 
Kolambugan. MiNDORO, Mangarin. Masbate, Aroroy. Siar- 
GAO, Dapa. Basilan. Luzon, Subprovinz Benguet, Baguio ; W. 
Schultze. 

IPS BISPINOSUS sp. nov. 

Am nachsten verwandt mit Ips insularis mihi von den Key 
Insein. Braun, glanzend, walzenformig, deutlich punktiert, 
ziemlich lang behaart. 

Kopf leicht gewolbt, fein und dicht punktiert, lang behaart. 
Augen breit, nierenformig. Nahte der Fiihlerkeule gerade. 

Halsschild um die Halfte langer als breit, mit hinten parallelen 
Seiten; vor der Mitte langsam verschmalert. Vordere Halfte 
gleichmassig fein gehockert, hinten fein und dicht punktiert. 

Flugeldecken ebenso breit und um ^ langer als das Hals- 
schild ; bei beiden Geschlechtern ganz parallelseitig, am Absturz 



33.1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 79 

nicht verengt. Punktreihen mit deutlichen, nach hinten starker 
werdenden Punkten, die erste neben der Naht nicht vertieft. 
Die glatten Zwischenraume tragen nur einzelne feine Punktchen. 
Absturz ziemlich steil, mit ausgepragtem Rand und schwach 
erhabener Naht, ziemlich gross und tief punktiert und lang be- 
haart. Absturz beim Mann leicht ausgehohlt, beim Weib flach. 
Die Zwischenraume enden auf dem Rande in vorspringende 
Hocker, von denen der vierte beim Mann durch einen langen 
kraftigen, mit der Spitze nach innen gebogenen Zahn ersetzt 
wird. Beim Weib sind die Hocker schwacher, der Zahn ist nicht 
vorhanden, jedoch tragt die flache Absturzflache in der Hohe des 
vierten Zwischenraumes in der Mitte zwischen Naht und Rand 
einen deutlichen, kleinen, kegelformigen Hocker. 

Lange, 1.5 bis 1.8 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: MiNDORO, Mangarin; Sammler Bott- 
cher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

IPS TUBERCULATUS sp. nov. 

In der Grosse der Ips toncis-Gruppe nahestehend; er gehort 
aber in die Untergattung Ips s. str. Dunkelbraun, glanzend, 
Fliigeldecken stark skulptiert, schwach behaart. 

Kopf leicht gewolbt, dicht punktiert, beim Mann ein schwaches 
Kornchen iiber dem Munde ; sparlich lang behaart. Fiihlerkeule 
mit einer kreisformig gebogenen Naht. 

Halsschild langer als breit, hinten mit parallelen Seiten, vor 
der Mitte merklich verschmalert und abgerundet. Oben im 
vorderen Drittel schwach gehockert, in dem grosseren hinteren 
Teil deutlich und dicht punktiert. 

Flugeldecken um die Halfte langer als Halsschild, parallelsei- 
tig, hinten kurz gerundet. Punktreihen grob und tief punktiert, 
die erste merklich eingedriickt. Seitliche Zwischenraume tragen 
in der hinteren Halfte vereinzelte feine Punkte, sonst glatt. 
Erster und zweiter Zwischenraum tragen vor dem Absturz eine 
kurze Reihe kraftiger, weitlaufig gestellter Hocker. Absturz 
glanzend, kraftig punktiert, Naht erhaben. Nahtzwischenraum 
ohne Suturalzahnchen. Zweiter Zwischenraum tragt vor dem 
Absturz ein kraftiges, der dritte ein schwacheres Zahnchen, der 
vierte einen dreieckigen starken, hinten senkrecht abfallenden 
Zahn. Unter diesem im oberen Teile des ganzrandigen Seiten- 
und Hinterrandes ein paar kleine Hocker. Einzelne lange Haare. 
Der Absturz des Weibes tragt die gleiche Bezahnung, nur 
schwacher, jedoch ist die grosse Liicke zwischen dem ersten und 
dritten Zahn des Mannes beim Weib weniger auffallend, weil das 



80 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

zweite Zahnchen hier starker ausgebildet ist und die Liicke 
fullt. 

Lange, 3 bis 3.4 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen : Mindoro, Mangarin ; Sammler Bottcher; 
Typen in Samjnlung Eggers. 

IPS BICAUDATUS sp. nov. 

Ein eigenartiger Kafer, in seiner Gattung allein stehend durch 
zwei breite, schneidezahnartige Fortsatze des Hinterrandes der 
Fliigeldecken. Klein, braun, glanzend, ziemlich fein punktiert, 
sparlich lang behaart. 

Kopf stark glanzend, dicht und deutlich punktiert, ohne 
Geschlechtsabzeichen. 

Halsschild um i langer als breit, hinten parallelseitig, vor 
der Mitte wenig verschmalert und breit abgerundet. Basis 
gerade, Hinterecken nicht abgerundet. Vorne sehr schwach 
gebuckelt, mit feinen Hockern regelmassig besetzt, hintere 
Half te fein und dicht punktiert, glanzend ; f eine, schmale, nicht 
erhabene Mittellinie nur angedeutet. 

Fliigeldecken ebenso breit und zwei Drittel so lang als Hals- 
schild, parallelseitig bis zum Absturz, hier wenig verschmalert. 
Reihenpunkte ziemlich fein, nach hinten nicht grober werdend 
und nicht sauber gereiht. Punktreihen sind nicht vertieft. 
Zwischenraumpunkte feiner und sparlich, Nahtzwischenrauni 
vor dem Absturz runzelig, die anderen glatt. Der ziemlich steile, 
bei Mann und Weib gleichmassig ausgehohlte Absturz ist 
deutlich gerandet und tragt auf dem zweiten Zwischenraum 
einen kleinen, auf dem vierten einen sehr kraftigen, dahinter 
einen kleinen Hocker und weiter unten noch zwei gleiche. Dann 
folgt am Hinterrande ein breiter, kraf tiger Fortsatz auf jeder 
Fliigeldecke, zwischen denen ein breiter, rechtwinkeliger 
Zwischenraum neben der Naht entsteht. Beim Weib sind die 
Zahne schwacher, der Fortsatz des Hinterrandes aber gleich 
stark ausgebildet. Absturz glanzend, dicht punktiert, Naht 
nicht erhaben. 

Lange, 1.8 bis 2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Basilan; Sammler Bottcher; eine 
Reihe in Sammlung Eggers. 

THAMNURGIDES CURTUS sp. nov. 

Von ahnlich gedrungener Form wie T. sundaensis mihi und 
ternatensis mihi, aber starker gewolbt; braun, glanzend, lang 
behaart. 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 81 

Kopf leicht gewolbt, fein punktiert; iiber dem Munde flach 
eingedruckt, mit angedeuteter Langslinie. Augen von vome 
zum Teil sichtbar. 

Halsschild leicht gewolbt, wenig langer als breit, nach vorne 
verschmalert ; fein punktiert, mit feinen Kornchen und langen 
Haaren weitlaufig besetzt, seitlich und hinten deutlich gerandet. 

Fliigeldecken etwa 1.5 mal so lang und ebenso breit wie 
Halsschild, parallelseitig, stark gewolbt, hinten breit abgerundet ; 
Punktreihen tragen deutliche, dicht aber nicht ganz regelmassig 
gestellte Punkte, Zwischenraume breit, flach, mit einzeln stehen- 
den feinen Punktkornchen, welche lange, abstehende Haare 
tragen. Absturz flach gedriickt, ohne vertiefte Punktreihen. 
Vorderschienen mit drei kraftigen Aussenzahnen, wahrend die 
Aussenkante von T. suHdaensis deren vier zeigt. 

Lange, 2.1 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Agusan River; Sammler C. 
M. Weber; je 2 Typen im Bureau of Science, Manila, und 
Sammlung Eggers. 

THAMNURGIDES CALAPANUS ap. nor. 

Von der gedrungenen, kraftigen Form des T. sundaensis mihi, 
curtus mihi, und myristicae Roepke. 

Kopf flach gewolbt, fein langs gestrichelt, mit schwachem, 
schmalen Langskiel. 

Halsschild wenig langer als breit, Hinterecken abgestumpft, 
Seiten wenig ausgebaucht, nach vorne etwas verschmalert und 
dann abgerundet. Oben gleichmassig gewolbt und ziemlich dicht 
mit sehr kleinen, flachen, runden Hockerchen bedeckt, zwischen 
denen unregelmassig einzelne etwas starkere Hocker zerstreut 
sind. Zerstreut, ziemlich lang, abstehend behaart. 

Flugeldecken kaum merklich breiter und um die Halfte langer 
als das Halsschild, die Seiten nach hinten fast etwas divergie- 
rend, dann kraftig abgerundet. Oben flach gewolbt, im letzten 
Drittel ziemlich steil abgewolbt, ohne Eindruck. Punktreihen 
tragen ziemlich kraftige, nicht ganz regelmassig gereihte, 
dichtstehende Punkte. Die Reihen sind nicht vertieft. Die 
flachen Zwischenraume sind halb so dicht wie die Punktreihen mit 
etwas schwacheren Punkten besetzt die lange Haare tragen. 
Die Vorderschienen tragen an der Aussenkante drei Zahne. 

Lange, 2.4 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindoro, Calapan; Sammler Bottcher; 
1 Type in Sammlung Eggers. 

226616 6 



82 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

THAMNURGIDES PUNCTATUS sp. nov. 

Von etwas langerer Form als T. sundaensis, aber gedrungener 
als die T. vulgaris-Yerwandten, weil hinten stark gerundet. 
Dunkelbraun, massig glanzend, lang abstehend behaart. 

Kopf gewolbt, langs gestrichelt, mit erhabenem Langskiel. 

Halsschild kaum langer als breit, nach vorn eiformig ver- 
schmalert mit deutlichem Seitenrande und weniger deutlichem 
Hinterrande. Flach gewolbt, mit dichten Hockerchen besetzt, 
dazwischen fein punktiert, lang abstehend behaart. 

Flugeldecken ebenso breit und fast doppelt so lang wie das 
Halsschild, parallelseitig, hinten kurz und breit gerundet; oben 
ziemlich stark gewolbt, hinter der Mitte nach hinten abgewolbt, 
Absturz flach gedriickt. Punktreihen tragen grosse, kraftige, 
nicht aufFallig dicht gestellte Punkte. Dagegen stehen die 
deutlichen, lang behaarten Kornchen auf den Zwischenraumen 
dichter als bei den meisten anderen Arten. 

Lange, 2.2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindoro, Subaan, 30. Januar, 1916, 
Sammler Bottcher; 1 Type in Sammlung Eggers. 

THAMNURGIDES STRIATUS sp. nor. 

Von der langlichen Form des T. vulgaris mihi. Braun, 
glanzend, lang einzeln behaart. 

Kopf flach gewolbt, fein und sparlich punktiert, Augen zum 
Teil von vorne sichtbar. Halsschild langer als breit, flach 
gewolbt, fein und sparlich punktiert, ohne Kornchen, glanzend. 

Flugeldecken etwa 1.5 mal so lang und ebenso breit wie das 
Halsschild, hinten nicht so breit abgerundet wie die meisten 
Arten. Oben flach, gleichmassig nach hinten abgewolbt; in 
deutlichen, etwas vertieften Reihen kraftig und ziemlich dicht 
gestreift punktiert. Zwischenraume flach und glatt, mit feinen 
Kornchen massig dicht besetzt und lang behaart. 

Lange, 1.8 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Laguna, Mount Ma- 
quiling; Sammler Baker; 1 Type in Sammlung Eggers. 

THAMNURGIDES DEPRESSUS sp. noy. 

Von eigenartig hinten verbreiterter Form, mit scharfem 
Hinterrand der Flugeldecken, braun, glanzend, lang behaart. 

Kopf leicht gewolbt, fein punktiert, Augen zum Teil von 
vorne sichtbar. 

Halsschild flach, von der iiblichen, kurz ovalen Form, sparlich 
fein punktiert und lang behaart, ohne deutliche Kornchen oder 
Hocker. 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 83 

Fliigeldecken 2.5 mal so lang wie Halsschild, schon an der 
Basis breiter als dieses, nach hinten langsam verbreitert und 
sehr kurz gerundet mit scharfem Hinterrand, welcher sich 
seitlich nach vorn hochzieht. Oben flach gewolbt, nach hinten 
abgeschragt und vor dem Hinterrande leicht quer eingedriickt. 
Fein und flach in den Reihen punktiert, mit ausserst feiner, 
mikroskopisch kurzer Behaarung. Die Zwischenraume kaum 
sichtbar punktiert mit lang abstehender Behaarung. Aussen- 
kante der Vorderschienen tragt drei dichtstehende kraftige 
Zahne. 

Lange, 1.6 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Laguna, Mount Ma- 
quiling; SammJer Baker; 1 Type in meiner Sammlung. 

POECILIPS OBLONGUS sp. nor. 

Der Gattungstype P. sannio Schaufuss aus Westafrica am 
ahnlichsten, aber langer gebaut; pechschwarz, Fliigeldecken in 
der vorderen Halfte pechbraun, nach hinten allmahlich dunkler 
werdend, mit gelbbraunen Gliedmassen, glanzend ; ziemlich lang 
sparlich behaart. 

Kopf flach gewolbt, dicht punktiert mit leicht erhabener, 
glatter Langsschwiele auf der Stirn; uber dem Munde ein 
Biischel anliegender goldgelber Haare. 

Halsschild flach gewolbt mit nicht scharfer Seitenkante; vor 
den leicht abgerundeten Hinterecken im flachen Bogen nach 
vorn verschmalert und abgerundet; oben in der vorderen 
Halfte mit flachen Hockern besetzt, hinten fein punktiert, 
einzeln lang behaart. 

Flugeldecken doppelt so lang und reichlich so breit wie das 
Halsschild, parallelseitig bis zum letzten Fiinftel, dann abge- 
rundet; deutliche Schulterbeule ; oben flach gewolbt, ziemlich 
steil abf allend ; mit ziemlich grossen runden Punkten in flachen 
Reihen punktiert, Zwischenraume mit feinen Punktkornchen, 
vorn weitlaufig, auf dem Absturz dichter besetzt und auf diesem 
massig lang, hell behaart. 

Lange, 1.8 bis 2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Mount Polls; Sammler Bott- 
Cher; Type in Sammlung Eggers. 

POECILIPS LONGIOR gp. nov. 

Dem P. oblongus sp. nov. ahnlich, aber in der Gestalt schmaler 
und langer, matter im Glanz, pechschwarz, mit gelbbraunen 
Gliedmassen, kiirzer behaart. 



g4 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Kopf dicht punktiert mit schwach erhabener Mittellinie wie 
bei P. oblongus. 

Halsschild gut um die Halfte langer als breit, mit abgerun- 
deten Hinterecken, fast parallelseitig, vor der Mitte verschma- 
lert abgerundet. Nur hinter dem Vorderrand leicht flach 
gehockert, die andern zwei Drittel des Halsschildes fein punk- 
tiert mit unpunktierter Mittellinie. 

Flugeldecken fast doppelt so lang und wenig breiter als das 
Halsschild, parallelseitig bis zum letzten Viertel, dann zur Naht 
hin abgerundet, beim Weib auffallend breiter gerundet. Punk- 
tierung von Reihen und Zwischenraumen wie bei oblongus, 
Behaarung wenig ktirzer. 

Lange, 1.6 bis 1.8 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Mountain, Balbalan; 
Sammler Bottcher; Type in Sammlung Eggers. 

POECILIPS BREVIOR sp. nov. 

Eine breite und flache Form, vorne und hinten mehr 
versehmalert als die anderen Arten; pechbraun mit etwas 
helleren Gliedmassen, glanzend mit hellen, steifen Borstchen. 

Kopf dicht punktiert mit flacher Mittellinie auf der Stirn und 
einigen langen Haaren. 

Halsschild fast so breit wie lang mit gerundeten Hinterecken, 
gleichmassig nach vorn gerundet und versehmalert ; Vorderrand 
kraftig gerundet. Oben ziemlich flach, vorne klein und flach 
gehockert, im letzten Drittel punktiert, mit flacher, angedeuteter, 
glatter Mittellinie. 

Flugeldecken wenig breiter und etwa 1.75 so lang wie das 
Halsschild an der Basis, bis zu zwei Drittel der Lange parallel- 
seitig, fast etwas verbreitert, dann stark versehmalert und 
abgerundet. Oben flach, absturz flach abgewolbt. Punktrei- 
hen mit grossen, runden Punkten und mikroskopisch feinen, 
kurzen Harchen. Zwischenraume breit mit dichter gestellten, 
feinen Punktkornchen und steiferen, massig langen, hellen 
Haaren. 

Lange, 1.7 bis 2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Mountain, Balbalan: 
Sammler Bottcher. 1 Stuck von Sumatra ; Typen in Sammlung 
Eggers. 

POECILIPS MEDIUS sp. nor. 

Kraftiger, cylindrisch gebauter Kafer, pechschwarz mit 
pechbraunen Gliedmassen, glanzend, ziemlich lang behaart. 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 85 

Kopf dicht punktiert mit schmaler, erhabener Linie auf der 
Stirn, tiber dem Munde leicht eingedriickt, lang hell behaart. 

Halsschild wenig langer als breit, starker gewolbt als bei den 
anderen Arten, hinten parallelseitig mit kaum abgestumpften 
Hinterecken, vorne allmahlich verschmalert und kurz gerundet, 
seitlich gekantet. Die ganze Oberflache mit Ausnahme einer 
schmalen Mittellinie mit flachen Hockern bedeckt. 

Flugeldecken fast doppelt so lang als das Halsschild und kaum 
breiter als dieses ; parallelseitig, hinten kurz gerundet, deutliche 
Schulterbeule, oben stark gewolbt und hinten steil abfallend. 
Punktreihen tragen grosse, runde Punkte mit ausserst feinen, 
kurzen Harchen, die Zwischenraume feine Punktkornchen mit 
langen, hellen Haaren. 

Lange, fast 2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen : Luzon, Provinz Camarines Sur, Mount 
Isarog; Sammler Bottcher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

POECILIPS PUNCTATUS ip. nov. 

Von den flinf Philippinen-Arten die am starksten punktierte, 
pechbraun, stark glanzend, mit ziemlich langer, sparlicher 
Behaarung. 

Kopf stark punktiert mit schmaler, etwas erhabener Mittel- 
linie. 

Halsschild um ein Viertel langer als breit, kaum abgestutzte 
Hinterecken, von der Basis an gleichmassig gerundet verschma- 
lert. Vorne flach gehockert, hinten deutlich punktiert, mit 
schmaler, nicht erhohter Mittellinie. 

Flugeldecken kaum breiter als das Halsschild und fast 
doppelt so lang v^ie dieses, parallelseitig, von zwei Drittel der 
Lange an starker verschmalert als die anderen Arten. Punkt- 
reihen mit kraftigen, tiefen, runden Punkten, die erste mit 
besonders grossen Punkten. Zwischenraume daher schmal, 
weitlaufig mit feinen Punkten und ziemlich langen Haaren be- 
setzt. 

Lange, 1.6 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindoro, Subaan; Sammler Bottcher; 
Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

PELICERUS ELONGATUS sp. nov. 

Lang schmal cylindrisch, braun, glanzend. 

Kopf (Mann) eben, matt, fein punktiert, gleichmassig kurz 
behaart; Kopf (Weib) glanzend, leicht gewolbt, fein punktiert, 
unbehaart. 



86 The Philippine Journal of Science i»27 

Halsschild gut um die Halfte langer als breit, parallelseitig, 
im vorderen Viertel verschmalert abgerundet, fein punktiert. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und 1.75 mal so lang wie das Halsschild, 
ganz parallelseitig, schmal. Punktreihen tragen ziemlich feine 
Punkte, Zwischenraume sehr fein punktuliert; erste Punktreihe 
kaum vertieft, auch auf dem Absturze nicht deutlicher. Einige 
sehr feine Hockerchen auf den Zwischenraumen des Absturzes. 
Hinterrand nicht hervortretend. 

Lange, 1.8 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen, Typen: Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, 
Kolambugan, 1 Mann, Sammler Bottcher. Negros, Proving 
Occidental Negros, Fabrica, Sammler Schultze; in Sammlung 
Eggers; 1 Cotype von letzterem Fundort in Sammlung Bureau 
of Science, Manila. 

Ein grosseres Weib von Mindoro, Subaan, in meiner Samm- 
lung, scheint mir auch zu dieser Art zu gehoren. 

PBLICERUS BREVIOR sp. nor. 

Cylindrisch, glanzend, braun. 

Kopf (Mann) eben, ohne Vertiefung, matt, fein punktiert, 
lang behaart; (Weib) leicht gowolbt, glanzend, fein punktiert, 
sparlich kurz behaart. 

Halsschild kaum 1.25 mal so lang als breit, fast von der Basis 
an verschmalert, hinten ziemlich kraftig punktiert, ohne Mit- 
tellinie. 

Fliigeldecken 1.5 mal so lang und ebenso breit wie das 
Halsschild ; parallelseitig, hinten breit abgerundet, Absturz 
ziemlich steil, mit ziemlich deutlichem Hinterrand. Punkt- 
reihen dicht mit massig grossen Punkten besetzt, Zwischen- 
raume ebenfalls sehr dicht und fein punktiert. Erste 
Punktreihe kaum starker hervortretend, nur etwas vertieft 
auf dem Absturze. Hier die Zwischenraume mit feinen 
Hockerchen und einzelnen langeren Haaren weitlaufig besetzt. 

Lange, 1.8 bis 2 Millimeter. 

Typen: Philippinen, Masbate, Aroroy. Luzon, Provinz 
Nueva Vizcaya, Imugan. Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Kolam- 
bugan ; Sammler Bottcher; in Sammlung Eggers. An letzterem 
Fundort sammelte ihn auch Banks. Cotypen in Sammlung 
Bureau of Science, Manila. 



33.1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 87 

PELICERUS PHILIPPINENSIS sp. nov. 

Cylindrisch, glanzend, braun. 

Kopf (Mann) eben mit einer runden, flachen Vertiefung in 
der Mitte, matt, fein punktiert, am Rande lang gelb behaart; 
(Weib) gewolbt, glanzend, starker punktiert, unbehaart. 

Halsschild 1.5 mal so lang wie breit, in der hinteren Halfte 
parallelseitig, vor der Mitte leicht verschmalert und vorne 
breit abgerundet; ziemlich kraftig punktiert, ohne glatte 
Mittellinie. 

Fliigeldecken ebenso breit und etwa 1.5 mal so lang wie 
Halsschild; parallelseitig, hinten ganz kurz und breit abge- 
rundet, Absturz ziemlich steil. Punktreihen tragen grosse, 
ziemlich weitlaufige Punkte, die Punkte der ersten Reihe noch 
grosser, diese Reihe etwas vertieft, besonders am Absturz. 
Zwischenraume tragen sehr feine, weitlaufige Piinktchen, auf 
dem Absturze einige feine Hocker und langere Haare. Hinter- 
rand kaum angedeutet. 

Lange, 1.8 bis 2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Catanduanes, Provinz Albay, Virac, 
14. Marz, 1916 ; Sammler Bottcher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 
Ferner 1 Stuck von Basilan. 

OZOPEMON SIMILIS sp. noT. 

Kurze gedrungene Form aus der Verwandtschaft des O. 
fuscicollis Ilagedorn, braun, massig glanzend, dicht und massig 
lang behaart. 

Kopf leicht gewolbt, fein punktiert, mit fein angedeuteter 
Mittellinie im unteren Telle, einzeln lang behaart. 

Halsschild viel breiter als lang, mit fast rechtwinkeligen 
Hinterecken, im hinteren Drittel parallelseitig, dann leicht 
verschmalert abgerundet; Mitte des Vorderrandes abgestutzt, 
wodurch die Breite des Halsschildes noch mehr hervortritt. 
Leichter Querbuckel hinter der Mitte, vorn fein und dicht 
gehockert, hinten fein und dicht punktiert; einzeln lang be- 
haart, besonders vorn und an den Seiten. 

Fliigeldecken ebenso breit und doppelt so lang wie das 
Halsschild, hinten breit und kurz abgerundet; oben leicht 
gewolbt, Absturz glatt abgewolbt, nur in der Mitte kreisformig 
leicht abgeflacht. Ueber die ganze Flache gleichmassig dicht 
und fein punktiert, ohne dass Zwischenraume und Punktreihen 



88 The Philippine Journal of Science i»27 

zu unterscheiden sind. Zwischenraume massig lang und dicht 
behaart; zweiter und vierter Zwischenraum tragen mehrreihige, 
die andern fast einreihige Haare, die nur wenig uber die Grund- 
behaarung hervorragen. Vorderschienen mit drei schwachen 
Seitenzahnen. 

Lange, 3.5 Millimeter; Breite an Fliigeldeckenbasis, 1.8. 

Fundort, Borneo, Sandakan; Sammler Baker; 3 Typen in 
Sammlung Baker und Eggers. 

NEOXYLOCTONUS PUSILLUS sp. nov. 

Klein, graubraun, mattglanzend, unbehaart. 

Kopf gewolbt, breit, matt, ohne erkennbare Punktierung, 
grau; die schwarzen Augen nicht ganz geteilt, beide Half ten 
durch eine sehr schmale Briicke verbunden. 

Halsschild gross, kugelig, breiter als lang, gleich vor der 
Basis im Halbkreis gerundet. Hinter dem Vorderrand ein 
schmaler Streifen eingedrlickt, sodass das Halsschild etwas 
gewolbt iibersteht. In diesem schmalen Streifen vorne zwei 
kleine Hocker, seitlich in ziemlichen Abstanden von einander 
eine Reihe Punkte. In dem Hockerfleck der vorderen Halfte 
ein flaeher Langseindruck ; hinten dicht runzelig. Schildchen 
auffallig gross. 

Flugeldecken so breit und um die Halfte langer als das 
Halsschild, gleichmassig verschmalert gerundet, im letzten 
Drittel schrag nach der Naht verengt. Punktreihen mit flachen, 
ziemlich weitlaufigen Punkten, die Reihen wenig vertieft. 
Zwischenraume flach mit ausserst feiner Punktulierung. Der 
erste verbindet sich am Ende mit dem neunten, der, vor dem 
Hinterrande etwas scharfer ausgepragt, sich nach der Naht 
hinzieht, dritter und vierter etwas verktirzt, der achte verbindet 
sich mit dem siebenten, sechsten, und zweiten. 

Lange, 1.2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Kolambu- 
gan. MiNDORO, San Teodoro. Sammler Bottcher; Typen in 
Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS BIMACULATUS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Von der kurzen Form des X, solichcs Eichhoff mit 
grossem, kugelformigen Halsschild und kurz abgewolbten Flii- 
geldecken; schwarz, glanzend, mit je einem grossen, gelben 
Fleck auf den Flugeldecken, ganz unbehaart, matt glanzend. 

Kopf dicht runzelig punktiert mit einzelnen Kornchen; iiber 
dem Munde eine Reihe gelber Haare. 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 89 

Halsschild gross, kugelig gewolbt mit scharfer Seitenkante; 
hinten parallelseitig, vorne im Kreisbogen gerundet mit zwei 
vorstehenden, spitzen Hockern in der Mitte des Vorderrandes. 
Im ersten Drittel kraftig gehockert, im zweiten Drittel fein, 
dicht runzelig gehockert, im letzten dicht und kraftig punktiert. 
Vor dem Schildchen eine kurze, dichte, schwarze Haarbiirste. 
Schildchen klein, aber deutlich. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und lang wie Halsschild, von der Basis 
an im Bogen abgerundet, Absturz leicht abgeflacht mit scharf em 
Hinterrand. In der vorderen Halfte ausserst fein in Reihen 
punktiert, aber nicht vertieft, die breiten Zwischenraume tragen 
nur einzelne, ausserst feine Piinktchen. Auf dem Absturze sind 
die ersten Punktreihen leicht vertieft. Die hintere Aussen- 
halfte der Fliigeldecken von der zweiten Punktreihe an nimmt 
ein grosser, fast dreieckiger, gelber Fleck mit abgerundeten 
Ecken ein. 

Lange, 3 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Iligan; 1 
Stuck, in Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS IMPAR sp. nov. 

Mann. — Braun, langlich, massig glanzend, dicht, fein und 
lang abstehend behaart, mit auffallend langem Halsschild. 

Kopf leicht gewolbt, breit, hautartig genetzt, dicht und zwar 
im oberen Telle feiner, im unteren runzelig und grober punk- 
tiert, mit feiner Mittellinie im oberen Telle. 

Halsschild fast um die Halfte langer als an der Basis breit, 
Hinterrand in der Mitte leicht nach vorn ausgebuchtet, Hinter- 
ecken gerundet, Seiten im hinteren Drittel leicht verschmalert, 
dann bis zum vorderen Drittel kraftig erweitert und vorn sehr 
breit abgerundet, so dass der Vorderrand nur ganz leicht gebogen 
ist. Oben in der Quere leicht gewolbt, in der Lange fast eben 
bis weit vor die Mitte, ohne Buckel, dann breit abgewolbt zum 
Vorderrande. Vorne dicht und fein gehockert, hinten dicht 
und fein punktiert, Behaarung in der vorderen Halfte nach 
hinten gekammt. Schildchen sehr klein. 

Flugeldecken so breit wie Halsschildbasis und kaum so lang 
wie Halsschild, parallelseitig mit abgerundeten Schultern, vom 
zweiten Drittel im Bogen abgerundet. Oben in einem flachen 
Bogen, der am Absturz etwas starker wird, abfallend, in der 
ersten Halfte die Naht und Umgebung flach langs eingedruckt. 
Absturz gleichmassig gewolbt, ohne deutlichen Hinterrand. 



90 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

Reihen mit flachen, undeutlichen Punkten leicht eingedriickt, 
Zwischenraume breit, unregelmassig dicht mit feinen Punkt- 
kornchen und lang abstehenden, auf dem Absturz nach vorn 
gekammten Haaren besetzt. Vorderschienen aussen stark ge- 
bogen und mit sechs kraftigen Zahnen besetzt. 

Lange, 4 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Kolambu- 
gan ; Sammler Bottcher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS HYBRIDUS sp. nov. 

Weib, — Wohl dem mir unbekannten X. semirudis nahe- 
stehend; doch unterscheidet ihn sicher die grossere Lange der 
Flugeldecken im Verhaltnis zum Halsschilde. Pechschwarz, 
ziemlich breit und massig gewolbt, massig glanzend, zwei Drittel 
der Flugeldecken matt, fein und sparlich behaart. 

Kopf leicht gewolbt, mattglanzend mit stark glanzendem, 
schwach erhabenen Fleck iiber dem Munde, seitlich fein punk- 
tiert. 

Halsschild breiter als lang, mit fast geraden Hinterecken 
und Seiten, nach vorne kaum verschmalert und dann breit 
abgerundet. Oben massig gewolbt, mit schwachem Buckel in 
der Mitte; im ersten Drittel massig dicht und nicht sehr kraftig 
gehockert, im zweiten fein matt gerunzelt, hinten massig glan- 
zend und, mit guter Lupe kaum sichtbar, fein punktuliert. 

Flugeldecken so breit, und 1.75 mal so lang wie das Hals- 
schild, bis hinter die Mitte leicht verbreitert und hinten sehr 
breit abgerundet mit deutlich ausgepragtem Hinterrande. Ober- 
seite gleich hinter der Basis kurz ansteigend, dann gleichmassig 
flach abgewolbt, im letzten Drittel neben der Naht leicht langs 
eingedriickt. Das vordere Fiinftel und die Seiten bis unter den 
hochgezogenen Hinterand sind mattglanzend. Punkte der Rei- 
hen ziemlich gross, flach und dicht gestellt, flache Zwischen- 
raume glatt, unpunktiert und ohne Hocker. Die iibrige Flache 
ist matt, Punktreihen deutlich sich abhebend, die flachen Zwi- 
schenraume tragen eine Reihe feiner Kornchen, auf den ersten 
drei Zwischenraumen stehen diese Kornchen weitlaufig in Ent- 
fernungen von drei Reihenpunkten, auf den seitlichen enger in 
Entfernung von je zwei Reihenpunkten und tragen feine, lange 
Haare. Vorderschienen gerundet und sageartig dicht gezahnt. 

Lange, 3 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen : Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Momungan. 
MiNDORO, Subaan. Luzon, Mount Banahao ; Sammler Bottcher; 
Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 



35.1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 91 

XYLEBORUS SORDICAUDULUS sp. nov. 

Nahe verwandt mit X. sordicavda Eichhoflf (Motschulsky), 
jedoch wesentlich kleiner, schlanker, starker punktiert, mit 
anders geformtem Halsschild und Fliigeldeckenabsturz. Von 
gestreckter, paralleler Form, dunkelbraun, glanzend. 

Kopf kraftig und dicht punktiert, mit erhohtem, glanzenden 
Kiel iiber dem Munde, daneben flach eingedriickt. 

Halsschild so lang wie breit, Hinterecken gerundet, Seiten 
fast parallel, nach vorne nicht verschmalert, breit abgerundet, 
Mitte des Vorderrandes gerade abgestutzt. Oben mit kraftigem 
Querbuckel, vorne dicht gehockert, hinten glanzend, kraftig und 
dicht punktiert. Schildchen gross, dreieckig, viel langer als 
breit, wie bei X. sordicauda. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und gut doppelt so lang wie Halsschild, 
parallelseitig, hinten breit gerundet mit deutlichem, aber nicht 
iiberstehenden Hinter- und Seitenrand. Vorderes Drittel ge- 
wolbt, aber nicht so stark gebuckelt wie bei X. sordicauda. Bei 
diesem fallt das zweite Drittel nach scharfem Knick ziemlich 
steil ab, bei X. sordicaudtdzts ist der Uebergang ganz allmahlich 
in das flach gewolbte Mittelstiick und nur etwa das letzte Viertel 
ist quer eingedruckt. Erstes Drittel stark glanzend mit kraf- 
tigen Punktreihen und etwas gewolbten, schwacher punktierten 
Zwischenraumen ; der Rest der Fliigeldecken massig glanzend, 
die flachen Zwischenraume sehr dicht runzelig und ziemlich 
stark punktiert, massig glanzend, weil nicht so dicht, wie bei 
X. sordicauda mit feinen, grauen Schuppen besetzt. 

Lange, 2.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Palawan, Binaluan; Sammler BotU 
Cher; Typen in Sammlung Linnaniemi (Turku, Finnland) und 
Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS MARGINATUS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Eine Ersatzform des X. sordicauda (Motschulsky) auf 
den Philippinen, von geringerer Grosse und von der schmaleren 
Form des X. sordicaudulus sp. nov. der auf der Insel Palawan 
(Binaluan) (coll. Linnaniemi, Turku, Finnland) vorkommt. 
Braun, glanzend, letzte zwei Drittel der Flugeldecken dicht grau 
beschuppt. 

Kopf fein und dicht punktiert, ohne deutlichen Kiel und 
seitlichen Eindruck uber dem Munde. 

Halsschild etwas nach vorn verschmalert, Mitte des Vorder- 
randes nicht gerade abgestutzt, sonst wie bei X. sordicaudulus. 
Schildchen viel breiter als lang. 



92 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Fliigeldecken gut dappelt so lang und ebenso breit wie Hals- 
schild, hinten breit gerundet mit scharf ausgezogenem und uber- 
stehendem Hinterrand, der seitlich bis zur Mitte vorgezogen ist 
und hier die Fliigeldecken breiter erscheinen lasst als an der 
Basis. Skulptur etwas f einer, Beschuppung dichter, Punkte der 
Zwischenraume sparlicher und feiner als bei X. sordicaudvlus. 
Nach dem ersten Drittel beginnt der Absturz mit deutlichem 
Bruch, Mittelstiick fast eben, inf olgedessen ist der Eindruck vor 
dem Hinterrande nicht so auffallig wie bei X. sordicavdulus. 

Lange, 2.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindoro, Subaan; Sammler Bottcher; 
1 Type in Sammlung Eggers. Luzon, Subprovinz Benguet, 
Mount Santo Tomas; Sammler Schultze. Cotypen in Samm- 
lung Bureau of Science, Manila, und Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS INDICUS SUBCORIACEUS var. nov. 

Weib. — In der langen, cylindrischen Form mit breitgerunde- 
ten beiden Korperenden dem typischen Exemplar in Eichhoff' s 
Sammlung durchaus gleich, ebenso in alien Einzelheiten ; nur 
zeigt diese Varietat keinen Glanz. Die ganze Oberseite ist fein 
hautartig genetzt und matt. Ein Stiick von den Philippinen, 
Mount Santo Tomas; Sammler Schultze. Cotypen in Samm- 
Sammlung; 3 andere Stiicke von den Philippinen aus der Bott- 
cher'schen Ausbeute zeigen keine Abweichung von der Stamm- 
form. 

XYLEBORUS CUNEOLUS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Gedrungener Kafer mit hinten stark verengten Flii- 
geldecken aus der Verwandtschaft des X. cuneatus Eichhoff; 
dunkelbraun, mattglanzend, schwach skulptiert, ziemlich lang 
grau behaart. 

Kopf nicht zu erkennen, weil bei dem Einzelstiick in das 
Halsschild zuruckgezogen. 

Halsschild so lang wie breit, mit geraden Hinterecken, bis 
vor die Mitte parallelen Seiten, dann im Kreisbogen abgerundet. 
Vorderrand mit fiinf feinen Kornchen; oben eben hinter der 
Mitte quergehockert, nach vorne steil abgewolbt und dicht fein 
gehockert; hinten fein hautartig genetzt und fein punktiert. 
Das ganze Halsschild fein lang behaart, die Haare vor der Basis 
nach vorn gekammt, der Hinterrand mit einer feinen Reihe 
gelber, kurzer Haare. Schildchen ganz kurz, breit. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und mehr als doppelt so lang wie das 
Halsschild; seitlich parallel bis hinter die Mitte, dann gerundet 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 93 

und in gerader Linie nach der Naht zu abgeschragt; an der 
Naht jede Fliigeldeckenspitze fur sich abgerundet. Oben in 
Reihen sehr fein punktiert; Zwischenraume ebenso fein und 
etwas weitlaufiger punktiert; diese Punkte gehen auf dem Ab- 
sturz in ausserst feine Punktkornchen iiber. Vorderrand mit 
aufstehenden, langen, grauen Haaren besetzt, auf den eigent- 
lichen Decken anliegend behaart. 

Lange, 2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Laguna, Mount Ma- 
quiling; Sammler Baker; 1 Stiick in Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS MELAS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Ebenfalls in die X. cuneatus-Sippe gehorig, schwarz 
mit dunkelbraunem Halsschild und helleren Gliedmassen, glan- 
zend, fein behaart. 

Kopf fein punktiert. 

Halsschild langer als breit, parallelseitig mit geraden Hin- 
terecken, vor der Mitte verschmalert abgerundet; oben nicht 
merklich gebuckelt, vorne fein gekomt, hinten fein punktiert, 
mit glanzender Mittellinie. Schildchen normal, abgerundet. 

Flugeldecken so breit und fast doppelt so lang wie das Hals- 
schild, parallelseitig bis hinter die Mitte, dann gerundet ver- 
schmalert in eine Spitze auslaufend. Punkte der Reihen ziem- 
lich gross, die Nahtreihe leicht vertieft. Zwischenraume feiner 
und weitlaufiger punktiert und fein hell behaart. Absturz 
gleichmassig abgewolbt, der Nahtzwischenraum etwas gewolbt 
und mit feinen Punktkornchen besetzt. 

Lange, 2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Mountain, Balbalan: 
Sammler Bottcher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

Von X. cuneolus sp. nov. durch schmalere, langere Gestalt und 
im hinteren Teil der Flugeldecken nicht gerade Seiten sofort zu 
unterscheiden. 

XYLEBORUS MINDANAENSIS sp. nov. 

TFcib.— Lang-cylindrisch, pechbraun, glanzend, dicht gelb- 
braun behaart. Korperform in alien Einzelheiten wie X. fdrs- 
teri Hagedorn. 

Stirn fein punktiert, mit erhabener, kurzer Mittellinie. 
Halsschild gewolbt, langer als breit, mit parallelen Seiten, vorne 
im Kreisbogen gerundet, mit etwa zehn grosseren, stumpfen 
Hockern am Vorderrand; dahinter massig dicht gehockert, in 



94 r'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

der Mitte schwach quer gebuckelt, hinten ausserst fein und dicht 
punktuliert. Schildchen deutlich. 

Fliigeldecken in Reihen flach, aber deutlich erkennbar punk- 
tiert. Die flachen Zwischenraume uber die ganze Flache ausserst 
dicht und fein punktuliert und ebenso dicht behaart, einreihig 
weitlaufig von etwas vor der Mitte bis zum Absturz mit klei- 
nen, runden Kornchen besetzt. 

Die Form ist etwas schlanker als bei forsteri, da bei diesem 
die Fliigeldecken in der Mitte etwas ausgebaucht sind, bei min- 
danaensis aber vollkommen parallelseitig. 

Lange, 4.2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: MINDANAO, Provinz Lanao, Iligan; 
Sammler Baker; 1 Stiick in Sammlung Eggers. 

XTLEBORUS QUADRATICOLLIS Eggers, 

Mann. — Der Mann unterscheidet sich durch etwas hellere, 
pechbraune Farbe und gedrungene Gestalt; stimmt in den son- 
stigen Merkmalen mit dem Weib uberein. Wahrend bei dem 
Weib die Fliigeldecken etwa 1.5 mal so lang sind wie das Hals- 
schild, ist beim Mann das Verhaltnis wie 1.25 : 1. 

Beim Weib sind die Fliigeldecken in der Langsrichtung gleich 
hinter der Basis nur schwach ansteigend, dann eben bis zum 
Absturz. Beim Mann ist gleich hinter der Basis eine starkere 
Wolbung; infolgedessen fallt bereits das zweite Drittel augen- 
fallig ab, wenn man den Kafer in der Seitenansicht hat. 

Die Augen sind etwas schmaler, besonders in der Mitte. 

Lange, 3.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Laguna, Mount Ma- 
quiling; 3 Typen; Sammler Baker und Bottcher; in Sammlung 
Baker und Eggers. 

XTLEBORUS CYLINDRICUS sp. nor. 

Weib, — Zu den kleinsten Formen der artenreichen X. fallax- 
Gruppe gehorig, schwarzbraun, glanzend, langgebaut, vollkom- 
men cylindrisch, Hinterrand an der Naht ganz leicht einge- 
buchtet, sparlich lang behaart. 

Kopf matt, sparlich punktiert. 

Halsschild iiber die Halfte langer als breit, parallelseitig mit 
geraden Hinterecken, weit vor der Mitte etwas verschmalert 
und kurz abgerundet; oben eben ohne deutlichen Hocker, vorn 
fein gehockert, hinten mikroskopisch fein punktiert. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und um mehr als die Halfte langer als 
Halsschild, vollkommen parallelseitig bis an das Ende, hier kurz 
gerundet; der Hinterrand nach der Naht zu kaum merklich 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 95 

elngezogen; fast gerade Punktreihen dicht und kraftig punk- 
tiert, Zwischenraume unpunktiert, glatt. Der Eindruck des 
Absturzes beginnt erst nach dem letzten Drittel, ist ziemlich 
steil und verbreitert sich stark nach unten, stark glanzend mit 
nur einer feinen Punktreihe neben der erhohten Naht. Am 
Beginn des Absturzes ein kleinerer Zahn auf dem zweiten Zwi- 
schenraum, auf dem Rande des vierten ein starkerer spitzer 
Zahn, etwas auf den Absturz eingeriickt. 

Lange, 1.8 bis 2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen : Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Momungan. 
Luzon, Provinz Mountain, Balbalan; Sammler Bottcher; mehr- 
cre Stiicke in Sammlung Eggers. 

XTLEBORUS BALBALANUS sp. nor. 

Weib. — Ebenfalls der X. /aitoa;-Gruppe angehorig und in Form 
und Bezahnung dem X. cinchonae nahe verwandt. 

Punktierung des Halsschildbasalteiles f ein mit schmaler, glat- 
ter Mittellinie. Auch die Flugeldecken zeigen nur feine Punkte 
in den Punktreihen und sehr feine auf den Zwischenraumen. 
Der Absturz und die Bezahnung ist wie bei cinchonae und exesus, 
nur der Ausschnitt an der Naht ist noch etwas flacher als bei 
diesen und an beiden Seiten nicht eckig in einen kleinen Zahn 
vorgezogen, sondern er geht abgerundet in flachem Bogen in 
den Seitenrand iiber. Der Absturz zeigt nur eine Reihe kraf- 
tiger Punkte vom oberen Zahn im Bogen an dem zweiten Zahn 
vorbeifuhrend nach dem Ende des Ausschnittes. Neben der 
Naht keine Punkte, der ganze Absturz stark glanzend. 

Lange, 2.6 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Mountain, Balbalan; 
Sammler Bottcher; 1 Type in Sammlung Eggers, 

XTLEBORUS AMPHICRANOIDES Hasredorn LATECAVATUS var. nov. 

Von dem X. amphicranoides giebt Hagedorn * eine Abbildung, 
Welche einen Einschnitt am Flugeldeckenende von Dreiviertel- 
kreisform zeigt. Dieser Einschnitt ist stark verzeichnet. Die 
Type zeigt einen fast hufeisenformigen Einschnitt mit gerade 
auslaufenden Seiten und einem aufgebogenen kurzen Enddorn. 
Ich besitze mehrere mit der Type ubereinstimmende Stiicke, wie 
diese von Sumatra stammend, ebenso von Mentawei. 

In der Bottcher^schen Ausbeute von den Philippinen finde ich 
drei abweichende Stiicke, bei denen die Enden der Flugeldecken 
langer ausgezogen sind, sodass der zweite Zahn nicht wie bei 

* Ipidae, Wytsmann, Genera insectorum, f asc. Ill, Tafel 7. 



96 The Philippine Journal of Science i»27 

der Type in der Mitte zwischen dem ersten Zahn und dem 
Enddorn steht, sondern von letzterem weiter entfernt ist. Auch 
der Einschnitt ist infolgedessen tiefer und zeigt ausserdem eine 
mehr rechteckige Form, deren innere Ecken allerdings abge- 
stumpft sind. Ausserdem ist die Punktierung der hinteren 
Halsschildhalf te etwas kraf tiger. 

Lange, 5 Millimeter. 

Ich halte die Form nicht fur eine Art, gebe ihr aber einen 
besonderen Namen, da sie mir von drei Fundorten, Mount Ba- 
nahao und Los Baiios (Luzon) und Subaan (Mindoro) vorliegt. 
Die typische Form kenne ich von den Philippinen nicht. 

XTLEBORUS CYLINDROMORPHUS sp. nov. 

Mann und Weib. — Ein kleiner Kafer, der Aehnlichkeit mit 
X. defensus Blandford zeigt, aber einen tiefer ausgehohlten, 
scharf gerandeten Absturz hat ; braun, massig glanzend, einzeln 
lang behaart. 

Weib. — Kopf nicht erkennbar, weil in das Halsschild zuriick- 
gezogen. 

Halsschild flach gewolbt, um drei Viertel langer als breit mit 
parallelen Seiten und ausgepragter Seitenkante, vorne wenig 
verschmalert und abgerundet; oben flach ohne Buckel. Im vor- 
deren Drittel mit flachen, schuppenartigen Runzeln bedeckt, in 
den iibrigen zwei Dritteln fein punktiert, vor dem Schildchen 
eine feine, flach eingedriickte Langslinie, Schildchen deutlich, 
dreieckig. 

Fliigeldecken an der Basis so breit und iiber die Halfte langer 
als Halsschild mit geraden, nach hinten auseinandergehenden 
Seiten, die Flache neben der Naht etwas abgeflacht. Punkt- 
reihen sehr fein punktuliert, die ebenen Zwischenraume tragen 
weitlaufig einige Punktkornchen mit langen Haaren. Absturz 
beginnt nach dem zweiten Drittel, ist tief ausgehohlt, mit leicht 
erhabener Naht, stark glanzend ohne Punktierung. Der Rand 
des Absturzes ist scharf ausgezogen vom ersten Zahn bis zu 
einem flachen Ausschnitt unten an der Naht. Der erste kurze 
Zahn steht auf dem Rande des zweiten Zwischenraumes, von da 
bis zur Naht ist der Absturz einfach abgewolbt, auf dem 
scharfen Seitenrand steht ausser einigen langen Haaren etwas 
iiber der Mitte der zweite, lange, etwas flachgedriickte Zahn. 
Den flachen Ausschnitt am Hinterrand begrenzt ein feiner 
Hocker. 

Mann. — Kleiner, mit kiirzerem, nach vorn verschmalerten 
Halsschild und auch kurzeren Fliigeldecken ; vor und hinter dem 



33.1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 97 

zweiten Zahn tragt der Seitenrand einen deutlichen Hocker und 
am Beginn des Ausschnittes am Hinterrand einen deutlichen 
Zahn. 

Lange: Weib, 2 Millimeter; Mann, 1.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Surigao, Surigao; 
Sammler Bottcher; Mann und Weib in Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS BORNEENSIS sp. nov. 

Gehort in die nachste Verwandtschaft von X. dolosus Bland- 
ford. Dunkelbraun, glanzend, sparlich behaart. 

Kopf mit breiter Stirn, fein punktiert. Augen von vorne 
fast zur Halfte sichtbar. 

Halsschild kaum 1.5 mal so lang wie breit, bis vor die Mitte 
parallelseitig, mit leicht abgestumpften Hinterecken, vorne leicht 
verschmalert und abgerundet. Skulptur wie bei X. dolosus. 

Fliigeldecken 1.5 mal so lang und ebenso breit wie Halsschild, 
parallelseitig mit der gleichen flachen Einbuchtung am Hin- 
terrande wie bei X. dolosus. Auch die Punktierung der Reihen 
ist deutlich, die der Zwischenraume sehr fein. Absturz etwas 
tiefer ausgehohlt als bei dolosits. Bei diesem stehen die beiden 
kraftigen Zahne auf dem zweiten Zwischenraum, bei borneensia 
der untere starkste auf dem dritten Zwischenraum etwa in der 
Mitte der Absturzlange, der zweite Zwischenraum tragt vor dem 
Hinterrande einen scharfen Zahn, der bei dolosits und persimilu 
kaum angedeutet ist. Die seitlichen den Absturz begrenzenden 
Zahne schwach. Punktierung des Absturzes deutlich, nicht 
verworren wie bei den anderen beiden Arten. 

Lange, 2.8 bis 2.9 MilHmeter. 

Fundort, BORNEO, je 1 Type von Sandakan und Sarawak, in 
Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS PERSIMILIS sp. nov. 

Mann und Weib, — Dem Xyleborus dolosus Blandford, von dem 
ich ein Exemplar, durch Sampson mit der Type verglichen, 
besitze, sehr ahnlich, aber langer, schmaler und f einer punktiert. 

Weib. — Zierlich, lang gestreckt, glanzend, dunkelbraun, spar- 
lich behaart. 

Stirn seitlich stark punktiert, in der Mitte ein unpunktierter 
Fleck, einzeln lang behaart. 

Halsschild mindestens 1.5 mal so lang als breit, bis weit vor 
die Mitte parallelseitig, zur Basis nicht verschmalert, Hinter- 
ecken kaum abgestumpft; Vorderrand ohne vorherige Ver- 
schmalerung breit gerundet. Oben flach gewolbt ohne Hocker. 

2256 16 7 



98 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Vorn sehr fein gehockert, hinten feiner punktiert als bei dolosus 
mit schmaler, unpunktierter Mittellinie. 

Fliigeldecken gleichbreit wie Halsschild und fast 1.75 mal so 
lang wie dieses, vollkommen parallelseitig bis an das Ende, 
hier einzeln abgerundet mit gemeinsamer Einbuchtung wie bei 
dolosus. Absturz beginnt erst hinter der Mitte und ist langer 
als bei dolosus, Punktreihen und Zwischenraume gleichmassig 
fein punktiert (bei dolosus Punktreihen starker). Auf dem 
Absturz eine flache Furche neben der Naht, die Punkte sind hier 
undeutlich. Bezahnung wie bei dolosus, jedoch kraf tiger als 
bei meinem Exemplar. Die zweite Zahnchenreihe ist etwas 
ausgebogen und tritt nahe an die kleinen Randhocker des Ab- 
sturzes heran; die erste Zahnchenreihe auf dem zweiten Zwi- 
schenraum. 

Mann. — Kleiner, etwas kiirzer im Verhaltnis zur Breite. 
Augen schmaler; Halsschild ausserst fein punktuliert ohne 
Hocker im Vorderteil. Absturz wie beim Weib bewafFnet. 

Lange: Mann, 1.6 Millimeter; Weib, 2.4 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Surigao, Surigao, 
darunter 1 Mann. Luzon, Provinz Mountain, Balbalan ; Samm- 
ler Bottcher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS LUGUBRIS (Eichhoff i. 1.) sp. nov. 

Weib. — Der Korperform nach dem X. destruens Blandford 
ahnlich, aber wohl nicht naher verwandt, da dieser gerade Aus- 
senkante der Vorderschienen mit wenigen Zahnen besitzt. 

Lang cylindrisch, pechschwarz mit pechbraunem Halsschild- 
vorderrand und Gliedmassen, wenig behaart, von massigem 
Glanze. 

Kopf leicht gewolbt, fein punktiert. 

Halsschild kaum langer als breit, hinten fast parallelseitig, 
mit geraden Hinterecken, nach vorne leicht erweitert und von 
der Mitte an in kraftigem Halbkreis abgerundet. In der Mitte 
leicht quergebuckelt, vorn dicht gehockert, hinten dicht runzelig 
punktiert. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und 1.75 mal so lang wie das Halsschild, 
parallelseitig, nach hinten ganz leicht erweitert und breit ab- 
gerundet; Hinterrand deutlich, aber nicht scharf ausgepragt. 
Punktreihen dicht, aber nicht vertieft, mit deutlichen Punkten 
besetzt, Zwischenraume mit feineren, aber auch sehr deutlichen 
Punkten und ganz feinen Kornchen besetzt, der zweite, vierte, 
und funfte unregelmassig zweireihig, die anderen einreihig. 
Das verschimmelt gewesene Stuck zeigt Spuren von ziemlich 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 99 

langer, heller Behaarung. Absturz an beiden Seiten neben der 
gewolbten, erhohten Naht in der unteren Halfte breit einge- 
drtickt. Vorderschienen aussen gleichmassig gebogen und an 
der ganzen Kante dicht mit Zahnchen besetzt. 

Lange, 3 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen. Type in Sammlung EichhofF. 

XYLEBORUS OBLIQUESECTUS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Gehort in die Verwandtschaft des X. major Sampson 
und irregularis mihi. Dunkelbraun mit cylindrischem Hals- 
schild und nach hinten verbreiterten Flugeldecken mit schragem, 
an der Naht erhabenen Absturz. 

Kopf ist bei dem Einzelstiick nicht zu erkennen, da er unter 
das Halsschild eingezogen ist. 

Halsschild parallelseitig mit geraden Hinterecken und vorne 
halbkreisformig gerundet mit in vier wenig ausgebildete, flache 
Hocker vorgezogener Mitte, so lang wie breit, ohne deutlichen 
Buckel, vorne dicht aber nicht kraftig gehockert, hinten glan- 
zend, dicht punktiert. 

Flugeldecken doppelt so lang und an der Basis ebenso breit 
wie Halsschild, nach hinten stark verbreitert bis zum Absturz; 
von der Mitte des Absturzes sind die Seiten schrag nach der 
Naht zugestutzt und an der Naht abgerundet. Punktreihen und 
Zwischenraume gleich kraftig punktiert, Punkte unregelmassig 
gestellt, sodass Reihen und Zwischenraume nicht zu unter- 
scheiden sind. Bis zum Absturz sind die Flugeldecken unbe- 
haart, glanzend. Absturz beginnt in der Mitte und fallt schrag 
nach der Spitze ab, ist an der Naht leicht dachformig erhoht 
und etwas gewolbt. Absturz in Reihen deutlich punktiert; 
Zwischenraume leicht gerunzelt und einreihig mit deutlichen 
Hockern ziemlich dicht besetzt, welche lange Haare tragen. 
Absturzrand rundum deutlich, aber nicht scharf gekantet. 

Lange, 4.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Kolambu- 
gan ; Type in Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS SUBLONGUS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Mit Xyleborus major Sampson verwandt, aber 
schmaler. Dunkelbraun, glanzend, lang, fast cylindrisch, nach 
hinten leicht erweitert, lang behaart. 

Kopf glanzend, mit glatter Mitte tiber dem Munde, sonst 
kraftig punktiert, lang behaart. 

Halsschild wenig langer als breit, parallelseitig, ohne Buckel, 
vorne halbkreisformig gerundet, ohne Hocker am Vorderrande. 



100 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Vorne dicht, fein gekornt und gehockert, hinten glanzend mit 
feinen Punkten. 

Fliigeldecken an der Basis so breit und im Ganzen mehr als 
doppelt so lang als Halsschild, mit geraden Seiten, nach hinten 
leicht erweitert, erst im letzten Fiinftel nach der Naht zu ab- 
geschragt, an der Naht gerundet. In nicht vertieften Reihen 
massig stark punktiert, die erste Reihe etwas starker als die 
anderen; Zwischenraume kaum feiner, aber etwas weitlaufiger 
punktiert. Absturz hinter der Mitte allmahlig abgewolbt, ohne 
Bruch Oder Kante am oberen Rande. Naht auf dem Absturz 
etwas dachformig erhaben. Die Punktreihen verloschen auf 
dem Absturz allmahlich, die Zwischenraume tragen von der 
Mitte der Fliigeldecken an eine dicht gestellte Reihe kraftiger 
Korner, die sehr lang behaart sind und von denen die Zweite und 
dritte Reihe im leichten Bogen erst auswarts und dann nach der 
Nahtspitze zu gerichtet sind. 

Lange, 3.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Mountain, Balbalan, 1 
Type, in Sammlung Eggers; ein zweites Stuck von Provinz 
Bataan, Limay, auf derselben Insel in Sammlung Linnaniemi, 
Turku, Finnland; beide von Bottcher gesammelt. 

XYLEBORUS PILOSULUS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Rotbraun mit dunkelbraunen Fliigeldecken, cylin- 
drisch, mit ganz gerandetem Absturz, mattglanzend mit feiner 
dichter Behaarung, mit X. ohtusus mihi nahe verwandt, aber 
schlanker. 

Kopf zwischen den Augen glanzend, tief punktiert, iiber den 
Augen matt, hautartig genetzt und sehr fein punktiert. 

Halsschild kaum langer als breit, seitlich parallel, vorne im 
Kreisbogen gerundet, ohne Abzeichen am Vorderrand. Die 
vordere Halfte sehr klein gehockert, hinten ausserst fein punk- 
tiert. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und 1.75 mal so lang als das Halsschild, 
ausserst fein unregelmassig punktiert, ohne dass Punktreihen zu 
erkennen sind. Absturz rundum deuthch, aber nicht scharf- 
kantig gerandet, ziemlich steil abfallend, in der Flache leicht 
gewolbt, die Naht in der unteren Halfte breit aufliegend. Die 
ganze Flache mit feinen Kornchen unregelmassig dicht iiber- 
streut. Auf dem Aussenrande des erhohten Nahtzwischenrau- 
mes stehen eine Anzahl starkere Hocker. 

Lange, 3.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: LuzoN, Provinz Laguna, Mount Ma- 
quiling, 1 Type in Sammlung Eggers; Cotypen aus Baguio von 



33.1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 101 

derselben Insel in Sammlung des Bureau of Science, Manila, und 
Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS SIMILIS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Gehort in die Nahe von X. insulindicus mihi und 
batoensis mihi. Rotbraun, mit dunkleren Fliigeldecken, kahl 
bis auf wenige lange Haare, massig glanzend. 

Kopf runzelig, hautartig genetzt, matt mit kraftigen Punkten 
und einer erhabenen Langslinie uber dem Munde; lang behaart; 
Augen ausgerandet. 

Halsschild kugelig gewolbt, kaum langer als breit, mit geraden 
Hinterecken, leicht ausgebogenen Seiten; vorne halbkreisformig 
gerundet mit kurzer, vorgezogener Schnauze am Vorderrand. 
Hockerfleck besteht aus niedrigen, breiten Hockern, welche, nach 
hinten kleiner werdend, weit iiber die Mitte des Halsschildes 
hinaus gehen. Das letzte Drittel des Halsschildes dicht und tief 
punktiert ; das ganze Halsschild fast matt, Schildchen klein, aber 
deutlich. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und 1.75 mal so lang wie Halsschild, 
mit fast parallelen Seiten. Eben hinter der Mitte beginnt der 
schrag geschnittene Absturz, dessen obere und Seitenrander 
deutlich gebrochen, aber nicht scharfkantig sind, nur der Hin- 
terrand ist scharfer. Scheibe in vertieften Streifen grob punk- 
tiert, die erhohten Zwischenraume nur wenig schwacher punk- 
tiert. Der Nahtzwischenraum, in der ersten Halfte einreihig, 
verbreitert sich direkt vor dem Absturz und ist hier beulig 
aufgetrieben und mehrreihig unregelmassig punktiert, der zweite 
schmal und einreihig, der dritte vorn und am Ende unregel- 
massig doppelt, in der schmalen Mitte einreihig punktiert, die 
nachsten beiden breit und mehrreihig punktiert. Der Absturz 
ist flach, gegen das Ende breit eingedruckt, gleichmassig flach 
und runzelig uber die ganze Flache punktiert. 

Lange, 4.5 bis 5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen und zwar San Teodoro, MiNDORO, Samm- 
ler Bottcher, und Mount Maquiling, Luzon, Sammler Baker, je 
eine Type in Sammlung Eggers und Baker. 

XYLEBORUS EXSCULPTUS ap. nov. 

Weib.— Ein gedrungener, cylindrischer Kafer, zwischen X. 
artestriatus EichhofF und X. amanicics Hagedorn einzureihen. 
Braun, glanzend, ziemlich dicht und lang behaart. 

Kopf breit, flach gewolbt, matt, ausserst fein punktiert, lang 
behaart. 



102 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Halsschild kaum langer als breit, fast parallelseitig, nach vorn 
verbreitert und sehr kurz und breit vorn abgerundet. Stark 
gewolbt, in der Mitte leicht Quergebuckelt, vorne dicht und fein 
gehockert, hinten ausserst fein punktiert. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und 1.75 mal so lang wie Halsschild, 
parallelseitig, hinten kraftig gerundet. Basis lang und dicht 
behaart. Punktreihen deutlich, nicht sehr dicht punktiert, auch 
Zwischenraume wenig schwacher und weitlaufiger punktiert und 
lang behaart. Absturz breit bis zum dritten Zwischenraum 
eingedruckt, auch Naht nicht erhaben. Der stark hervortre- 
tende Rand des Absturzes im Bogen mit sieben oder acht deut- 
lichen, kurzen, dunklen Zahnchen besetzt. Eindruck des Ab- 
sturzes ziemlich dicht punktiert. 

Lange, 2 bis 2.2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Bataan, Limay. Min- 
danao, Provinz Lanao, Kolambugan: Provinz Surigao, Surigao. 
Sammler G. Bottcher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

XYLEBORUS SEXSPINOSUS Motschulsky. 

Mann. — Von ahnlicher Form, wie der von mir beschriebene ^ 
und abgebildete Mann des nahe verwandten X. gracilipes Eich- 
hoff. Pechbraun, glanzend, einzeln lang behaart. 

Kopf ganz unter dem lang vorgezogenen Halsschild verdeckt. 

Halsschild klobig im Verhaltnis zu den kurzen Fliigeldecken, 
doppelt so lang wie diese. Hinterecken abgerundet, Seiten in 
der hinteren Halfte fast parallel, im dritten Viertel leicht ver- 
schmalert bis zu einem vorspringenden, kraftigen Randhocker, 
dann im Bogen von beiden Seiten eingeschnitten und in eine ziem- 
lich breite, vorn abgestutzte Schnauze vorgezogen. Hintere 
Halfte stark gewolbt, schwach gerunzelt und ausserst fein punk- 
tiert; in der Mitte beginnt beim ersten Viertel ein breiter, tief 
nach vorn abfallender Einschnitt, dessen Seitenkanten dick und 
etwas abgerundet sind. Die Seitenflachen dieses Einschnittes 
sind dicht und fein gekornt, und sehr fein und kurz behaart. 
In der Seitenansicht ist der Beginn des Absturzes stark gewolbt, 
aber ohne den Hocker des X. gracilipes; fallt dann ziemlich steil 
ab bis zu dem bereits erwahnten, unter der Mitte vorgezogenen 
kraftigen Hocker, dann folgt die abgeplattete, etwa ein Viertel 
der Lange einnehmende Schnauze. Im Grunde der vertieften 
vorderen Halfte liegt ein ovales deutlich eingedriicktes Feld, 

'^Zool. Med. (1922) 192. 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 103 

schmaler und etwas kleiner als bei gracilipes, stark glanzend und 
fein punktiert. 

Flugeldecken schmaler als Halsschild und hinter der Mitte 
stark verschmalert abgerundet. Oben steil abgewolbt und an 
der Naht breit eingedriickt; auf dem Absturz zeigt der flache 
Eindruck fast eine rhombische Form ohne scharfe Rander. 
Unregelmassig, ziemlich grob punktiert, Absturz ohne Andeu- 
tung von Zahnen. 

Lange, 2.8 Millimeter. 

Fundort der Type, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Camarines 
Sur, Mount Isarog, 1 Mann und mehrere Weiber aus der Aus- 
beute Bottcher's in Sammlung Eggers. Zwei weitere Manner 
sah ich in der Sammlung C. F. C. Beeson, Dehra Dun (N. P., 
India). 

XYLEBORUS ERINACEUS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Eine eigenartige Form, gelbbraun, massig glanzend, 
kurz cylindrisch, mit schragem, matten, dunkelbraunen Absturz 
voU langer Stacheln und Haare. 

Kopf fein genetzt mit feinen Punkten. 

Halsschild wenig langer als breit, in der hinteren Halfte mit 
parallelen Seiten und geraden Hinterecken, vorne verschmalert 
abgerundet. In der Mitte leicht quergebuckelt, vorne fein ge- 
hockert, hinten sehr fein punktiert. 

Flugeldecken so breit und um die Hafte langer als Halsschild, 
nach hinten etwas breiter werdend und kurz abgerundet. Oben 
im Basalteil und an den Seiten glanzend und gleichmassig sehr 
fein und dicht punktuliert, ohne dass Punktreihen zu erkennen 
sind. Absturz beginnt eben vor der Mitte und ist platt abge- 
schragt, ohne scharfen Rand. Neben der Naht ein flacher Ein- 
druck. Die ganze Flache des Absturzes ist matt ohne erkenn- 
bare Punkte oder Reihen und ziemlich unregelmassig mit kur- 
zen und langen Dornen und besonders im unteren Teil mit 
langen Haaren besetzt. An der Naht stehen nur im unteren 
Teil vier verschieden lange Dornen, in einer zweiten unregel- 
massigen Reihe vier, von denen zwei sehr lange, dann folgen in 
der nachsten Reihe noch zwei starke Zahne und am unteren 
Rand drei oder vier ebensolche. Oben und am Seitenrand ste- 
hen eine Anzahl kleinerer Zahne und spitzer Kornchen. Vor- 
derschienen mit f unf starken Zahnen am Aussenrand. 

Lange, 2.2 Millimeter. 



104 The Philippine Journal of Science 1^27 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Kolambu- 
gan; Sammler Bottcher; 1 type in Sammlung Eggers. 

WEBBIA SUBLAEVIS sp. nov. 

Weib. — Hellbraun mit dunkelbraunem Halsschildhockerfleck, 
glanzend, fein behaart, hinten sehr kurz verschmalert. 

Kopf dicht und gross punktiert. 

Halsschild langer als breit, viereckig, mit leicht abgerundeten 
Hinterecken, durch Hocker verstarkte scharfe Vorderecken, 
deutlich ausgepragte Seitenkante. Vorderrand ist gerade ab- 
gestutzt, ein breiter, hellbrauner, kahler Streifen dahinter hebt 
sich vor dem gehockerten, dunklen Teil auffallig ab, Vorderrand 
unbewehrt. Oben dicht vor der Mitte kaum merklich gebuckelt, 
hinten matt und unpunktiert. Schildchen verhaltnismassig 
gross. 

Flugeldecken fast doppelt so lang und ebenso breit wie Hals- 
schild, glanzend, ausserst fein punktiert, Zwischenraume ebenso 
fein und dicht punktiert. Seiten bis hinter die Mitte parallel, 
dann kurz abgerundet verengt und nach der Naht stumpf zuge- 
schragt. Absturz ebenso kurz abgewolbt, hier matt, dicht in 
vertieften Reihen gestreift punktiert, Zwischenraume fein ge- 
kantet und dicht mikroskopisch fein gekornt und fein abstehend 
behaart. Der zweite Zwischenraum lauft in ein feines Zahnchen 
aus. 

Lange, 2.2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Surigao, Surigao; 
Sammler Bottcher; Type in Sammlung Eggers. 

WEBBIA MEDIUS sp. nov. 

Klein, cylindrisch, massig glanzend, auf den Flugeldecken ge- 
streift und einreihig fein behaart, pechbraun mit gelbbraunen 
Gliedmassen. 

Kopf breit gewolbt, ohne Eindruck iiber den Mundteilen, fein 
hautartig genetzt, zerstreut und fein punktiert, mit sehr feiner 
Mittellinie iiber die ganze Stirn. 

Halsschild 1.5 mal so lang wie breit, parallelseitig, vorn im 
letzten Drittel leicht verschmalert und abgerundet. Oben ohne 
deutlichen Buckel ; vordere Half te fein und dicht gehockert, hin- 
tere fast matt, hautartig genetzt, ohne deutliche Punkte. 

Flugeldecken ebenso breit und wenig langer als das Halsschild ; 
parallelseitig bis zum letzten Viertel, dann stark verschmalert 
abgerundet. Oben eben bis zum letzten Viertel, dann steil abge- 
wolbt ohne angedeutete Kante. Das vordere Drittel glanzend, 



33,1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 105 

die andem zwei Drittel matt. Von den Punktreihen beginnt nur 
die erste direkt am Schildchen, die andern erst nach ein Fiinf- 
tel der Fliigeldeckenlange, vertiefen und verbreitern sich bis 
zum Absturz. Zwischenraume im vorderen Teil breit und wie 
der Basalteil punktiert, in den matten, hinteren zwei Dritteln 
schmal und erhaben, dicht und f ein gekornt und mit einer dich- 
ten Reihe heller, kurzer Haare besetzt. 

Lange, 1.5 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: MINDANAO, Provinz Lanao, Kolambu- 
gan. MiNDORO, Subaan. Negros, Provinz Occidental Negros, 
Fabrica. Typen in Sammlung Eggers und Bureau of Science, 
Manila; 1 Stiick in Samtmlung Eggers auch von Sud Sumatra. 

WEBBIA IMITATOR sp. nor. 

Gedrungener als W. medius, mit dichterer und langerer Behaa- 
rung und kleinerem, glanzenden Basalteil der Fliigeldecken. 
Pechbraun, grossenteils matt, mit wenig helleren Gliedmassen. 

Kopf breit, flach gewolbt, matt, fein genetzt und sehr fein 
punktiert mit kleinem, glanzenden Fleckchen im oberen Teil 
der Stirn. 

Halsschild gut ein Drittel langer als breit, parallelseitig bis 
vor die Mitte, dann verschmalert abgerundet, Hinterecken ab- 
gestumpft. Vorderes Drittel fein gehockert, hintere zwei 
Drittel mattglanzend und sehr fein punktuliert. 

Fliigeldecken so breit und um i langer als Halsschild, parallel- 
seitig bis zu drei Viertel der Lange, dann stark verschmalert 
abgerundet. Oben an der Basis, bis zur Schulterbeule ein 
schmales, glanzendes, unregelmassig punktiertes Feld, in dem 
keine Punktreihen erkennbar sind. Der iibrige Teil der Flii- 
geldecken matt, Punktreihen tief und breit gerieft, Zwischen- 
raume daher erhaben und vorn mehrreihig, hinten auf dem 
Absturz einreihig sehr fein granuliert und ebenso vorn unregel- 
massig, hinten einreihig dicht und ziemlich lang behaart. 

Lange, 1.7 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Masbate, Aroroy; Type in Sammlung 
Eggers. 

WEBBIA PLATYPOIDES sp. nov. 

Von der gleichen absonderlichen Form wie W. pabo Sampson. 
Pechbraun, Hinterleib und die vorderen zwei Drittel der Flii- 
geldecken blassgelb, der mit Auswiichsen versehene Absturz 
wieder dunkelbraun, Skulptur sehr fein, Behaarung kaum sicht- 
bar. 



106 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i»27 

Kopf gewolbt, mattglanzend, fein hautartig genetzt, mit 
zerstreuter, feiner Punktierung und einer schmalen Biirste lang- 
erer Haare iiber den Mundteilen. 

Halsschild 1.75 mal so lang als breit, leicht abgerundet; Hin- 
terecken vollkommen parallelseitig bis zum breit abgerundeten, 
in der Mitte abgestutzten Vorderrand. Basis an beiden Seiten 
leicht geschwungen. Oben ganz flach ohne Andeutung eines 
Buckels. Erstes Drittel fein und dicht gekornt, hintere zwei 
Drittel matt, ausserst fein punktuliert. 

Fliigeldecken ebenso breit und bis zur Oberkante des Ab- 
sturzes kaum langer als das Halsschild, vollkommen parallelsei- 
tig. Am Hinterrand jeder Fliigeldecke ein kraf tiger langer Dorn 
durch einen hufeisenformigen Einschnitt an der Naht von dem 
andern getrennt. Die ersten zwei Drittel bis zum Absturz mit 
kaum sichtbar feinen Punktreihen, Punktchen auf den Zwi- 
schenraumen sind selbst mit guter Lupe kaum erkennbar. Ober- 
seite glanzend, unbehaart. Der Absturz scharf und mit feinen, 
dunkelbraunen Zahnchen besetzt, von denen die ersten drei je 
auf dem Ende des entsprechenden Zwischenraumes sitzen, die 
seitlichen stehen viel dichter. Kurz vor dem Uebergang des 
Seitenrandes in den Enddorn ist ersterer etwas ausgebogen. 
Der Absturz ist glanzend mit deutlichen Punktreihen, bei zwei 
Drittel seiner Lange in der Mitte aufgetrieben. Auf dieser 
Erhohung sitzt, nicht wie bei W. pabo in der Mitte zwischen 
Naht und Seitenrand, sondern nahe der Naht, ein merkwiirdiger 
Auswuchs etwa von der Form der Schwanzflosse eines Hai- 
fisches, dessen oberes langeres Ende etwas nach hinten und innen 
gebogen ist; das kiirzere untere steht schrag nach seitwarts. 

Lange, einschliesslich Enddorn, 2.4 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Basilan. Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, 
Kolambugan: Provinz Zamboanga, Port Banga; Sammler Bott- 
cher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 

WEBBIA CONFINIS sp. nov. 

1st mit W. canaliculatus mihi von Neu Guinea fast gleich. 
Korperform erscheint wenig schlanker, weil die Fliigeldecken 
vor dem Absturz nicht so stark gewolbt sind. Hauptunter- 
schied liegt im Basalteil der Fliigeldecken, der bei canaliculatus 
glanzend ist und nicht von den vertieften punktlosen Streifen 
durchsetzt ist. Bei confinis gehen die Streifen durch bis zur 
Basis, allerdings flacher werdend. Die Zwischenraume sind im 
Basalteil breit, flach, und glanzend, besonders die drei ersten. 
Wahrend sich bei jenem das glanzende, unregelmassig punktierte 



33.1 Eggers: Neue Borkenkdfer 107 

Feld an der Seite bis zur Mitte hinauszieht, gehen hier gerade 
die vertieften Streifen durch bis zur Basis und an der Seite ist 
nur noch eine schmale Schulterbeule glanzend. Die erhohten 
Kiele sind bei W. canaliculatus von ihrem Beginn bis zum Anfang 
des Absturzes etwas nach aussen gebogen, bei confinis dagegen 
der Naht parallel. Basalteil des Halsschildes im Mittelfeld viel 
kraftiger punktiert. 

Lange, 1.6 Millimeter. 

Fundort der Einzeltype Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz La- 
nao, Kolambugan; Sammler Bottcher; in meiner Sammlung. 

WEBBIA MUCRONATUS sp. nov. 

Grosser als die andern mir bekannten Arten, kahl, mattglan- 
zend, pechbraun mit hellgelbem Mittelstiick der Flugeldecken, 
Gliedmassen, und Hinterleib ; Absturz rundum mit scharfen Zah- 
nen besetzt. 

Kopf fein genarbt, iiber dem Munde runzelig mit zerstreuten 
Punkten und kurzem, erhabenen LangskieL 

Halsschild um ein Viertel langer als breit mit parallelen Sei- 
ten, geraden Hinterecken, gerade abgestutztem Vorderrand und 
sehr stumpf abgerundeten Vorderecken; das Halsschild sieht 
daher fast rechteckig aus. Vorne steil abfallend und sehr fein 
gehockert, nur hinter dem Vorderrand eine unregelmassige 
Reihe starkerer Hocker ; die andern zwei Drittel des Halsschildes 
hautartig genetzt und ausserst fein und dicht punktuliert. 

Flugeldecken so breit und um die Halfte langer als das Hals- 
schild, ausserst fein ohne Unterschied von Reihen und Zwischen- 
raumen punktuliert. Die pechbraune Farbe der Basis geht 
allmahlich ohne scharfe Grenze ins hellgelbe iiber, wahrend 
oben vor dem scharf abfallenden Absturze wieder scharf die 
pechbraune Farbe beginnt. In diesem braunen Streifen die Rei- 
hen tief eingeschnitten, die Zwischenraume stark gewolbt und 
in einen den Absturz iiberragenden scharfen und langen Zahn 
ausgezogen. Diese achtundzwanzig scharfen Zahne umgeben 
den ganzen Rand und v^erden nach dem Hinterrande hin 
schwacher. Absturz matt, der etwas erhabene Nahtzwischen- 
raum mit einer dicht gedrangten Reihe von Querhockern besetzt, 
drei weitere Reihen sind mit kleineren Hockern weitlaufiger 
besetzt. 

Lange, 3.3 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Mindanao, Provinz Lanao, Kolambu- 
gan; Sammler Bottcher; 1 Type in Sammlung Eggers. 



108 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

WEBBIA DENTATUS sp. nov. 

In Form und Grosse dem W. mucronatvs sp. nov. sehr ahn- 
lich, jedoch ganz braun, Flugeldecken ein wenig kiirzer. 

Der Hauptunterschied liegt in der Form des Absturzes. 
Eben vor demselben sind die Flugeldecken bis zur Mitte des 
Seitenrandes herunter rundherum eingedriickt, rauh und matt, 
die Riefen nicht so tief eingedriickt, die zwanzig Zahne sind 
stumpf und iiberragen den Rand kaum. Ausser der dichtge- 
drangten Hockerreihe auf dem erhabenen Nahtzwischenraum 
nur zwei deutliche Reihen kraftiger Korner auf dem Absturz. 

Lange, 3 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Negros, Cuernos Mountains; Sammler 
Baker; 1 Type in Sammlung Eggers. 

WEBBIA PUSILLUS sp. nov. 

Ein kleiner, cylindrisch gebauter Kafer, dessen Halsschild 
vome nicht breit abgestutzt ist, wie bei den grosser en Arten. 
Mattglanzend, mit mattem Absturz, pechbraun mit heller brau- 
nem Basalteil des Halsschildes, ebensolchen Gliedmassen und 
Hinterleib und braunrotem, schrag geschnittenen Absturz. 

Kopf flach gewolbt, matt, mit sehr feinen Punkten. 

Halsschild J langer als breit, mit abgestutzten Hinterecken, 
bis vor die Mitte parallelen Seiten, im vorderen Drittel ver- 
schmalert abgerundet. Oben eben, ohne Buckel nach vorne abge- 
wolbt, in der vorderen Halfte fein gehockert, hinten 
mattglanzend mit sehr feinen Punktchen. 

Flugeldecken 1.5 mal so lang und ebenso breit wie das Hals- 
schild, vollkommen parallelseitig und cylindrisch bis zum sehr 
breiten, schrag geschnittenen Absturz; bis kurz vor dem Ab- 
sturz massig glanzend mit feinen Punkten, die undeutlich gereiht 
sind. Zwischenraume kaum sichtbar fein und sparlich punk- 
tuliert mit sehr feinen Harchen. Kurz vor dem Absturz, der 
oben ohne scharfe Kante steil abgewolbt ist, sind die Flugel- 
decken matt, dicht und sehr fein regellos punktuliert, und tragen 
eine dichte Reihe sehr feiner Kornchen, die oben auf dem Ab- 
sturz wieder verschwinden ; sie tragen eine Reihe deutlicher 
Harchen, die bis zum Hinterrand durchgehen. Seiten- und 
Hinterrand scharfer ausgepragt und fein und dicht gezahnt. 

Lange, 1.2 Millimeter. 

Fundort, Philippinen: Luzon, Provinz Mountain, Balbalan; 
Sammler Bottcher; Typen in Sammlung Eggers. 



NEW PHILIPPINE MEMBRACID^ (HOMOPTERA) 

By W. D. FUNKHOUSER 
Of the University of Kentucky^ Lexington 

FOUR PLATES 

From a considerable amount of Philippine material studied 
by me during the past three years, most of which was obtained 
through the courtesy of Mr. R. C. McGregor, of the Philippine 
Bureau of Science, the following new species belonging to the 
family Membracidse can be described: 

PYRGONOTA BULBITURRIS sp. nov. Plate 1, fiffa. 1 and 2. 

Distinguished by the large subspherical bulb on the top of the 
pronotal process. Dark brown, punctate, pubescent ; bulb reticu- 
late; posterior process decurved, extending beyond internal an^- 
gles of tegmina ; tegmina brown with a hyaline spot at internal 
angles; legs yellow. 

Head foliaceous, longer than broad, black, finely punctuate, 
sparingly pubescent; base arcuate; eyes small, black; ocelli 
small, pearly, twice as far from each other as from the eyes and 
situated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes ; clypeus 
flattened, longer than broad, continuing inferior margin of 
cheeks. 

Pronotum dark brown, coarsely punctate, finely pubescent; 
pronotal horn broad as seen from the side, flattened laterally, 
sides ridged, bearing at the top a large subspherical bulb, this 
bulb broader and longer than high, reticulate, produced behind 
into four short blunt spines, two close together on either side 
of median line, the other two at caudolateral margins; median 
carina percurrent over bulb; posterior process heavy, decurved, 
sharply singly carinate, tectiform, upper margin very finely 
toothed, apex acute, extending beyond internal angles of tegmina ; 
tegmina long, narrow, pointed, brown, basal half punctate, veins 
indistinct. 

Sides of thorax brown, tomentose; abdomen brown; legs 
yellow. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 7 millimeters ; 
maximum width across bulb between tips of lateral spines, 5.5. 

109 



110 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Type, male. 

Locality, Kavignian, Luzon. 

Described from a single specimen, received from Staudinger 
and A. Bang-Haas, now in my collection. 

PYRGONOTA BINODIS sp. no v. Plate 1, figs. 3 and 4. 

Distinguished by the double node on the top of the long 
slender pronotal process. Large, brown, punctate, not pubes- 
cent; posterior process simple, slender, unicarinate, reaching 
just to internal angles of tegmina ; legs flavous. 

Head f oliaceous, longer than wide, brown, roughly sculptured, 
finely punctate, not pubescent ; base sinuate ; eyes large, brown ; 
ocelli yellow, farther from each other than from the eyes and 
situated slightly above a line drawn through centers of eyes; 
clypeus trilobate, continuing the inferior margins of the cheeks. 

Pronotum uniformly brown, coarsely punctate, not pubescent; 
pronotal process long, slender, sides ridged, rising vertically 
above the head, slightly curved backward, the tip expanded into 
an ovoid swelling, this swelling reticulate, compressed in middle 
to form two nodes, the lower subspherical, the upper bearing on 
each side a sharp tooth; posterior process slender, slightly sin- 
uate, tectiform, unicarinate, tip slightly depressed and just 
reaching the internal angles of tegmina. 

Tegmina long, narrow, pointed, vinaceous, translucent; veins 
indistinct; base opaque and punctate. 

Sides of thorax brown and somewhat tomentose ; undersurf ace 
and abdomen light brown; legs flavous; tibiae flattened and 
pilose. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 8 millimeters ; 
height of pronotal horn from base of head, 12. 

Type, male. 

Localities, type, Mount Banahao, Luzon ; paratype, Isabela, San 
Mariano. 

Described from two specimens, both males. Type received 
from Staudinger and A. Bang-Haas and now in my collection; 
paratype in Philippine Bureau of Science collection. The para- 
type is much darker than the type and the upper node of the 
pronotal process is slightly mutilated. It was collected February 
15, 1926, by Mr. R. C. McGregor. 

PYRGONOTA BREVIFURCA sp. nov. Plate 2, figs. 5 and 6. 

Large, brown, rugose, punctate, pubescent; pronotal horn 
long, uneven, ridged, bearing at the tip two very short prongs ; 
posterior process long, slender, unicarinate, decurved, reaching 



33,1 Funkhouser: Philippine Membraddae HI 

just beyond internal angles of tegmina; tegmina brown, opaque, 
wrinkled, pilose, basal half punctate; undersurface and legs 
brown. 

Head triangular, longer than broad, brown, punctate, pilose, 
roughly sculptured ; base arcuate ; eyes large, brown ; ocelli large, 
vitreous, farther from each other than from the eyes and situa- 
ted slightly above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; clypeus 
longer than wide, trilobed, extending for more than half its 
length below inferior margins of cheeks and continuing the 
approximate outline of these margins. 

Pronotum brown, coarsely punctate, pilose with grayish hairs, 
rough, ridged, reticulate; pronotal process long, crooked, cari- 
nate, reticulate, extending upward and forward, bearing at the 
tip two very short diverging prongs; posterior process long, 
slender, decurved, unicarinate, punctate, pilose, tip darker and 
extending just beyond internal angles of tegmina. 

Tegmina long, narrow, pointed, brown, opaque, wrinkled, 
pilose, basal half punctate, veins heavy and prominent. 

Sides of thorax brown and tomentose; abdomen brown; legs 
lighter brown; tibiae very little flattened. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 9 millimeters; 
height of pronotal process above head, 11. 

Type, female. 

Locality, Baguio, Benguet Suprovince, Luzon (C. F, Baker), 

Described from a single specimen in my collection bearing 
Baker's duplicate No. 7657. 

EMPHUSIS RUGOSUS sp. nov. Plate 2, fisrs. 7 and 8. 

Black, rough, pubescent, pronotal horns short, stout, extend- 
ing outward and curving slightly backward and downward; 
posterior process long, heavy, decurved, reaching almost to tips 
of tegmina; tegmina bronze with hyaline spot at internal angle 
and with basal costal region black and punctate; undersurface 
and legs dark brown. 

Head black, roughly sculptured, feebly punctate, sparingly 
pubescent, subtriangular, about as broad as long; base sinuate; 
eyes large, brown; ocelli small, amber colored, equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes and situated slightly above a line 
drawn through centers of eyes; clypeus longer than broad, tri- 
lobed, tip rounded. 

Pronotum elevated to form a turret about twice as high as 
wide which bears at the top a pair of suprahumeral horns, these 
horns short, heavy, flattened dorsoventrally, extending almost 
directly outward and curving slightly downward and backward ; 



112 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

entire pronotum including the horns black, very roughly sculp- 
tured, coarsely punctate, sparingly pubescent; posterior process 
long, heavy, impinging on tegmina, tectiform, sinuate, base 
ridged at sides, tip sharp, much decurved, extending almost to 
apices of tegmina; median carina percurrent; humeral angles 
prominent ; scutellum tomentose, only slightly exposed ; a narrow 
tomentose line extending from base of suprahumeral horns to 
scutellum, 

Tegmina bronze brown, wrinkled, basal and basal two-thirds 
of costal area black and punctate; hyaline spot at internal angle; 
veins prominent ; five apical and two discoidal cells. 

Sides of thorax, undersurface, and abdomen white tomentose; 
legs brown. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 9 millimeters ; 
width between tips of suprahumeral horns, 5.5. 

Type, female. 

Locality, Sibuyan (Baker). 

Described from one specimen, now in my collection, bearing 
Baker's duplicate No. 19908. 

LKPTOCENTRUS MANILAENSIS sp. nov. Plate 2, fijrs. 9 and 10. 

Black, punctate, pilose ; scutellum and sides of thorax densely 
tomentose; eyes red; tegmina smoky hyaline; suprahumeral 
horns long, sharp, extending almost directly outward and curv- 
ing backward and slightly downward; posterior process nearly 
straight, extending to end of abdomen but not reaching tips of 
tegmina; undersurface and legs black. 

Head black, finely punctate, densely pubescent, wider than 
long, roughly sculptured; base arcuate; eyes large, prominent, 
red ; ocelli small, inconspicuous, yellowish, equidistant from each 
other and from the eyes and situated slightly above a line drawn 
through centers of eyes ; clypeus twice as long as broad, trilobed, 
extending for more than half its length below inferior margins 
of cheeks, tip rounded and pilose. 

Pronotum black, punctate, pilose; metopidium higher than 
broad, convex, nearly straight above the head; humeral angles 
blunt; median carina percurrent; suprahumeral horns long, 
sharp, tricarinate, extending almost directly outward, curving 
backward, tips slightly depressed ; posterior process arising from 
top of posterior surface of pronotum, nearly straight, tricarinate, 
entirely black, sloping downward so that the tip touches tegmina, 
tip extending as far as end of abdomen but not reaching apices 
of tegmina ; scutellum entirely exposed, densely white tomentose, 
longer than wide, tip deeply notched. 



33.1 Funkhouser: Philippine Memhraddx 113 

Tegmina smoky hyaline, wrinkled, veins brown and distinct; 
base narrowly brown, opaque and punctate; small brown cloud 
on exterior tip of tegmen; five apical and two discoidal cells. 

Sides of thorax densely white tomentose ; undersurf ace, abdo- 
men, and legs black; tarsi dark brown. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 8 millimeters ; 
width between tips of suprahumeral horns, 7. 

Type, female. 

Described from two females, both collected at Manila in 
May, 1924, by McGregor. Type in my collection; paratype in 
Philippine Bureau of Science collection. 

This species is apparently close to L. antilope St&l, which I 
am convinced was incorrectly made a synonym of L. reponens 
Walker, by Distant. 

LEPTOCENTRUS ARCUATUS sp. nov. Plate 8, fiffs. 11 and 12. 

Black, punctate, pubescent; suprahumeral horns extending out- 
ward, slightly upward, and curving sharply backward ; posterior 
process arcuate; scutellum and sides of thorax densely white 
tomentose; tegmina smoky hyaline; legs black; tarsi brown. 

Head black, punctate, densely pubescent, twice as broad as 
long; base arcuate, eyes large, brown, prominent; ocelli small, 
brown, inconspicuous, about equidistant from each other and 
from the eyes and situated slightly above a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; clypeus longer than broad, extending for more 
than half its length below inferior margins of cheeks, tip rounded 
and very pilose. 

Pronotum black, punctate, pubescent; metopidium about as 
broad as high; medium carina percurrent; humeral angles blunt; 
suprahumeral horns long, sharp, tricarinate, flattened dorso-ven- 
trally, extending outward, somewhat upward, and curving 
strongly backward; posterior process regularly arcuate, tricar- 
inate, tip very sharp, extending slightly beyond end of abdomen 
but not reaching apices of tegmina; scutellum entirely exposed, 
about as broad as long, densely white tomentose, tip deeply 
notched, 

Tegmina smoky hyaline, wrinkled; veins brown; base brown, 
opaque, and punctate; five apical and two discoidal cells. 

Sides and undersurf ace of thorax densely white tomentose; 
abdomen black; legs black; tarsi brown. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 8 millimeters; 
width between tips of suprahumeral horns, 6. 

225616 8 



114 The Philippine Journal of Science i»27 

Type, female. 

Locality, Puerto Princesa, Palawan. 

Described from two specimens from the same locality, collected 
by McGregor, one taken in August and the other in October, 
1925. Type in my collection; paratype in Philippine Bureau 
of Science collection. 

TRICENTRUS PANAYENSIS sp. nov. Plate 8. figrs. 13 and 14. 

Large, black, punctate, pubescent; suprahumeral horns long, 
slender, extending upward and outward and curving slightly 
backward ; posterior process straight, extending beyond internal 
angles of tegmina ; tegmina bronze with base black and a white 
tomentose spot showing through behind base; undersurface 
black; legs dark ferruginous brown. 

Head subquadrate, wider than long, black, punctate, densely 
pubescent with short silvery hairs; base arcuate; eyes large, 
brown ; ocelli dark brown, about equidistant from each other and 
from the eyes and situated somewhat above a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; clypeus longer than wide, extending for more 
than half its length below inferior margins of cheeks, tips trun- 
cate. 

Pronotum black, coarsely punctate, sparingly pubescent ; meto- 
pidium about as broad as high, nearly straight above the head ; 
median carina percurrent; humeral angles prominent, blunt; 
suprahumeral horns slender, triquetrous, about as long as their 
distance apart at the base, extending outward and upward and 
curving slightly backward; posterior process nearly straight, 
very slightly decurved at tip, sharply keeled, impinging on teg- 
mina, tip sharp and extending well beyond internal angles of 
tegmina. 

Tegmina bronze, translucent, wrinkled; base black, opaque, 
and punctate; a white tomentose spot showing through just 
behind base ; veins brown except over the white area where they 
are transparent; five apical and two discoidal areas. 

Sides of thorax, undersurface, and abdomen black; legs dark 
ferruginous brown; tarsi ferruginous. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 6.7 millimeters ; 
width between tips of suprahumeral horns, 4. 

Type, female. 

Type locality, Culasi, Antique Province, Panay. 

Described from nine females, all from Panay; seven of these 
are labeled Culasi, one Flores, and one Tibiao. All were col- 
lected by McGregor in May and June, 1918. 



33.1 Funkhouser: Philippine Memhracidse 115 

Type and three paratypes in my collection ; all others in collec- 
tion of Philippine Bureau of Science. 

One specimen is labeled as having been taken on AccUypha sti- 
pulacea, and another is labeled *'In forest, 700 m. elevation." 

TRICENTRUS SPININERVIS sp. nov. Plate 3, figrs. 15 and 16. 

Black, punctate, pubescent; suprahumeral horns extending 
outward and upward ; posterior process straight, sharp, reaching 
beyond internal angles of tegmina ; tegmina smoky hyaline with 
apical veins bearing spines ; undersurf ace and legs entirely black. 

Head subquadrate, broader than long, black, punctate, sparsely 
pubescent with long golden hairs; base weakly arcuate; eyes 
large, brown ; ocelli glassy, inconspicuous, about equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes and situated slightly above a line 
drawn through centers of eyes; clypeus longer than broad, ex- 
tending for half its length below inferior margins of cheeks, tip 
truncate and pilose. 

Pronotum black, coarsely punctate, sparingly pubescent ; meto- 
pidium a little broader than high, arising almost straight above 
the head; humeral angles large, prominent, blunt; suprahume- 
ral horns sharp, tricarinate, flattened dorsoventrally, about as 
long as the distance between their bases, extending outward and 
upward and curving backward ; median carina percurrent ; scu- 
tellum strongly exposed; posterior process slender, sharp, tri- 
carinate, nearly straight, extending well beyond internal angles 
of tegmina. 

Tegmina smoky hyaline, wrinkled; base black, coriaceous, 
and punctate; internal apical veins armed with long bristlelike 
hairs ; five apical and two discoidal areas. 

Sides of thorax, undersurface of body, abdomen, and femora 
entirely black; tibiae and tarsi black in one specimen and ferru- 
ginous in another. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 6.6 millimeters ; 
width between tips of suprahumeral horns, 4.6. 

Type, female. 

Described from two females, both collected at Samar by Mc- 
Gregor, one in June and the other in July, 1924. Type in my 
collection ; paratype in collection of Philippine Bureau of Science. 

TRICENTRUS MANILAENSIS sp. nov. Plate 3, figs. 17 and 18. 

Large, brown, punctate, pilose; suprahumerals extending up- 
ward and outward ; posterior process heavy, sharp, extending be- 
yond internal angles of tegmina; tegmina hyaline with base 
brown ; undersurface and abdomen brown ; tarsi flavous. 



llg The Philippine Journal of Science i»27 

Head nearly twice as long as broad, brown, punctate, pubes- 
cent; base sinuate; eyes large, brown; ocelli amber colored, 
about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and sit- 
uated slightly above a line drawn through centers of eyes; 
clypeus twice as long as broad, densely pilose, extending for 
more than half its length below inferior margins of cheeks, tip 
truncate. 

Pronotum brown, finely punctate, densely pubescent; humeral 
angles large, prominent, blunt ; median carina percurrent ; supra- 
humeral horns extending outward and upward and curving 
backward, tricarinate, compressed dorsoventrally, sharp; pos- 
terior process nearly straight, slender, tricarinate, acuminate, 
tip slightly darker and extending well beyond internal angles 
of tegmina but not quite reaching end of abdomen; scutellum 
broadly exposed. 

Tegmina wrinkled, hyaline; base narrowly brown, punctate 
and slightly pubescent; veins prominent, brown; five apical and 
two discoidal cells. 

Sides of thorax, undersurf ace, and abdomen brown and densely 
pubescent; femora brown; tibiae and tarsi flavous. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 7.2 millimeters ; 
width between tips of suprahumeral horns, 5.2. 

Type, female. 

Described from one specimen, collected at Manila by McGregor 
in May, 1924. Type in my collection. 

TRICENTRUS AEQUICORNIS sp. nov. Plate i, fisrs. 19 and 20. 

Long, narrow, brown, punctate, pubescent; suprahumeral 
horns nearly triangular, about as long as the width at base and 
as the distance between their bases; posterior process slender, 
sharp, straight, reaching just beyond internal angles of teg- 
mina; tegmina long, narrow, hyaline, bases brown; sides of 
thorax densely white tomentose, which shows through basal area 
of tegmina ; undersurf ace of thorax, sides, and undersurf ace of 
abdomen brown; legs ferruginous. 

Head longer than wide, very dark brown, finely punctate and 
pubescent; base sinuate, eyes gray-brown; ocelli large, prom- 
inent, pearly, about equidistant from each other and from the 
eyes and situated slightly above a line drawn through centers 
of eyes; clypeus longer than wide, projecting for more than half 
its length below inferior margins of cheeks, tip truncate and 
pilose. 



33,1 Funkhouser: Philippine Membracidss 117 

Pronotum brown, finely punctate, sparingly pubescent; meto- 
pidium broader than high, rising almost straight above 
the head; humeral angles large, blunt; median carina strongly 
percurrent; suprahumeral horns short, heavy, acute, nearly 
triangular, about as long as the width at base and as the distance 
between their bases, extending outward, upward, and curving 
slightly backward, tricarinate, flattened dorsoventrally ; poste- 
rior process narrow, sharp, tip slightly upcurved and reaching 
just beyond internal angles of tegmina. 

Tegmina hyaline, slightly wrinkled; base dark brown, coria- 
ceous and punctate; a prominent white spot showing through 
basal area behind coriaceous portion; veins prominent, brown; 
apical limbus narrow; five apical and two discoidal cells. 

Sides of thorax densely white tomentose; abdomen dark 
brown; femora, tibiae, and tarsi ferruginous. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 7.5 millimeters ; 
width between tips of suprahumeral horns, 4. 

Type, female. 

Described from a single specimen labeled "Baguio, Benguet" 
and bearing Baker's duplicate No. 16520. Type in my collec- 
tion. 

CENTROTOSCELUS BRUNNEUS sp. nov. Plate 4, fig, 21. 

Long, slender, brown, punctate, pubescent; no suprahumerals ; 
hind trochanters armed with teeth; tegmina brown with in- 
ternal apical margin hyaline; undersurface and legs brown. 

Head wider than long, black, densely pubescent with golden 
hairs; base sinuate; eyes large, brown; ocelli small, pearly, ele- 
vated, about equidistant from each other and from the eyes and 
situated on a line drawn through centers of eyes; clypeus con- 
tinuing the inferior margins of the cheeks. 

Pronotum brown, finely punctate, densely pubescent with 
golden hairs; metopidium convex, broader than high, an ir- 
regular smooth black area on each side at base; humeral angles 
large, prominent, obtuse; median carina percurrent; scutellum 
well exposed; posterior process short, heavy, blunt, tectiform, 
depressed at base, tip darker and not reaching internal angles of 
tegmina. 

Tegmina brown, wrinkled, weakly pilose; base brown, opaque, 
and punctate; veins brown, prominent; internal apical margin 
bearing two large hyaline spots separated by a narrow brown 
line; five apical and two discoidal cells. 



118 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Sides of thorax, undersurface, and abdomen very dark brown, 
almost black; legs light brown; hind trochanters bearing teeth. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 5.5 millimeters; 
width between tips of humeral angles, 2.5. 

Type, female. 

Locality, Mount Polls, Ifugao Subprovince, Luzon. 

Described from a single specimen, received from Staudinger 
and A. Bang-Haas and now in my collection. Date and collec- 
tor unknown. 

CRYPTASPIDIA MINUTA sp. nov. Plate 4, fig. 22. 

Very small, black, shining, punctate, not pubescent; eyes 
white; posterior process heavy, tectiform; tegmina black with 
hyaline tips; undersurface and legs black, tarsi flavous; scutel- 
lum entirely hidden. 

Head as broad as long, black, finely punctate, not pubescent; 
base straight; eyes large, white, glassy, translucent, sparkling, 
prominent ; ocelli very small, white, twice as far from each other 
as from the eyes and situated well above a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; clypeus obovate, projecting for more than half 
its length below inferior margins of cheeks, tip rounded. 

Pronotum black, finely punctate, not pubescent; metopidium 
wider than high; humeral angles prominent, blunt; median ca- 
rina percurrent; posterior process short, heavy, tectiform, ar- 
cuate, tip sharp and reaching just to internal angles of tegmina ; 
scutellum entirely covered by pronotum. 

Tegmina black and opaque except the tips which are hyaline ; 
base punctate; veins coarse and heavy, not nodulate or pilose. 

Sides of thorax, undersurface, abdomen, and legs shining 
black; tarsi flavous. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 3.2 milli- 
meters ; width between tips of humeral angles, 1.7. 

Type, female. Male smaller but otherwise similar. 

Locality, Puerto Princesa, Palawan. 

Described from two females and two males, all collected at the 
same locality by McGregor in September and October, 1925. 
Type and one paratype in my collection ; allotype and one para- 
type in PhiUppine Bureau of Science collection. 

SIPYLUS ROTUNDATUS sp. nov. Plate 4, figs. 23 and 24. 

Large, color varying from golden brown to black, usually with 
white tomentose border to pronotum and white tomentose thorax, 
roughly punctate, sparingly pubescent, white tomentose patch 
showing through bases of wings; metopidium swollen and con- 



33. 1 Funkhouser: Philippine Memhracidx 119 

vex; humeral angles produced to form stout auriculate horns 
which extend upward and outward; posterior process reaching 
just beyond internal angles of tegmina; tegmina smoky hyaline; 
legs brown. 

Head nearly twice as broad as long, black, finely punctate, 
weakly pubescent; base nearly straight; eyes large, prominent, 
brown; ocelli large, prominent, brown, about equidistant from 
each other and from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn 
through centers of eyes; clypeus subquadrate, pilose, extending 
for half its length below inferior margins of cheeks. 

Pronotum swollen and globose between humeral horns, punc- 
tate, pubescent; metopidium strongly convex; median carina 
weakly percurrent; lateral margins of pronotum and all of 
scutellum usually but not always strongly white tomentose; 
humeral angles produced to form short, stout, auriculate horns 
which extend upward and outward, these horns blunt and flat- 
tened dorsoventrally ; posterior process strong, tricarinate, 
keeled, blunt, extending just beyond internal angles of tegmina. 

Tegmina smoky hyaline, wrinkled; base black, opaque, and 
punctate; white tomentose patch showing through wings just 
behind base ; internal margin of tips narrowly brown ; five apical 
and three discoidal cells. 

Sides of thorax usually but not always strongly white tomen- 
tose ; abdomen brown ; legs dark brown ; tarsi ferruginous. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 7 millimeters ; 
width between tips of humeral horns, 4.7. 

Type, female. Male smaller and darker but otherwise similar. 

Type locality. Mount Banahao, Luzon. 

Described from thirteen specimens, ten females and three 
males. Twelve are from the Staudinger and A. Bang-Haas col- 
lection and bear the locality labels Mount Banahao, Trinidad, 
Haight's Place, and Imugan, all in Luzon; one was taken by 
McGregor at Sarai, Laguna Province, on March 19, 1917. This 
paratype in the Philippine Bureau of Science collection ; the type, 
allotype, and other paratypes in my collection. 

GARGARA NIGROAPICA sp. nov. Plate 4. fig. 25. 

Near G. varicolor Stal, of which it may be another variety, 
three having been already described. Large, finely punctate, 
sparingly pubescent; posterior process reaching well beyond in- 
ternal angles of tegmina ; females lemon yellow with tip of poste- 
rior process black and with tegmina entirely hyaline ; males black 
with apical third of tegmina clouded with black. 



120 ^'Ae Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Female. — Head lemon yellow, wider than long, finely punctate, 
not pubescent, inferior margin rounded; base sinuate; eyes large, 
red ; ocelli very large, yellow with red border, slightly elevated, 
farther from each other than from the eyes and situated well 
above a line drawn through centers of eyes ; clypeus very small, 
subtriangular, projecting only slightly below inferior margins of 
cheeks, tip rounded and pilose. 

Pronotum pale lemon yellow, finely punctate, very sparingly 
pubescent; metopidium sloping, twice as broad as high; median 
carina obsolete except on posterior process; humeral angles 
rounded, not prominent ; scutellum well exposed ; posterior proc- 
ess strong, heavy, tectiform, tip jet black and extending well 
beyond internal angles of tegmina. 

Tegmina entirely hyaline; veins white and indistinct; five 
apical and two discoidal cells. 

Sides of thorax yellow; undersurface of thorax and all of 
trochanters black; legs and feet yellow; claws black; abdomen 
yellow. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 5 millimeters ; 
width between tips of humeral angles, 2.4. 

Male. — Entirely black ; tegmina with base very narrowly black 
and punctate and with apical third deeply clouded with black. 
Length, 4 millimeters ; width, 2. 

Type, female. 

Described from six females and ten males, all collected at 
Puerto Princesa, Palawan, by McGregor in August, 1925. Type 
and two paratypes in my collection ; all others, including allotype, 
in Philippine Bureau of Science collection. 

GARGARA GRACILA sp. nov. Plate 4, fi^r. 26. 

Very small, slender, punctate, pubescent, dark brown; teg- 
mina vinaceous hyaline with base reddish brown and a narrow 
reddish brown transverse line beyond middle ; undersurface and 
legs dark brown. 

Head convex, broader than long, black, finely punctate, pu- 
bescent with very short golden hairs ; base arcuate ; eyes brown ; 
ocelli white, farther from each other than from the eyes and sit- 
uated about on a line drawn through centers of eyes; clypeus 
subquadrangular, much defiexed, tip acute. 

Pronotum very dark brown, almost black in front, lighter 
brown behind, finely punctate, sparsely pubescent; metopidium 
sloping, twice as broad as high, almost black; median carina 
strongly percurrent; humeral angles prominent, blunt; scutellum 



33,1 Ftmkhoicser : Philippine Membraddae 121 

very little exposed; posterior process sinuate, sharp, extending 
just to internal angles of tegmina. 

Tegmina vinaceous hyaline, iridescent; base reddish brown, 
opaque, and punctate ; a narrow reddish brown fascia across the 
tegmina just below tip of posterior process ; veins very indistinct. 

Sides of thorax, undersurf ace, and abdomen very dark brown, 
almost black ; legs dark brown ; tarsi light brown. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 3 millimeters ; 
width between tips of humeral angles, 1.5. 

Type, female. Male smaller, darker, and with the basal two- 
thirds of the tegmina entirely black and opaque. 

Described from three females and one male, all collected by 
McGregor; the type female taken at Wright, Samar, July 12, 
1924; all others collected at Loquilocon, Samar, May 23, 1924. 

Type and one paratype in my collection; allotype and two 
paratypes in Philippine Bureau of Science collection. 

GARGARA FRAGILA sp. noT. Plate 4, fig. 27. 

Small, greenish gray, punctate, not pubescent; tegmina en- 
tirely hyaline; posterior process slightly sinuate, reaching just 
beyond internal angles of tegmina; undersurf ace tinged with 
brown; legs greenish white. 

Head greenish brown, twice as broad as long, finely punctate, 
not pubescent; base sinuate; eyes large, brown; ocelli white, 
farther from each other than from the eyes and situated well 
above a line through centers of eyes ; clypeus longer than broad, 
extending for half its length below inferior margins of cheeks, 
tip rounded and pilose. 

Pronotum greenish gray, finely punctate, not pubescent; meto- 
pidium sloping, broader than high, slightly darker above eyes; 
median carina obsolete except on posterior process; scutellum 
slightly exposed ; posterior process somewhat sinuate, tectif orm, 
tip depressed and reaching just beyond internal angles of teg- 
mina. 

Tegmina entirely hyaline; veins weak, white, and indistinct. 

Sides of thorax, undersurface, abdomen, and legs greenish 
brown ; pleura and femora slightly tinged with brown. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 4 millimeters ; 
width between tips of humeral angles, 2. 

Type, female. Male similar but somewhat smaller. 

Described from one female and one male, both collected June 
20, 1924, at Loquilocon, Samar, by McGregor. Type in my col- 
lection; allotype in Philippine Bureau of Science collection. 



122 2^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1921 

GARGARA FASCEIFRONTIS sp. nor. Plate 4, fisr. 28. 

Small, slender, yellow-brown with dark brown fascia on 
metopidium, finely punctate, sparsely pubescent; posterior proc- 
ess sinuate, reaching just beyond internal angles of tegmina; 
tegmina hyaline with a broad browm fascia below tips of pos- 
terior process; undersurface dark brown; legs yellow-brown. 

Head twice as broad as long, very dark brown, finely punctate, 
sparingly pubescent; base sinuate; eyes large, yellow-brown; 
ocelli very small, inconspicuous, yellow, farther from each other 
than from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through 
centers of eyes; clypeus longer than wide, projecting for half 
its length below inferior margins of cheeks. 

Pronotum yellow-brown, finely punctate, sparingly pubescent ; 
metopidium broader than high, a broad brown band on each side 
of median line extending backward over the shoulders and a dark 
brown spot over each eye; median carina strongly percurrent; 
scutellum well exposed; posterior process tectiform, slender, 
sinuate, tip slightly depressed and extending just beyond internal 
angles of tegmina. 

Tegmina hyaline, wrinkled; base broadly brown, opaque, and 
punctate ; a broad, brown, transverse fascia below tip of posterior 
process ; five apical and two discoidal cells. 

Sides of thorax, undersurface, and abdomen dark brown ; legs 
yellow-brown. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 3.8 millimeters ; 
width between tips of humeral angles, 1.7. 

Type, female. Male similar but darker. 

Described from three females received from Staudinger and 
A. Bang-Haas and labeled, respectively. Mount Polis, Luzon; 
Mount Banahao, Luzon; and Ripang, northern Luzon, and one 
male labeled Imugan, Luzon. Type and paratypes in my collec- 
tion. 

GARGARA NODINERVIS sp. nov. Plate 4, fisr. 29. 

Small, very finely punctate, pubescent; female yellow, male 
black; veins of tegmina nodulate and pilose; posterior process 
arcuate in male, slightly sinuate in female. 

Male. — Head broader than long, black, densely covered with 
white tomentose pubescence ; base arcuate ; eyes large, prominent, 
white ; ocelli large, prominent, white, conspicuous ; clypeus twice 
as long as wide, projecting for two-thirds its length below in- 
ferior margins of cheeks, very pubescent, tip truncate. 



33. 1 Funkhouser: Philippine Membracidx 123 

Pronotum black, very finely punctate, densely pubescent with 
grayish hairs; metopidium twice as broad as high, sloping, hu- 
meral angles acute; median carina obsolete on metopidium and 
over shoulders but prominent on posterior process; posterior 
process heavy, tectiform, arcuate, tip sharp and extending just 
beyond internal angles of tegmina. 

Tegmina hyahne; base black, opaque, punctate, and pilose; a 
narrow transverse brown fascia below tip of posterior process ; 
veins brown, very pilose and nodulate. 

Sides of thorax, undersurface, and abdomen grayish pubes- 
cent; legs black; tarsi flavous. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 3.2 millimeters ; 
width between tips of humeral angles, 2. 

Female. — Differs from the male in being larger, entirely 
yellow ; posterior process slightly sinuate ; tegmina with the trans- 
verse fascia less prominent and with the bases yellow. Length, 
4 millimeters; width, 2. 

Type, male. 

Described from a male taken at Pasay Beach, Manila, Decem- 
ber 31, 1919, and a female collected at Manila, in April, 1917, 
both received from McGregor. Type in my collection; allotype 
in Philippine Bureau of Science collection. 

GARGARA GRANULATA sp. nov. Plate 4, fig. 30. 

Small, punctate, pubescent; female light brown, male black; 
veins of tegmina strongly granulate ; dorsal line sinuate. 

Female. — Head twice as broad as long, dark brown, finely 
punctate, densely pubescent; base sinuate; eyes large, brown; 
ocelli small, inconspicuous, pearly, farther from each other than 
from the eyes and situated about on a line drawn through centers 
of eyes ; clypeus longer than wide, projecting for more than half 
its length below inferior margins of cheeks. 

Pronotum light brown, finely punctate, densely pubescent; 
metopidium broader than high, a smooth black spot above each 
eye ; median carina obsolete except on posterior process ; humeral 
angles large, blunt ; scutellum largely exposed ; posterior process 
short, sinuate, tectiform, tip sharp and extending just beyond 
internal angles of tegmina. 

Tegmina smoky hyaline, wrinkled; base opaque, brown, and 
punctate; veins decorated with small granules; five apical and 
two discoidal cells. 



124 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

Sides of thorax dark brown ; undersurf ace, abdomen, and legs 
uniformly light brown. 

Length from front of head to tips of tegmina, 4 millimeters ; 
width between tips of humeral angles, 2.2. 

Male. — Differs from the female in having the entire head, 
pronotum, undersurf ace, abdomen, and legs black ; tarsi flavous ; 
eyes white; tegmina hyaline except the base which is black, 
opaque, and punctate. Length, 3.2 millimeters; width, 1.8. 

Type, female. 

Described from one female and one male from Kolambugan, 
Mindanao, and a male from Imugan, Luzon. Specimens received 
from Staudinger and A. Bang-Haas and now in my collection. 
Date and collector unknown. 

GARGARA VARICOLOR St&l. Male. 

Stal described three varieties of this species, all of which have 
been recognized as females. The male has never been described. 

In a fine series containing over one hundred specimens of adults 
and a large number of nymphs of one species sent me by McGre- 
gor I find that all of the females belong to one or another of the 
varieties of varicolor described by Stal. Since the specimens 
were all collected in the same locality on the same date and taken 
on the same host plant, I assume that the males represented in 
the series belong to this species. These are all alike and all very 
near the male of G. nigroapica, as described above, but the teg- 
mina are entirely hyaline and the legs vary from black to almost 
white. In general contour and facies they agree with the 
females but are slightly smaller. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Pyrgonota bulhiturris sp. nov. Lateral view. 

2. Pyrgonota bulbiturris sp. nov. Dorsal view. 

3. Pyrgonota binodis sp. nov. Lateral view. 

4. Pyrgonota binodis sp. nov. Front view. 

Plate 2 

Fig. 5. Pyrgonota brevifurca sp. nov. Lateral view. 

6. Pyrgonota brevifurca sp. nov. Front view of tip of horn. 

7. Envphtisis rugosis sp. nov. Lateral view. 

8. Emphusis rugosis sp. nov. Front view. 

9. Leptocentrus manilaensis sp. nov. Lateral view. 
10. Leptocentrus manilaensis sp. nov. Dorsal view. 

Plate 3 

Fig. 11. Leptocentrus arcuatv^ sp. nov. Lateral view. 

12. Leptocentrus arcuatu^ sp. nov. Dorsal view. 

13. Tricentrus panayensis sp. nov. Lateral view. 

14. Tricentrus panayensis sp. nov. Front view. 

15. Tricentrus spininervis sp. nov. Lateral view. 

16. Tricentrus spininervis sp. nov. Front view. 

17. Tricentrus manilaensis sp. nov. Lateral view. 

18. Tricentrus manilaensis sp. nov. Front view. 

Plate 4 

Fig. 19. Tricentrus aequicomis sp. nov. Lateral view. 

20. Tricentrus aequicomis sp. nov. Front view. 

21. CentrotosceVus brunneus sp. nov. Lateral view. 

22. Cryptaspidia minuta sp. nov. Lateral view. 

23. Sipylus rotundatus sp. nov. Lateral view. 

24. Sipylus rotundatus sp. nov. Dorsal view. 

25. Gargara nigroapica sp. nov. Lateral view. 

26. Gargara gracila sp. nov. Lateral view. 

27. Gargara fragila sp. nov. Lateral view. 

28. Gargara fasceifrontis sp. nov. Lateral view. 

29. Gargara nodinervis sp. nov. Lateral view. 

30. Gargara granulata sp. nov. Lateral view. 

125 



Funkhouser: Philippine Membracid.k.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 1. 




PLATE 1. 



Funkhouser: Philippine Membracid*:.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 1. 




PLATE 2. 



Funkhouser: Philippine Membr\gid>?:.] 



I Philip. Journ. Sci., 33. No. 




PLATE 3. 



Funkhouser: Philippine Membraciua;.] 



[Philip, Journ. Sci., 33, No. 1. 




PLATE 4. 



The Philippine 
Journal of Science 

Vol. 33 JUNE, 1927 No. 2 

THE PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF NEPENTHES 

By J. M. Macfarlane 
Of Philadelphia^ Pennsylvania 

In recent years it has been shown that the family Nepen- 
thacese has a considerable development in the Philippine Islands. 
The most-primitive species of the group seems to be Nepenthes 
pervillei of the Seychelle Islands but, from a geographic stand- 
point, Borneo is now the richest area, as it contains twenty-five 
of the seventy known species. Nepenthes alata and N, ven- 
tricosa were the two species first described from the Philippines 
by Blanco in 1837. Since that time the number has been in- 
creased to ten or possibly eleven, of which two species, N. mer- 
rilliana and N. truncata, rank among the most striking of the 
genus Nepenthes, which alone constitutes the family Nepen- 
thacese. 

It is highly probable that, when the more-isolated parts of the 
Archipelago are thoroughly explored, several additional species 
may be secured. Meanwhile it seems desirable to present a 
synoptic review of the known species; the following is based 
on my monograph of the genus : ' 

Genus NEPENTHES Linnaeus 

Subshrubby or shrubby plants, of erect, climbing, branching 
habit, rarely becoming partially or wholly epiphytic. Stem 0.5 
to 2 m, or sometimes 8 to 10 m high, by 10 to 25 mm thick, 
cylindric to trigonous, glabrous to hirsute. Leaves closely to 
distantly disposed along the stem, each usually divided into 

^Engler's Pflanzenreich 36 (1908) 1-92, figs. 1-19. 

227284 127 



128 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

petiole, basal lamina, excurrent midrib or tendril, distal lamina 
developed as flaps or ridges in front of inflated pitchered mid- 
rib, pitchers with, rarely without, doubly inflexed corrugated 
rim, and surmounted by fused laminar lobes in the form of a 
lid that springs from near a small slender spur that is the organic 
leaf apex. **Alluring" honey glands often abundant over the 
above parts, except the inner lid surface and edge of the cor- 
rugated rim, where ^'attractive" honey glands are numerous; 
pitcher interior wholly glandular, shining and forming "deten- 
tive'' and digestive surface, or upper third to half glaucous, 
smooth, nonglandular, and "conducting'' for insect prey. 

Inflorescence 10 to 130 cm long, rarely a raceme of cymes, 
usually a simple raceme. Axis, pedicels, and exterior of sepals 
often villous to hirsute. Pedicels rarely many, usually two- to 
one-flowered. Flowers dioecious, tetramerous, rarely trimerous, 
small. Sepals 4, rarely 3, lanceolate to subcircular, densely 
glandular within, green or greenish yellow to purple. Stamens 
24 to 4, commonly 12 to 8, fused into a monadelphous tube. 
Pistil 4-, rarely 3-carpellate, and as many-celled. Ovules many, 
minute, elongate; style short or absent; stigma 4-lobed, lobes 
often grooved. Fruit a brown, lanceolate to oval capsule, de- 
hiscing loculicidally. Seeds 5 to 35 mm, numerous, light, testa 
greatly elongate at both ends, embryo minute in axis of albumen. 

Distribution. — Madagascar and Seychelle Islands to India, 
southern China, Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, and north- 
eastern Australia. 

Key to the Philippine species of Nepenthes. 

a*. Lid of pitcher without internal keel or processes. 

h^. Leaves sessile, longitudinal veins of lamina 2 to 4 pairs. 
c\ Nerves of laminse 2 to 3 pairs, pedicels 1-flowered.. N. blancoi Blume. 
c\ Nerves of laminse 4 pairs, pedicels 2- to 3-flowered 

N. philippinensis Macfarlane. 
6'. Leaves petiolate. longitudinal veins of lamina 2 to 4 pairs. Nerves 
of laminae 3 pairs, pedicels 2- to l-flowered... N. copelandii Merrill. 
6*. Leaves sessile, longitudinal veins 5 to 6 pairs, 
c^. Pitchers large oval, with oblique orifice. 

N. merrilliana Macfarlane. 
c*. Pitchers ventricose below, constricted in middle and with trans- 
verse orifice N. ventricosa Blanco. 

c^. Pitchers ventricose below, constricted in middle and with oblique 

orifice N. burkei Masters. 

c*. Pitchers obconic, orifice with elongated neck. 

N. deaniana Macfarlane. 

6*. Leaves petiolate, longitudinal veins 7 to 10 pairs. Leaf margin cil- 

iate, pitchers cylindric N. phyllamphora Willdenow. 



33,2 Macfarlane: Philippine Nepenthes 129 

a*. Lid of pitcher with internal keel or processes. 

6\ Leaves lanceolate, with 3 to 4 pairs of veins N. alata Blanco. 

6^. Leaves truncate, with 5 to 6 pairs of veins.. N. truncata Macfarlane. 

NEPENTHES BLANCOI Blume. 

Nepenthes blancoi Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2 (1852) 10; Macfar- 
lane in Pflanzenreich 36 (1908) 40. 

Plant short, erect or low climbing. Stem 3 to 6 dm, trigonous, 
puberulous to glabrous. Leaves 15 to 25 X 1.5 to 2.5 cm sub- 
petiolate, one-half to one-third amplexicaul, linear-lanceolate, 
longitudinal veins 2 to 3 pairs united by irregular transverse or 
oblique veins, tendril slender, gradually thickened into recurved 
base of pitcher; pitchers 10 to 18 cm long, monomorphic to 
subdimorphic, reddish green, lower ventricose below, cylindric 
above, with continuous ciliate anterior wings, upper almost cy- 
lindric with shallow ciliate wings prolonged into ridges above, 
mouth oblique, peristome cylindric, uniform, narrow, serrulate 
along inner margin, lid ovate-cordate, submembranous, red spot- 
ted without, and with many small marginal, also few large me- 
dian glands, pitcher within glaucous purple and conducting over 
upper half, glandular with many immersed discrete glands over 
lower. Inflorescence 40 to 60 cm long of which peduncle 30 to 
40 cm. Sepals 4, tomentose without, glandular over upper half 
within; staminal column hairy, anthers biseriate with 12 below, 
4 above; ovary shortly stalked pubescent; capsule 15 to 17 cm, 
puberulous. 

This species has a rather uncertain history. In 1837 Blanco 
described and named N. alata and N. ventricosa. He then re- 
ferred vaguely to two other forms, one from Agoo,^ Pangasinan 
Province, Luzon, and another from Cebu Island, but he named 
neither. In 1852 Blume described as ^'species non satis cognitae" 
both N. alata and N, ventricosa, but further he briefly described, 
as N. blancoi, sl form with narrower leaves than in either of the 
above, with elongate narrow pitchers bialate in front, and with 
a simple raceme. To this he gave the same native names as 
did Blanco for his Cebu specimen, sulud sulud, sogon sogon; 
but there is no evidence that Blume had a definite plant before 
him. Hooker, therefore, rejected N. blancoi as "non satis notae.*' 
In the "Novissima Appendix'' to the third edition of Blanco's 
Flora de Filipinas (1880) 173 N. blancoi is not mentioned. 

Relying on the three characters given by Blume, I have de- 
scribed fully a form that was gathered by Merrill on Culion 

'The Agoo plant, mentioned by Blanco, is undoubtedly a form of Ne- 
penthes alata Blanco. — E. D. Merrill. 



130 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Island in 1902, and which has since been gathered by R. C. Mc- 
Gregor on Marilison Island, Antique Province, Panay, in 1918. 
The very narrov^ leaves, narrov^est of all the Philippine species, 
the elongate narrow pitchers, and the simple raceme are leading 
characters; but there is as yet no exact evidence that the form 
occurs in Cebu Island, though such would be in eastward line 
with its occurrence in Culion and Marilison Island. 

Therefore, I would accept, as a typical specimen, Merrill 516 
from Culion, as that which agrees with Blume's description of 
N. blancoi, and Bur. Sci. 328 IS McGregor, Marilison Island. 
This species grows on open grassy slopes at low altitudes, fre- 
quently occurring at or near sea level. 

NEPENTHES PHILIPPINENSIS Macfarlane. 

Nepenthes philippinensis Macfarlane in Pflanzenreich 36 (1908) 43. 
Nepenthes brachycarpa Meirrill in Philip. Journ. Sci. 10 (1915) Bot. 
306. 

Plant short climbing. Stem 6 to 10 m, cylindric, glabrous, 
lower internodes short, upper 1.5 to 2 cm. Leaves 15 to 25X2.5 
to 5 cm, sessile, leathery, lanceolate one-half to two-thirds am- 
plexicaul, gradually attenuate into the tendril, glabrous, longitud- 
inal veins 4 pairs united by obliquely ascending transverse veins ; 
tendril 15 to 20 cm long, thickened toward pitcher base ; pitcher 8 
to 12 X 2 to 3.5 cm, subdimorphic, lower ventricose tubular, 
upper almost tubular, reddish green below to red above, when 
young ferruginous pubescent, at length subglabrous, mouth 
obliquely ovate, slightly elevated behind, peristome cylindric, 
finely striate and on the inner margin finely toothed, lid 2 to 
2.5 cm, ovate-cordate, greenish red to red within with few large 
median perithecioid glands and many small marginal ones, pitch- 
er within in the upper half glaucous purple and detentive, below 
shining and with small deeply sunk discrete glands. Staminate 
inflorescence 45 to 55 cm long, of which the peduncle is 20 to 
25 cm, when young ferruginous-pubescent, at length glabrous 
below; raceme narrow, elongate, densely flowered, pedicels 8 to 
10 mm long, 2- to 3-flowered below, pedicels and outer sepaline 
surface f erruginous-tomentose ; sepals 4 in 2 unequal pairs, outer 
oval, inner elliptic, both yellow and covered within by abundant 
small nectar glands. Staminal column below and the inner 
sepaline base hairy, anthers 8, uniseriate. Pistillate inflores- 
cence 30 to 50 cm long of which the peduncle is 20 to 35 cm, 
pedicels uniflorous, the lowest 2 or 3 flowers bracteolate, outer 
sepaline surface and ovary densely ferruginous-puberulous, 



33,2 Macfarlane: Philippine Nepenthes 131 

ovary ovate, 4-sulcate, stigma 4-lobed. Capsule 1 cm long, shin- 
ing, light brown ; seeds 3 to 4 mm long, shortly caudate. 

This species is known as yet only by the following specimens. 
One is a staminate shoot with mature leaves collected on Mount 
Victoria in Palawan Island, March 24, 1906, Foxworthy 721, at 
an elevation of 350 m. Another is a two-year-old plant, with 
crowded leaves and fairly mature pitchers, that was collected 
by Curran on Mount Pulgar, Palawan, at 1,300 m. No. 3896. 
Pistillate and fruiting specimens are represented by No, 9588 
and No. 9615 collected by Merrill, on ''dry steep rocky slopes of 
forest ridges'' at 250 to 400 m elevation, at Silanga in Palawan, 
May, 1913, and described by him as N. brachycarpa. 

NEPENTHES COPELANDII Merrill. 

Nepenthes copelandii Merrill ex Macfarlane in Pflanzenreich 36 
(1908) 60. 

Stem 1 m high, cylindric, glabrous or sparsely puberulous. 
Leaves 10 to 15 X 2 to 3.5 cm, shortly petiolate, one-third to 
one-half amplexicaul, winged, lamina elliptic, glabrous or slight- 
ly pubescent at the base, longitudinal veins 3; pitchers 10 to 
15 X 3 to 3.5 cm, lower cornucopioid, upper cylindric, tomen- 
tose without beneath the peristome, green or purple flushed 
or spotted, wings reduced to 2 strong anterior nerves, peri- 
stome cylindric, narrow in front, somewhat widened behind and 
convergent below the insertion of the lid, mouth oblique, slight- 
ly elongated into a neck behind, lid 3 to 4 cm long, cordate- 
orbicular, purple spotted within, with a thickened median ridge 
and many circular glands. Pitcher within to one-third its 
depth glaucous purple, below shining and with many discrete 
oval glands. Inflorescence 20 to 35 cm long, the peduncular part 
thrice as long as raceme, pubescent, at length glabrous, pedicels 
mostly biflorous. Sepals 4, without and along the inner margin 
densely tomentose, within densely glandular. Staminate column 
equal to sepals, pubescent below, glabrous above, anthers 8 to 
10, uniseriate. Ovary ovate, brown, pubescent. Capsule 15 to 
20 mm long, brown, seeds 8 to 10 mm long, delicate, yellow. 

Mindanao, Davao district. Mount Apo, DeVore and Hoover 
29 Jf, May, 1903, Copeland 1088, April, 1904, Elmer 11523; 
Mount Matutum, Copeland, April, 1917. Camiguin de Misamis, 
Bur. Sci. 1U96, 1^650 Ramos, March, 1912. 

This species, so far as known, is confined to Mindanao and 
the neighboring island Camiguin, and is reported to grow among 
shrubs at an elevation of 2,500 to 3,000 m on Mount Apo. It 
occurs at lower altitudes on Camiguin Island. 



132 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

NEPENTHES MERRILLIANA Macfarlane. 

Nepenthes merrilliana Macfarlane in Bot. Contrib. Univ. Penn. 3 

(1911) 207. 
Nepenthes surigaonensis Elmer, Leafl. Philip. Bot 8 (1915) 2785. 

Plant terrestrial or largely epiphytic. Stem 8 to 12 mm thick, 
subcylindric when young, becoming trigonous when mature, gla- 
brous, internodes short, the leaves aggregate on stem below, 
2 to 4 cm apart on elongate ascending shoots. Leaves 20 to 
50 X 4 to 7 cm, oblanceolate, sessile, three-quarters amplexicaul 
and tapering decurrent to next node below, gradually widening 
upward toward the slightly cordate apex, glabrous or minutely 
punctate beneath, longitudinal veins 6 or 7, all starting from 
the amplexicaul leaf base, transverse veins parallel, obliquely 
radiating and ascending; tendril 25 to 60 cm long, gradually 
thickened toward the recurved pitcher base; pitcher 15 to 
30 X 6 to 14 cm, softly ferruginous-tomentose when young, at 
length glabrous, ovate to oval in outline, purple-green with deep 
purple blotches, veins prominent, obliquely ascending and united 
by wavy cross veins, wings continuous from near the base to the 
peristome, 8 to 15 cm wide, long ciliate and expanded upward 
in front of peristome, mouth ovate, oblique, peristome 1.5 to 3.5 
cm wide, strongly striate, outer margin spreading, reflexed, 
undulate, inner inflexed, sharply denticulate along the edge; 
lid 6 to 14 X 5 to 12 cm, ovate, coriaceous, without ferruginous- 
puberulous and punctate, within shining and dotted by minute 
orifices of deeply sunken honey glands, spur 1 to 2 cm, puber- 
ulous, pitcher interior shining, green, with many irregular 
purple spots, densely covered with small, nearly uniform im- 
mersed glands. Inflorescence 40 to 50 cm long, of which the 
peduncle is 10 to 15 cm, lax-flowered, pedicels spreading, bi- 
florous. Sepals 4, oval, externally like the pedicels brown pu- 
berulous, within purple with many minute nectar glands. 
Staminal column glabrous, longer than the sepals, anthers 8, 
uniseriate. Ovary ovoid, shortly stipitate, densely ferruginous- 
puberulous, stigma 4-lobed, purple. 

Mindanao, Surigao Province, For, Bur, 75^5 Hutchinson, 
May, 1907, Bur, Sci, SiSOl, Si503 Ramos and Pascasio, May, 
1919 : Agusan Province, Elmer 1S705, ^ type of Nepenthes suri- 
gaonensis Elm. DiNAGAT, Lyon 6, February, 1909, **Oroc'' Loher 
5209 in Herb. Keib (probably this was brought to Mr. Loher 
from Mindanao). 

* This is erroneously cited in the original description as No. 12705. — E. 
D. Merrill. 



33,2 Macfarlane: Philippine Nepenthes 133 

Elmer^s type of Nepenthes surigaonensis differs in no way 
from N, merrilliana except that the pitchers are rather small, 
15 X 8 to 10 cm., and are more strongly and persistently ferru- 
ginous-hirsute than the typical material from lower altitudes. 
The veins of the lamina in it are 6, not 4, as described by him, 
while the microscopic structure of the lid glands and of the in- 
terior pitcher glands exactly agrees with N. merrilliana, Elmer 
has, however, improved on my original description, which was 
taken from an immature and lower shoot. He shows that, while 
the stem is almost cylindric in the soft young shoots, it becomes 
sharply trigonous on elongate shoots when full-grown. Such 
shoots also have decurrent petiolar wings that extend downward 
through an internode. It remains to be determined whether 
connecting examples occur between the type of the lowlands and 
Elmer's hirsute upland form that was gathered at 5,750 feet 
elevation. 

The above, with N. truncata (both peculiar to the Philippines) 
and N, rajah, N. decurrens, and N, maxima, surpass all others 
in size and in the striking aspect of the pitchers. 

NEPENTHES VENTRICOSA Blanco. 

Nepenthes ventricosa Blanco, F1. Filip. (1837) 807, ed. 2 (1845) 556, 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 215; Masters in Gard. Chron. Ill 30 (1901) 312, 
with illustrations. 

Plant terrestrial or epiphytic, bright green. Stem to 2 m high, 
cylindric to trigonous, glabrous, internodes short below, 1 to 2 
cm long above. Leaves 15 to 25 X 2 to 3 cm, thick, herbaceous, 
sessile, obscure; tendril 10 to 20 cm long, slender, gradually ex- 
panded into the recurved base of the pitcher; lower pitchers 
cylindric-ventricose, upper strongly ventricose below, constricted 
in middle, expanded into the elliptic and transversely placed 
mouth, above pale green often flushed with red, anterior wings 
reduced to nerves, peristome 10 to 25 mm wide, green to red, 
outer margin reflexed and undulate, inner with small teeth, lid 
4 to 5 X 2 to 3 cm, small compared with size of mouth, ovate- 
cordate, green to greenish red, traversed by 3 to 4 pairs of veins, 
pitcher within shining, copiously glandular, glands minute, im- 
mersed above, discrete and exposed below. Inflorescence 25 to 
60 cm, staminate longer than pistillate, ferruginous-puberulous, 
pedicels slender 1-flowered, aggregate and unilateral in fruit. 
Sepals elliptic-obovate, within with 15 to 25 glands. Staminal 
column puberulous below, glabrous above, anthers 8. Ovary 
shortly stalked. Capsule 17 to 25 mm, lanceolate, stipitate. 



134 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Seeds 12 to 15 mm long, yellowish, testa, warted around the 
embryo. 

Luzon, Ilocos Norte Province, Ifugao and Benguet Subprov- 
inces, and Nueva Vizcaya, Bataan, Rizal, Tayabas, Camarines, 
and Sorsogon Provinces. Representative specimens are Bur, 
Sci. 9389 Robinson, 26520 Ramos and Edano, and 23505, 33283 
Ramos. 

The above species is very near to Nepenthes burkei. So far 
as specimens at present inform us, it would seem that N. ven- 
tricosa is confined to Luzon, although rather widely distributed 
there, while N. burkei is restricted to Mindoro and Panay, and 
may be a geographical variety of Blanco's species. 

NEPENTHES BURKEI Masters. 

Nepenthes burkei Masters in Gard. Chron. Ill 6 (1889) 492, fig. 69. 

Similar to N. ventricosa except that pitchers are less ventri- 
cose, color green to reddish green with purple spots below, pur- 
ple and green blotched above, mouth oblique, ovate in outline, 
lid 5 to 8 X 3 to 5 cm, pale green with purple and red spots, 
traversed by 6 to 7 pairs of veins. Pedicels radiately disposed 
around rachis in flower and fruit. Capsule slightly stipitate. 
Seeds 9 to 11 mm, reddish brown, not or very slightly warted 
around embryo. 

Without locality, Burke. Mindanao, Mount Halcon, White- 
head, Merrill 577 Jf, For. Bur. Jf392 Merritt. Panay, Mount Mi- 
diaas, Bur. Sci. 30680 Ramos and Edano, 32597 McGregor, 35686 
Martelino and Edano. 

NEPENTHES DEANIANA Macfarlane. 

Nepenthes deaniana Macfarlane in Pflanzenreich 36 (1908) 57. 

Plants so far as known low, spreading by shoots, or shortly 
ascending. Stem 20 to 30 cm high, 4 to 5 mm thick, glabrous, 
closely surrounded by sessile leaf bases. Leaves 6 to 12 X 3.5 
to 4 cm, lanceolate or obovate, sessile, one-half to two-thirds am- 
plexicaul, glabrous, when young f erruginous-tomentose along the 
inidrib beneath; longitudinal veins 4 to 5 pairs, obscure, united 
by irregularly reticulate transverse veins, tendril 10 to 15 cm 
long, delicate, ferruginous-hirsute when young, at length pu- 
berulous; pitchers 6 to 9 X 2.3 to 3.5 cm, obconic, membranous- 
herbaceous, ferruginous-hirsute when young, at length glabrous, 
brown tomentose below the rim, veins distinct, united by retic- 
ulate transverse veins, wings continuous from near the base to 
the peristome, expanded, long ciliate. Mouth transverse or 
slightly oblique, prolonged behind into a neck 1 to 1.5 cm high. 



33,2 Macfarlane: Philippine Nepenthes 135 

Peristome 5 to 8 mm wide, finely striate, cylindric with sharply 
recurved outer and inflexed inner margin that bears long at- 
tenuate teeth, lid broadly cordate, traversed by 8 to 9 pairs of 
delicate reticulate veins, without when young brown pubescent, 
within abundantly covered by small circular glands, pitcher in- 
terior glaucous purple over posterior triangular neck, from 
thence downward shining and covered with small, discrete, deep- 
ly sunken glands. Staminate inflorescence (alone known) 15 
to 20 cm long, pubescent to glabrous. Pedicels compressed and 
expanded at base, 1-flowered, bracteolate near the lower third. 
Sepals 4, in unequal pairs, broadly oval and elongate, within with 
many small glands. Staminal column glabrous, equal to the se- 
pals, anthers 8, uniseriate. 

Palawan, very common on the summit of Mount Pulgar, at 
an elevation of 1,300 m, For, Bur, 3891 Curran; Cabatuan River, 
For. Bur. 2337 Danao, 

As yet only two collections have been made of the above dis- 
tinct species. Both specimens are evidently side branches or 
spurs produced by a main shoot. Whether the species is of low 
dwarf habit, or is an elongated climber, as is suggested by the 
coils on the tendrils and from a pencil note of the latter collector, 
can only be determined by future field observation. 

NEPENTHES PHYLLAMPHORA Willdenow. 

Nepenthes phyllamphora Willdenow, Sp. Plant. 4' (1805) 874. 

Plant elongate, branching, bright green. Stem 5 to 8 m long, 
7 to 11 mm thick, cylindric, stellate-pubescent, at length gla- 
brous, internodes short to 8 to 10 cm long. Leaves 15 to 45 X 
5 to 8 cm, herbaceous, petiolate, one-half amplexicaul, sessile or 
slightly decurrent, elliptic-lanceolate, margin finely ciliate, longi- 
tudinal veins 7 to 8, evident and united by many fine parallel 
ascending veins; tendril slender, slightly thickened toward the 
recurved base of the pitcher ; pitcher 8 to 15 X 2 to 3 cm, cy- 
lindric above, tubular-ventricose below, pale green to crimson- 
green, wings on lower pitchers narrow, ciliate, on the upper ones 
reduced to strong veins, mouth transverse or slightly oblique, 
circular or transversely elliptic in outline. Peristome 4 to 7 
mm wide, uniform or slightly widened in front, green to crimson, 
lid 2 to 4 cm long, orbicular, within covered by abundant cir- 
cular glands, pitcher within to half its depth glaucous or purple- 
green, smooth and conducting, shining in lower half and with 
many discrete sunken glands. Inflorescence 20 to 45 cm long, 
stellate-pubescent, at length glabrous, pedicels 2- to 1-flowered 



136 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

below, 1-flowered above, sepals elliptic-ovate, pubescent without, 
densely and richly glandular within. Staminal column glabrous, 
with 16 to 20 biseriate anthers. Ovary ovoid, white tomentose. 
Capsule 18 to 26 mm long, brown, shining. Seeds 15 to 18 mm 
long, filiform. 

This widely distributed species was previously reported in the 
Philippines by Vidal {No, 352Jf) from Surigao in Mindanao Is- 
land. It is now well represented by specimens collected by Mary 
S. Clemens at Camp Keithley, Lake Lanao, Mindanao, in 1907. 
These are the strongest specimens yet studied by me from any 
locality, and bear exceptionally large fruiting inflorescences. 

NEPENTHES ALATA Blanco. 

Nepenthes alata Blanco, Flora Filip. ed. 1 (1837) 805; ed. 2 (1845); 
ed. 3, 3 (1879) 214; HoOK. f. in DC. Prod. 17 (1873) 99; Macfar- 
lAne in Fflanzenreich 36 (1908) 71. 

Plant terrestrial or epiphytic, climbing. Stem 1 to 3 m high, 
obtusely trigonous, when young hairy, at length glabrous. 
Leaves 10 to 30 X 2.5 to 5 cm, petiolate, petiole one-third to 
one-half amplexicaul, winged, gradually expanded upward into 
the lamina ; lamina lanceolate to elliptic, fuscous or ferruginous- 
pubescent when young, at length subglabrous, longitudinal 
nerves 3, rarely 4 pairs, tendril 12 to 25 cm long, slender below, 
gradually thickening toward the recurved base of the pitcher. 
Pitcher 10 to 20 X 2 to 5 cm, the lower cylindric-ventricose, up- 
per cylindric, pubescent when young, wings forming prominent 
nerves below widening upward into ciliate laminae, mouth 
oblique, ovate, prolonged posteriorly into a triangular neck, pe- 
ristome uniform or posteriorly widened and undulate in outer 
margin, lid semimembranous, ovate-cordate, within with a basal 
prominent keel and many small circular nectar glands; pitcher 
interior to one-half or two-thirds depth glaucous purple, smooth 
and ''conducting," below shining and with many discrete exposed 
glands, inflorescence 25 to 70 cm long, staminate longer than 
pistillate, axes gray or ferruginous-hairy, bearing 1-flowered 
hairy pedicels. Sepals tomentose without, purple and finely 
glandular within. Staminal column hairy, at length glabrous, 
anthers 8 to 10, uni- or subbiseriate. Pistil white to ferrugin- 
ous-tomentose. Fruit 20 to 40 mm long, shining. Seeds 12 to 
20 mm long. 

The following are additions to previously recorded localities: 
Luzon, Ilocos Norte Province, Bur. Sci. 26726 Fenix: Bontoc 
Subprovince, Banco, Vanoverbergh 53: Lepanto Subprovince, 



33,2 Macfarlcme: Philippine Nepenthes 137 

Cervantes, Bona 17: Benguet Subprovince, Pauai to Ka- 
bayan, Bur, Sci, 8796 McGregor; Pauai, Bur. Sci. 31877 
Santos: Bataan Province, Mount Mariveles, Merrill 5181: La- 
guna Province, Mount Maquiling, Baker 399, 2780, Holman 17, 
For, Bur. 15379 Tamesis, Gates 5395, Sulit 507; San Antonio, 
Bur. Sci. lJf963 Ramos: Tayabas Province, For. Bur. 13091 Cur- 
ran: Mount Cadig, Bur. Sci. 20845 Escritor, For. Bur. 21157 Mi- 
randa: Guinatucan, Bur. Sci. 13185 Foxworthy and Ramos: 
Sorsogon Province, Irosin, Elmer 15874. Panay, Mount Bulilao, 
Bur. Sci. 35664, 35665 Martelino and Edano. Leyte, Wenzel 
681. Camiguin de Misamis, Bur. Sci. 14650 Ramos. 

This is the most abundant indigenous species of the Philippine 
Islands and extends from the low country to 2,400 m on Mount 
Apo. I have recorded the two following varieties : 

NEPENTHES ALATA var. BIFLORA Macfarlane. 

Glands of lid small, abundant over middle part and keel, few 
large and scattered toward margin. Pedicels 2-, rarely 1- 
flowered. 

Negros, Mount Silay, Whit ford 1537. 

NEPENTHES ALATA Blanco var. ECRISTATA Macfarlane. 

Keel of lid shallow or absent, lid glands few, large, widely 
scattered along the median part. 

Mindanao, Misamis Province, Mount Malindang, For. Bur. 
4632 M earns and Hutchinson: Agusan Province, Mount Urda- 
neta, Elmer 14248. 

Nepenthes graciflora Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 4 (1912) 1494, 
Elmer 12465, 17766, 18837 from Sibuyan and from Mount Ma- 
quiling, Laguna Province, Luzon, is Nepenthes alata Blanco or its 
variety ecristata Macfarlane. 

NEPENTHES TRUNCATA Macfarlane. 

Nepenthes truncata Macfarlane in Bot. Contrib. Univ. Penn. 3 
(1911) 209, t. 11. 

Plant terrestrial or epiphytic. Stem stout, upright, cylindric, 
15 to 20 mm thick, above closely encircled by leaves and softly 
ferruginous-tomentose. Leaves in seedlings densely rosulate, 
shortly petiolate, gradually expanded upward into the lamina, 
which is deeply obcordate to truncate-obcordate, margin crenate- 
ciliate toward apex ; entire surface as well as tendril and pitcher 
hirsute, especially along midrib ; tendril 5 to 10 mm long, rather 
abruptly expanded into the cylindric-ventricose pitcher, wings 



138 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

broad, continuous from pitcher base to peristome and ciliate 
along their margins, lid ovate, externally diffusely ciliate, pitch- 
er within cylindric with conducting surface one-third to one- 
half its depth, lower half to third ventricose and sparsely cov- 
ered with digestive glands. Mature leaves 10 to 45 X 9 to 
24 cm, subcoriaceous, petiolate ; petiole 3 to 30 X 0.5 to 2.5 cm, 
winged, wings below vertically dilated, narrowed upward into 
shallow ridges, when young tomentose and sparsely hirsute be- 
low along the sides of the midrib, at length glabrous, base of 
lamina cordate, apex cordate-truncate to abruptly truncate, mar- 
gin undulate, upper surface glabrous, lower finely pubescent to 
punctate, midrib deeply grooved above, prominent, pubescent 
and hirsute beneath, longitudinal veins disposed in 5, more rare- 
ly 6 pairs, innermost arising above base of lamina and gradually 
diverging upward, abruptly curving near the apex and converg- 
ing toward midrib, remaining pairs arising near laminar base 
and running parallel to the first, innermost pair in large leaves 
64 to 70 mm, second 85 mm, third 100 mm, fourth 110 mm, fifth 
115 mm, removed from midrib, transverse nerves abundant, 
parallel and abruptly diverging from midrib, tendril 15 to 50 cm 
long, nearly uniform, hirsute-tomentose and abruptly enlarging 
into the base of the pitcher; pitcher 15 to 35 X 4 to 10 cm, cy- 
lindric or slightly ventricose below, softly ferruginous-tomentose 
when young, at length glabrous, wings 1 to 2 cm apart, expanded 
and ciliate on young pitchers, in old pitchers reduced to prom- 
inent nerves, mouth oblique to nearly transverse, peristome 3 
to 6 cm wide, outer margin broadly expanded, undulate, sharply 
ridged, inner inclined with margin finely denticulate, behind with 
margins apposed and elevated into a triangular neck beneath 
the lid, lid 5 to 11 X 3 to 9 cm, broadly cordate, traversed by 
6 to 8 pairs of veins, outside pubescent to glabrous, within 
densely covered by small to large subperithecioid attractive 
glands and enlarged at base into a prominent, median, richly glan- 
dular keel, calcar 10 to 30 mm long, densely ferruginous-villous 
together with the base of the lid, pitcher within over posterior 
triangular neck glaucous purple and ''conducting," from mouth 
downward, shining, glandular and detentive, detentive glands 
above discrete and sunk in pockets, below closely packed, trans- 
versely oval and exposed. Inflorescence (staminate) 80 to 125 
cm long, of which peduncle is 25 to 45 cm, axis tomentose. Ped- 
icels 30 to 40 mm long, laxifiorous and biflorous, rarely trifio- 
rous, common pedicel one-fourth to one-fifth the length of the 



33,2 Macfarlane: Philippine Nepenthes 139 

separate pedicels. Sepals 4, broadly oval to circular, without and 
along inner margin finely puberulous, within densely covered by 
nectar glands. Staminate column 7 to 8 mm long, tomentose at 
base, glabrous above, anther mass subglobose, anthers 10 to 12, 
sinuous, subbiseriate. Pistillate pedicels bitriflorous, along with 
exterior surface of sepals and ovary densely puberulous, stigmas 
4, deeply bilobed. Inflorescence up to 85 cm long, of which the 
peduncle is up to 60 cm. Capsule lanceolate, 35 to 40 mm long, 
villous to puberulous. Seeds 12 to 15 mm long, corrugate around 
the embryo. 

This unique species was first described and figured by me in 
1911 from a small and a large leaf, forwarded to me by Mr. 
Merrill. More recently Mr. Merrill sent additional material 
that consisted of a fairly large leaf and fruits collected by F. T. 
Eddingfield, also a similar leaf attached to a short piece of stem 
bearing a staminate axis, and accompanied by two seedling 
plants. Still later he supplied some fine flowering shoots, and 
from all of these the above description has been prepared. 

The history of our knowledge of the species to date is as fol- 
lows : 

A herbarium specimen. No. 270, collected on March 18, 1906, 
by F. H. Bolster at Cansuran, Surigao Province, Mindanao, **on 
bare open soil of old placer mine," altitude 750 feet, height of 
plant 1 foot. It was a young leaf belonging to what was prob- 
ably a two-year-old plant. 

A second specimen, No. 171, was collected on July 28, 1907, by 
W. B. Allen at Samsolang in Surigao, "on open mountain side,'' 
altitude 600 m. This was a large and striking leaf that served 
for description and illustration by me, and is the type specimen 
in the Manila Herbarium that was figured by me. 

More recently Mr. Merrill forwarded two additional sheets, 
collected on March 22, 1911, by C. M. Weber on the west slope 
of Mount Hilong-hilong, Agusan Province, Mindanao. It grew 
on an exposed rock cliff, common on the hillside among tall 
coarse grasses. Flower yellowish, green edges tinged with pur- 
ple. The specimen shows a stout stem bearing one large typical 
pitchered leaf, and from opposite the petiole of the next leaf 
a long staminate inflorescence springs. Included on the sheet 
was a small packet with two seedlings, each bearing truncate or 
deeply obcordate leaves that looked very different from the seed- 
ling leaves of other species previously studied. These were all 
collected at 335 m elevation. 



140 The Philippine Journal of Science 

The other sheet, without field number, was obtained in April, 
1912, by F. T. Eddingfield, and on the herbarium slip Merrill 
records : 

fresh specimen brought in by Mr. Eddingfield of the Divison of Mines, 
Bureau of Science. Growing on open steep rocky slopes and in trees^ 
overhanging streams in a very wet region. The specimens came from 
exactly the same locality as the original one collected by Allen. Originally 
discovered by an American miner, who showed them to Mr. Allen and after- 
wards to Mr. Eddingfield. 

Fruits accompanied this specimen. 

Sheet No. 1348S was distributed by A. D. E. Elmer and is in- 
scribed: A^. truncata Macf., Cabadbaran (Mt. Urdaneta) Prov- 
ince of Agusan, Island of Mindanao, August, 1912. It is a 
staminate shoot. 

Sheets Nos. SABJfO and SJ^BJfl are from Surigao, and were col- 
lected April, 1919, by M. Ramos and J. Pascasio **on ridges^ 
altitude 680 to 750 m, scarcely climbing, but spreads over the 
ground.*' 

The nearest species to it is N, veitchii of Borneo, which agrees 
with this in having alternate spreading leaves that can expand 
in distichous fashion on the ground or climb along fallen tree 
trunks, on either side of which the leaves with their liquid- 
bearing pitchers can depend. 

Nepenthes gracilis Korthals has been recorded from the Phil- 
ippines by F.-Villar,* but its occurrence in the Archipelago is 
very doubtful. A sterile specimen accompanying Bur. Sci. 3Jf501, 
Nepenthes merrilliana Macfarlane, may represent Korthals's spe- 
cies, but more complete material is necessary to determine its 
exact identity. The species is widely distributed in the Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. 

*Novis. App. (1880) 173. 



NOMENCLATURE OF THE ABACA PLANT 

By E. B. COPELAND 
Of ChicOy California 

The names which various authors have attempted to give to 
the source or sources of abaca fiber, since 1753, the earliest 
date of valid specific names, are as follows: 

Musa textilis Nee, 1801. 

Musa sylvestris Colla, 1820. 

Musa abaca Perrottet, 1825. 

Musa Troglodytarum Textoria Blanco,, 1837. 

Mu^a mindaneiisis "Rumph*' Miquel, 1855. 

Not one of these names was accompanied by a diagnosis suf- 
ficient to distinguish the plant from all of the related species 
or forms of whatever rank, for the very sufficient reasons that 
not one of the authors except Blanco had a plant in hand or very 
definitely in mind; none gives a definite type locality; and even 
the discussions which accompany some of the names are not 
based chiefly on the authors' own observations. Nevertheless, 
in view of the dominant economic importance of abaca in the 
Philippines, of the historic interest of some of these discussions, 
and of the fact that the books containing some of these discus- 
sions are very rare, it has seemed worth while to translate and 
assemble the various "descriptions'' and comments. As Musa 
silvestris and M. mindanensis are based on names and descrip- 
tions given by Rumphius, his account is included with the others. 
When taking up this work, I naturally expected to examine living 
or preserved material of a considerable number of the abaca- 
producing plants ; but, after waiting more than a year to receive 
material which some of my friends were good enough to collect, 
I feel forced to abandon this hope. 

The translations follow, with such notes as may be instructive. 

ABACA, WHICH IS MUSA TEXTILIS ' 

By Don Luis Nee 

Necessity has at all times awakened the industry of men. Content at 
first with what was strictly necessary, they sought food and shelter in 

^(From "Anales de ciencias naturales, mes de julio de 1801, Norn, e 
11. Tomo quarto, pp. 123-130.) A translation was published in the An- 
nals of Botany by Koenig and Sims, soon after the Spanish publication. 

141 



142 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

the products of nature; and desiring afterward more comfort or luxury, 
they improved their customs and crude products. Progress was slov/ and 
almost imperceptible, while the tribes or families were of few individuals; 
but as the number of consumers increased, new means of subsistence 
were sought out. The unfortunate people of Patagonia, in spite of the 
rigor of the climate,, content themselves to-day with the pelts of sea-wolves 
to cover their backs, and feed on vegetables and the product of fishing 
and the chase. In New Zealand and New Wales, our kind is still found 
brutish and vdthout desire to advance. It is better in the islands of the 
Pacific Ocean, where certain hierarchies and order are found, some con- 
veniences and various artefacts which give evidence of talent and effort. 
They cultivate with care the vegetables which yield them food, and those 
the fibers of which can serve to produce the cloths which they afterward 
color in various ways. 

Such were the peoples of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived 
there. Their own soil sustained them with little work; and the vegeta- 
tion furnished them materials which they reduced to clothes to cover and 
adorn their bodies; but with the arrival of our colonies, the consumption 
increased, commerce became easy, industry grew, and the arts which were 
in their infancy were in some measure perfected. I saw with pleasure 
the occupation of the natives; but was astonished at the little profit of 
their works, in comparison with those of Europe. In Nabua, they used 
about a month in making a hat which is hardly worth three dollars; 
and a woman spends seven days in preparing and weaving a piece of 
abaca worth three reales. ^ Altogether, the last-mentioned branch of in- 
dustry is so general, and so great are the utilities which accrue to the 
Provinces of Albay, Laguna, and Camarines, that it seems to me worth 
while to describe the plant which produces the raw material and the 
manner of utilizing it up to the production of cloth and cordage. For 
the clearing up of my studies, I owe a great deal to the zeal and learning 
of the most Illustrious Bishop of Nueva Caceres, D. Domingo Collantes, 
to whom I give public testimonial of my gratitude for the notes he has 
kindly furnished me, and which I am making use of in this paper. 

In the Philippines, they call the fibers for the production of cordage 
and cloth, and likewise the plant which yields these fibers, abaca. ^ This 
is a particular kind of plantain and the same one which Rumphius called 
in Latin Musa sylvestris, and in the native tongue pissang-utan. * It is 
certain that it grows wild in the Philippines and Mindanao; but it is 

' The real is like the American *^shilling" or "bit,'' one-eighth of a peso 
or dollar. In Nee's text are mentioned "reales de Vellon," and reales of 
money worth two and one-half of vellon. The vellon was a copper piece 
worth five cents, two and one-half being worth one-eighth of a dollar. 
In some localities in the Philippines, the word survives as "billion," 
but is applied to the "peseta," twenty centavos. — E. B. C. 

* The natives distinguish many varieties of abaca,, such as : 
Stout abaca, or abaca brave, which the Bicols call agotai. 

Mountain abaca, the fibers of which serve only for cords, which in 
Bicol are called agotag, or amoquid. 
The sagig of the Visayans. 
The laquis of the Visayans. They called the fiber of abaca lanot. 

* Herb. Amboinense Vol. 5, page 139. 



33,2 Copeland: Nomenclature of the Abaca Plamt 143 

equally so that no other species or variety of this genus is cultivated 
with such care as this one, because of the great use which the natives 
have been able to make of it. There are extensive plantations in the 
Island of Luzon and in the Provinces of Albay, Laguna, and Camarines, 
but especially in the neighborhood of Mount Mayon, ' the base of which 
is some 15 leagues in circumference. In this spacious region and in the 
immediate neighborhood of another great mountain, called Isarog, is found 
a soil suitable for this plant, which prospers only in moist localities that 
are shady and with rich soil. In those places, thick groves are formed 
by the multitude of trunks and suckers, protected from the sun by the 
large and beautiful leaves which crown the trunks. These rise from a 
sort of bulb clothed with fibers and grow in less than eighteen months, 
without ever branching, up to 7 feet in height,, being then as thick as 
the thigh. In the middle is a white smooth pith like a wax candle as 
big as the arm, covered with a multitude of fibrous coats placed one over 
the other, which were the sheaths of the former leaves. The leaves, ten 
to twelve in number, from the crown, some horizontal, and those of the 
middle erect or somewhat inclined; they are 5 feet or more in length 
and 1.5 in width, borne on petioles about a foot long. The latter are 
prolonged on the back, forming the projecting midrib, from which nu- 
merous little veins run out. From the center of the crown of leaves, and 
when this herbaceous plant reaches maturity (less than two years), there 
is born a thick peduncle covered with concave, ovate, acute,, partial spathes, 
which develop and open as the peduncle elongates up to 3 or 4 feet in 
length; and then the flowers appear, nine to fourteen in each spathe, and 
are fertilized, resulting in time in the fruits, which are hard and green, 
1.5 to 2 inches long, insipid, and entirely useless. 

When the plant reaches the stage of fruiting, it appears like an 
herb; but it is reproduced by suckers, little and big. In this case, its 
trunk remains useless; and, for this reason, there are very few which 
succeed in flowering, because the natives cut them when they are one 
and a half years old, this being the proper age for harvesting the trunk. 
They cut it at the root and at the top where it joins the leaves, and it 
usually remains about 5 feet long, and they open it length-wise to separate 
the pith from the sheaths. Of the latter, the outside are hard and strong, 
and produce the handald, ° intended for cordage. The interior ones, being 
finer and smoother, yield the lupis " for the weaving of nipis ' and other 
excellent cloths; and from the intermediate one is extracted the twpoz* 
which is intended for guinarras. * 

The sheaths are found embedded in a thick matrix of but little con^ 
sistency and, to separate them from this material, they are first reduced 

" The Bishop of Nueva Caceres, already mentioned, gave me a descrip- 
tion of the volcano of Albay which is in Mount Mayagong; and of Mount 
Isarog in Camarines Province. 

^ Bandala, lupis, and tupoz are still used in the same sense, only the 
first, however, being in common use throughout the Bicol region. — E. B. C. 

^ This root means thin; as applied here, it means thin cloth. — E. B. C. 

•Guinarras is the Bicol equivalent of the Tagalog sinamay, meaning 
either fairly fine cloth made largely or wholly of abaca, or a piece of 
such cloth. The word has also other meanings. — E. B. C. 

227284 2 



144 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

to bands 1.5 or 2 inches wide, which are passed through a sort of flaxbrake, 
the beam of which, armed with three broad knives,® is held fast with the 
right hand while the bands or strips are drawn through with the left 
hand and, coming out free of the pulp, are reduced to fibers. These are 
afterward dried in the sun, gathered, and assigned to various uses ac- 
cording as they are more or less fine. Those which are to serve for 
cordage, rope, and string receive no other treatment; but the others are 
softened with a mallet,^* and the single fibers, being afterward separated, 
are tied with almost invisible knots and formed into skeins, and wraped 
for the manufacture of cloths. 

The pieces of sinamay are 4 yards in length and a half yard wide, " 
and of various qualities and prices; the lowest is worth a real of the 
local money which is worth two and a half vellon. ' But there are cloths 
so fine that they sell at 5 dollars, and from these shirts with cuffs are 
made. 

The woven cloths are placed in lime water for a period of twenty-four 
hours. They are taken out of this and washed in clear water. They 
are then allowed to dry, and then placed in rice water for twenty-four 
hourSi, after passing through which, they are washed again in clear 
water, and become lustrous, smooth, and white. The natives do not know 
how to fix the whiteness of the cloths and thus it occurs that in the 
course of time and washing they become reddish. 

The cultivators of abaca put their fiber up in bundles, as our laborers 
do the canamo (hemp) fiber, and each bundle weighs, as a rule, an 
arroba. " If they are of bandala, they are worth 5 reales de vellon ; if 
of the tupoz, 7.5; if of lupis, 12.5. They are carried for sale to the 
market, where the women, who have to work them into cloths or ropes, 
gather to buy them. I have seen the cloth shops in Nabua, and learned 
there that it takes a woman seven days to warp and weave one piece. 
The coarser ones,, called tinagsad, are worth 8 reales de vellon, and are 
4 yards long, and with these the women clothe themselves in the season 
of planting. Others, somewat better, called hondoy, serve for dresses, and 
their value is 5 reales when not stained or have somewhat more work in 
the design, when they bring twice the price. The binacol is more beautiful 
and costly, and the piring-piting ^ is very fine and worth a gold dollar. 
I have seen other excellent ones woven in Nueva Caceres, called cambayes, " 
fine and of beautiful colors, which serve for the waists of the rich ladies. 
Into these cloths, beside abaca, cotton and silk enter. 

In general, from the abaca, cloth is woven for robes, shirts, curtains, 
table-cloths and couch covers, varying in designs and colors, according 
to the use for which each piece of work is destined. There is such an 
abundance of the material, so the most Illustrious Mr. Collantes informed 

" Such a stripper as is here described seems to be unknown now. — E. B. C. 

" The notably lustrous cloth produced in Albay as a result of pounding 
is called pinalpog, literally, pounded. — E. B. C. 

^* Half a yard is about the actual width of this cloth now. The Spanish 
vara or yard is 33 English inches. — E. B. C. 

*'An arroba is 25 pounds. — E. B. C. 

" Piring-piting means a whirling motion, or something whirling. — E. 
B. C. 

"This name is applied only when the colors are mixed. — E. B. C. 



33,2 Copeland: Nomenclature of the Abaca Plant 145 

me, that the towns of Cagsava, Camalig, Guinobatan, and Ligao yield, 
each, 1,500 arrobas of cordage and about as much more in the Province 
of Albay, which the king receives, laid down in Cavite at 30 reales de 
vellon an arroba. They usually extract some thousand bundles of sina- 
may, each one of one hundred twenty pieces. With these and the abaca, 
the natives pay their taxes and parochial rites,, and the cost of their 
feasts, clothe themselves, and buy what they need. 

In the factories of Nueva Caceres, they make an astonishing quantity 
of cordage, which is carried by the river as far as Arugai, and then 
by land to the warehouse of Pasacao. The last stretch, which is more 
than 3 leagues, was formerly very arduous; but to-day it is easy, since 
the Governor, D. Manuel Ledaros, ordered a fine and solid road for carts 
to be built. 

It is strange that neither Linnaeus nor the modern botanists have 
spoken of a plant so well known and of such great use in the Philippines, 
in spite of its having been pointed out by Rumphius in the place cited; 
of his having said that its fruits are very small, useless and hard; and 
of his having related that in Mindanao cables are made of the hard 
exterior fiber of the trunk and cloths of the interior ones. He called 
it silvestre because he thought it was not cultivated in Mindanao nor Luzon; 
but, knowing now the care given to its cultivation,, and that it is the 
only species of Musa which yields fibers useful for such manufactures, 
it seems to me that it ought to be distinguished from the other species, 
and be called in the future Musa textilis. Although I have seen many 
thousands of them, I have never succeeded in seeing the flower. 

I have not succeeded so badly with the other species and varieties, of 
which I have been able to distinguish up to twenty-seven, in the Island 
of Luzon alone, taking for characters the variable size of the leaves, the 
colors of the spathes, and the size and taste of the fruits. Accordingly, 
leaving unsettled for the present the number of true species, I will relate 
what long experience and repeated observations have taught me about the 
flower. 

I know that the European botanists, after having seen one flower or 
another in the greenhouses, affirm that they consist of six stamens, and 
that not all are perfect. Without censuring this proposition,, established 
by Linnasus, confirmed by Trew, and followed by many, I must repeat 
what Scopoli said, which is that the flowers of the plantain or Musa 
are always found perfect, and with five stamens, without the least rudi- 
m/ent of a sixth ever being discovered. This character brings it near 
to Heliconian and removes it from the place where Linnaeus put it in his 
system. My observations were uniform, not only in the Philippines, but 
also in the Friendly Islands, in Peru, in Africa and in New Spain, and 
in conformity to them I have had made the drawing which I keep. Thus, 
then, I believe that the generic character should be reformed in this manner. 

Calyx;, a partial spathe, ovate-oblong, concave, with many flowers. 

Corolla, of two petals, the upper one long, broad, truncate, with five 
short laciniae, its base somewhat concave; the lower one twice as short, 
membranous, somewhat folded inward, retuse at the apex, with a long 
sharp point exceeding the notch. 

Five filaments shorter than the superior petal, inserted on the receptacle, 
inclosed by the petal mentioned; the anthers honey-bearing, lineai^, at- 
tached in the upper middle part of the filament. 



146 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Ovary oblong, with three or four obtuse angles. Style furrowed, 
straight, equal to the stamens. Stigmas three, somewhat flattened, thick 
and united, but easily separable. 

Berry fleshy, like a cucumber, rather abruptly contracted, obscurely 
triangular, with many almost globose seeds. 

Observation: The inflorescence is solitary, and the spathes are alter- 
nately arranged on it. Each one of the latter incloses nine to fourteen 
flowers, which open successively and are fertilized at the same time. The 
fruits at the base of the inflorescence are usually mature, while the latter 
is still growing at the end and the flowers of thirty spathes near the 
extremity are not yet open. The latter almost never produce fruit,, in 
spite of having complete organs of reproduction, which may be due to 
the consumption, by the multitude of fruits situated near the base, of 
the sap which ought to reach with energy to the flowers at the tip, or 
to the want on the part of the distal flowers of the necessary strength 
to purify the large amount of thick and aqueous liquor inclosed in the 
spathe, so that they blast and decay. 

It is noted that Nee identifies his abaca plant with the Musa 
silvestris of Rumphius. If this supposed identity had been a 
dominant feature of Nee's publication, then Rumphius's plant, 
whatever it was, might be the type of Musa textilis Nee ; but it 
is evident that Nee's principal concern was to name and describe 
a Luzon plant, as a species essentially new to systematic botany, 
and that the reference to Rumphius is incidental. The type 
locality of M, textilis is in Camarines; and, although there is 
specific reference to the town of Nabua, it can hardly be located 
more definitely. 

It is perfectly clear that Nee intended to include in his species 
any and all Mu^a plants characterized by the production of fiber 
rather than of fruits; but even superficial observation of the 
various fiber-producing Musas shows that, according to the more 
modern conception of ^'species," these plants represent not one 
species, but several, and more careful study of their botanical 
characters makes this fact only clearer. Before an attempt to 
give a botanical status to these natural species can be made, it 
is necessary to identify some one of them as typical M, textilis, 
thus giving to this name a more definite and restricted use 
than its author intended. For this purpose, we have a medium 
of description, and a collection of vernacular names which might 
identify a definite type locality, and thus help to identify a 
particular plant. 

Consultation with many Bicol students and correspondence 
with teachers in Camarines and Albay have made it appear that 
Nee's vernacular terms cannot be used to identify any locality. 
Some are general, and some are unknown, at least as he uses 



33,2 Copeland: Nomenclature of the Abaca Plant 147 

them, to any of my informants. However, his citation of names 
of varieties can be made of use. 

As to description, we are told that Nee regarded abaca as 
a plant ready to strip eighteen months after planting, mature 
in twenty-four months, with fruit 1.5 to 2 inches in length, with 
a trunk reaching a total height of 7 feet, so that the cut trunk 
is 5 feet long. We are also given, as native Bicol names, agotai, 
agotag, and amoquid, the last two not distinguished. 

This description certainly applies to a plant smaller than 
most cultivated abaca, and quicker to mature under the condi- 
tions and treatment usual in Bicol territory. 

Turning again to the vernacular names : Agotag is apparently 
not a Bicol word; but agotay can be applied to the same plant 
as amoquid. The use of final "i'' or *y is optional, and in 
the notes of Nee or his informant "y'' might very easily have 
been mistaken for *'g.'' Instead of three names, then, we have 
probably only two. Amoquid is recognized by any Bicol as a 
word referring to a mountain, derived from boquid, or buquid, 
a mountain. T. N. Vibar sends me: "Amoquid — A variety of 
abaca, small, tapering and with stiff fibers, without much com- 
mercial value." Most Bicols know no variety by this name, 
and construe the term as applying to the habitat only. 

Regarding agotai, Mr. Vibar writes: 

Agotai: The name of the fruit and the plant belonging to the genus 
Musa, growing in forests, now extinct in cultivated plantations; called 
by the natives "Banana Utong'' or "Monkey Banana;" fruit edible, but 
containing many seeds. 

Mr. E. H. Koert writes: 

Agotai: Species of small wild banana, also known as *'Batag fig okai" 
or monkey banana. 

Edible fruit is not a constant feature of plants regarded locally 
as agotai. Also, although not as a rule, the plant is found in 
plantations, and this may well have been true in general more 
than a century ago, before the cultivation of abaca became a 
great and long-established business. In this connection, Mr. 
Koert writes, regarding amoquid: 

It appears that this is the only genuine wild hemp or abaca and the 
many varieties that now occur are merely the result of mutations and 
cross fertilization with ^'agotai.'' In new districts where abaca suckers 
are only to be had with considerable cost and labor it is still the practice 
to make a caingin and leave the seeds, carried by birds and animals, to 
grow up in the new clearing. In this virgin soil the plants shoot up 
rapidly and even the first generation is stripped to some extent and mixed 



148 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

with abaca from longer cultivated fields. The third generation of suckers 
growing from the bird-planted seed produces most of the coarse grades 
of fiber. After the third generation the fiber gradually becomes finer 
and finer. 

Mr. Celedonio Salvador, of Iriga, is likewise convinced that 
"Sa Mequid" represents Nee's plant; but in his locality the word 
"agotai" is not used as the name of a variety, and his description 
of the plant as a whole does not show that it differs from the 
agotai of other places. 

Mr. Vibar is equally of the opinion that agotai is the original 
wild parent. Both of these opinions are supported by other 
informants, agotai being more generally recognized as a specific 
form, being more commonly so regarded. 

Taking into account the scanty items of Nee's description, the 
present use of the vernacular varietal names he cites, and the 
fact that he wrote when the abaca industry was comparatively 
undeveloped, we may conclude with considerable confidence that 
typical Musa textilis is now to be found in the mountains rather 
than in the plantations of Camarines. Whether this conclusion 
carries in itself the identification of a type, or whether it re- 
mains to choose a type among two or more wild species, can 
be determined only after reasonably careful collection in the 
locality. It can of course hardly be doubted that M. textilis is 
represented in the Bicol plantations, whether or not by a typical 
form; but it is neither proven nor probable that all or most of 
the abaca cultivated there is descended from any local wild 
plants. One of the commonest cultivated "varieties'' is called 
''Sa Moro,'' a name indicating almost certain introduction from 
Mindanao. 

Perrottet's description of Micsa abaca was published in French, 
and is translated as follows: 

Mitsa Abaca Perr. I give to this new species of banana plant the 
name it bears among the Indians of the Philippines. It differs from the 
others of its genus, by its longer, narrower, firmer,, and beautifully dark 
green leaves, by the thickness and considerable height of its stalk, of a 
brilliant deep, green color. Its fruit seems never to be well fastened. 
From its stalk is extracted a sort of fiber, of the greatest tensile strength, 
from which are made cables and cordage which are very durable and 
resist the most violent storms. There is also made of it cloth of very 
fine texture, susceptible of perfect bleaching and rivaling the most beauti- 
ful linen. 

The natives multiply this plant by means of the suckers which the 
roots provide abundantly; they cultivate it with a certain fondness and 
have it in the neighborhood of their homes, where it forms considerable 
patches; but it thrives only where the soil is rich in humus and moist 



33,2 Copeland: Nomenclature of the Abaca Pla/nt I49 

rather than dry, where it is protected from the wind. It is a native of 
the forests, and abounds in humid and shady places. — C. M. 

There is nothing in this, beyond large size and green stem, 
which might suggest any particular plant (for the leaf char- 
acters are those of "abaca'' in general), and these features are 
not those of M, textilis. There is no note of place of collection, 
within the Philippines, nor does it appear that the plant was 
collected. The account is probably no more than a traveler's 
general impression. Under the circumstances, the best that 
can be done with Mitsa abaca is to relegate it to the limbo of 
"species ignota,'' though the name may be given to one of the 
tall, green forms, if study shows one of these to be entitled to 
recognition as a species. 

TRANSLATION FROM BLANCO'S FLORA DE FILIPINAS 

(1837) 246-250 

Musa Troglodytarum. Musa of the Troglodites. The spadix inclines 
toward the earth when the fruit is already big. Before this, erect, as is 
generally the case in other species. Flowers^ each bract of the scale 
covers some twenty little flowers. Corolla, as in the variety Ternatensis 
(flowers: each bract covers some twenty little perfect flowers, the inferior 
petal ends with a pit in the outer part; the superior petal is cleft at the 
end into five segments of which the longer ones are cucullate), stamens 
and anthers as in the variety of compressa (this has five perfect stamens 
and the rudiment of a sixth; the anthers are very large and covered with 
abundant powder). Fruit like that of temate (with three prominent 
angles, or at times four or five, and crowned with a flower which persists 
until the fruit is mature) and full of very much depressed round seeds 
with a navel. 

This very common plantain produces seeds, all perfect, from which it 
takes its name. The fruit, which is of ordinary size, is used to make 
vinegar and can also be eaten, since it is likewise savory. A buffalo main- 
tained for some months on the trunk of this plantain without other food 
lost its teeth, though it was quite young, which is singular indeed. Drink- 
ing the water which collects in the cut-off base of the trunk has a great 
reputation to cure the contraction of the virile member. T. Botohan, 
Botoan. 

Musa Troglodytarum errans. Musa of the troglodites erratic. Each 
scale covers some twenty little flowers. Corolla, the superior leaf with five 
laciniae, the two alternate ones smaller; the inferior leaf much shorter, 
with little teeth at the apex inconspicuous, and without any pit in the 
outer part of the base; there is likewise no rudiment of the sixth filament. 
Fruit with three to five ridges, full of perfect seeds. This rare plantain 
grows spontaneously in the woods, and its height and bearing are those of 
other varieties. The spadix is almost an arm span in length and the 
bracts of the spathe are green and not colored. The fruits are not much 
larger than the middle finger, and cannot be eaten even when mature, be- 
cause of their bitterness. They are full of black seeds when ripe, and 
with a single raceme this plantain might be easily extended over a whole 



150 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

province, and perhaps it would be well to do this, because its threads have 
seemed to me to be stronger than those of the abaca, which it is much like ; 
and perhaps the former has given origin to the latter which is already cul- 
tivated and with edible fruit. The one I am speaking of grows in the 
mountains of Tala. T, Saguing Machin, Saguing na ligao, 

Musa Troglodytarum Textoria. Musa of the Troglodites for cloth. Co- 
rolla, the inferior leaf almost without incisions. Stamens five, without a 
rudiment of a sixth. Fruit with three ridges, and many perfect seeds. 
This plantain called abaca I regard as a variety of the compressa; it is 
one of the most useful and is cultivated with care in the province of Ca- 
marines and other parts. At the first sight, it is not distinguished from 
the other. The fruit is very small, for that which I have seen scarcely 
exceeded two inches in length. The seeds mature completely. The use 
made of this plantain is very great. From it are obtained cords, cables, 
and cloths of extreme fineness. 

For this use, the trunk is cut at the foot and at the top when it is about 
to bear fruit, the leaves being removed. The petioles are removed one 
by one, and in the middle of each, a crosswise incision is made with a knife 
to remove the inner cortex. The inner cortex of the petiole being removed 
bands are still made of the outer part, two fingers wide, which are placed 
one by one under a knife blade fastened in a large bamboo which has the 
effect of a spring and the longer arm of which is fastened to the ground. 

The strip of abaca being placed then under the knife in such a manner 
that the outer surface looks upward, it is then drawn forcibly through 
by one end, which is repeated once or twice and the threads then appear 
clean; but with this method, there is a loss of half of the abaca. The fibers 
have still to be passed through a sort of saw which has the function of a 
flax comb like those used in Europe for flax; this second operation I have 
not seen performed, but the other I have. The fibers remain there in order; 
but some are finer than the others and, therefore, the women must take 
care to separate them into various classes before weaving, which work they 
perform with great dexterity, even though in the dark. 

If the abaca is to be employed in making cloths, a tight reel, as big as the 
head of a child, is first made of the fiber, which is put into a rice mortar 
and is given many blows with the wooden pestle of the mortar. This 
operation makes the abaca very flexible and less likely to break. This being 
done, there is nothing more except to tie the threads together by their 
ends, which work regularly keeps the women and children busy. The 
weaving is done as with cotton ; but, if the abaca is too fine, the women put 
themselves behind curtains to weave it, because the wind may easily break 
the fibers. 

The cloths being made,, they are placed for a day and a night in water 
with a little shell lime. They are afterward washed and stretched. 

Although the abaca is sufficiently strong, it is very inferior to linen and 
canamo, in this respect as well as in the luster and in "feel." 

The abaca does very well in the province of Batangas and in other parts; 
but it is not as good as that in Camarines, and the latter appears inferior 
also to that of Panay and Marinduque; but regarding this opinions differ. 

The fruit is eaten, and the water which collects in a hollow made in the 
base of the trunk, after it is cut, is said to be good for the contraction of 
the virile member, a singular disease which has not ceased to be frequent 



33,2 Copeland: Nomenclature of the Abaca Plant 151 

in the Visayan provinces, and which is regularly accompanied by the con- 
traction of the tongue. 

The Englishman Dampier was mistaken when he said that abaca was 
known only in Mindanao. 

The abaca stains easily with blue and red. To stain it with blue, there 
are employed since olden times the leaves of a bush or vine which in Ca- 
marines is called payanguit and aringuit, according to the sage report 
made about this vine to the Economic Society of Manila by the curious and 
diligent observer Father Jose de Mata, a Franciscan brother, the same who 
has recently made this vine known to the Europeans in the Philippines. 
The leaves of this bush give a very abundant blue color. V. Marsdenia, 

To stain abaca red, I have heard that in Camarines they boil the cortex 
of the root of the Morinda with a little lime or alum until the desired color 
is produced, and proceed with this to the dyeing; but it is better to dye 
it in the manner usually used with cotton thread; that is,, with lye and 
oil of sesame. T, Abaca. 

Note: The last two plantains have been included here in order to put 
those with thick peels together in one place. 

The name M, Troglodytarum cannot be given properly to any 
of these plants; it applies to M. uranoscopos Rumph., a plant 
with erect infrutescence. I have included a translation of the 
description of M. Troglodytarum errans^ because of a suspicion 
that this plant is real M. textilis, Teodoro, '^ has already sug- 
gested that it may be the agotai of Albay, and has raised Blanco's 
variety to specific rank. '^Saguing machin" means, again, 
''monkey banana.'' Teodoro's figures as to stature (4 to 5 m) 
would represent a very abnormally tall forest specimen. 

Blanco, like his predecessors, evidently intended to describe 
abaca in general, and omitted observations on color and stature 
peculiar to the various kinds. As he gave no possibly valid 
specific name, this raises no nomenclatorial difficulties. 

Teodoro, in the publication just referred to, has given a 
rather complete description, with figures of flowers and fruit, 
of the abaca plant commonly cultivated in Laguna. It re- 
mains to be determined, from a study of agotai and amoquid, 
whether or not it can be identified reasonably as M, textilis Nee. 

The description of Musa sylvestris, by Colla, ^^ is translated as 
follows : 

3. Musa Sylvestris. A Musa with the spadix subnutant, sterile and 
staminate flowers deciduous, the stipe and polygonous fruit turning black. 



M. sylvestris Pissang utan: Rumph Amb. page 139. Bananier Coffo 
Desv. page 38 n. 29. 

^"Philip. Journ. Sci. § C 10 (1915) 379. 

'*Memoria sul Genere Musa, etc., Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino 25 (182?) 386. 



152 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Habitat, Philippines, and especially, Mindanao. 



This rather than Musa Troglodytarum is probably the mother of all 
the species, which Willdenow calls seedless, for it carried the spadix 
nodding, not erect, and in special characters agrees notably with Musa 
paradisiaca; its substance is more solid and harder than in other species, 
the fruits are of the form of M, paradisiaca^ but smaller, never maturing or 
turning yellow, hard, and filled with many drupelets; this is the species 
from the threads of which the people of Mindanao weave garments, which 
they call Coffo and for which they are employed by the magnates. 

I have retained the name given by Rumphius, because this species alone, 
he said, was truly silvestris, and not cultivated. 

The translation of MiqueFs description ^' of this plant is as 
follows : 

3. Mtisa mindanensis Rumph. Herb. Amb. V. p. 139. Lofty and stout, 
the trunk turning black, as stout as a coconut trunk, the leaves firm, 
large, deep green; spadix nodding; mature fruits greenish, unequally 
polygonous, Musa sylvestris mindanensis Rumph. 1. c. M. Troglodytarum 
B. Wild. Spec. pi. I. p. 894. M. Balbisiana Collad. Hort Ripul. 1. c. M. 
textilis Luis Nee in Annales Ciencias naturales IV. p. 123. A striking 
distinct form with whitish trunk is reported by Rumphius. In the woods 
of Mindanao, Sangir, Gilolo,, Celebes, etc. Pisang utan in Malay. Kula 
abal in Amboinese. Fana in Ternatese. Koffo in Minahassa, the Phil- 
ippine Islands, etc. The fibers, obtained from this species, are of exceptional 
tensile strength, and have long been woven into fine cloths. 

The description of Rumphius, referred to by Colla and Miquel, 
is translated as follows: 

Musa silvestris. Pissang Utan. 

Another but larger forest species of Musa is in certain islands deeply 
sylvan by nature, when it is cultivated by nobody, but takes care of itself; 
but in certain islands it is sylvan, indeed,, by nature, but has its owners 
because of its uses, and thence we distinguish it as "Mindanauensis" and 
^'Amboinensis.*' 

First, Mindanuensis is a great, tall tree, having the thickness of a co- 
conut and the height of the sugar palm, usually blackish on the outside, 
but one form of it is green or whitish like other Musas, but not of as good 
reputation. It is composed likewise, of many sheaths placed one over 
another, its substance really being much more solid and harder, and the 
leaves likewise are commonly larger, darker, greener, and more firm. 

Its fruits are of the form of "Pisang batu" (saguing bato, stone banana), 
but smaller, never maturing or turning yellow, hard, filled with numerous 
seeds, unsavory, and not fit to eat, though if they are sucked out they are 
sweet. The forest form of this species bears a shorter trunk. 

An account of localities, names, and uses follows, but there 
is nothing more of a descriptive character. 

"Flora Ind. Bat. 3 (1855) 588. 



33,2 Copeland: Nomenclature of the Abaca Pla/nt 153 

Now this description, like Nee's, lacks almost everything of 
being an adequate diagnosis; but there is one character which 
stands out, and that is the remarkable stature, and nothing else 
that could have been said about it would have marked it so 
unmistakably as a different plant from that later described 
by Nee. 

It remains, then, to determine by field work a type of Musa 
silvestris in Mindanao, as of M, textilis in Luzon. Since south- 
eastern Mindanao lies nearest to the Moluccas, whence Rum- 
phius heard of this plant, and nearest to Sangir, where it was 
also reported, it is in that part of the island that the type would 
most reasonably be sought. There is, both wild and in common 
cultivation, in Davao, a plant which fits the limited description 
satisfactorily; and, so far as I know, there is only one such 
plant. The fixing of this type promises, therefore, to be easy. 



BLOOD-CHEMISTRY STUDIES IN LEPROSY, II. THE 
ALKALI RESERVE ' 

By Ernesto M. Paras 
Of the Chemical Section, Culion Leper Colony, Philippine Health Service 

The acidimetric condition of the blood has for some time 
been recognized as having a most important relation to the 
fundamental vital processes, and a number of methods have 
been developed, in the past two decades, for the chemical study 
of this condition in health and in disease. 

Advanced nephritis, diabetes, starvation, and most fevers 
have been found to be associated with a depletion of alkali. 
In tuberculosis and syphilis little or no change from the normal 
has been noted. Increased alkali has been observed in cases 
of cancer, persistent vomiting, and after administration of 
alkaline drugs such as sodium bicarbonate. 

In leprosy no work on this subject has come to our attention, 
beyond certain clinical observations,^ made by some physicians 
in this colony, that alkaline treatment is beneficial in cases of 
lepra reaction. The investigation reported in the present paper 
is a preliminary survey of the acidimetric condition of the blood 
in patients at Culion, grouped as far as possible into represen- 
tative classes. 

Van Slyke's method of determining the alkali reserve was 
chosen. Although a complete survey of the acidimetric con- 
dition of the blood would require also determination of the 
hydrogen ion concentration, it is believed that Van Slyke's 
method alone is sufficient for the cases investigated, for the 
reason that impairment of circulation or ventilation could 

^ Received December 4, 1926. Published with the permission of the 
Director of Health, upon recommendation of the Philippine Leprosy Re- 
search Board. 

The first paper of this series was published in the Philippine Journal 
of Science 30 (1926) 219-234. 

^ Compare Catalino Nicolas and Luis B. Delgado, Journ. P. I. Med. Assoc. 
6 (1926) 373-380. 

155 



156 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

practically be eliminated as causes of disturbance, according 
to the statements of the attending physicians.^ 

Where our values are very high, uncompensated alkalosis 
(Van Slyke's area I) is certain, unless there was markedly 
deficient ventilation. Among cases of moderately high value 
considerable uncompensated alkalosis is to be expected. (These 
cases will be discussed later in the paper.) Our normal values 
indicate the normal condition (area 5), and most of the low 
values,'^ "compensated acidosis" (area 6). Meyers and Booher 
state — 

in those cases of abnormal balance due to alkali deficit, which after all 
constitute much the largest clinical group, the bicarbonate appears to be 
entirely adequate so long as the values do not fall below 35. 

TECHNIC 

About 5 cubic centimeters of whole blood were collected under 
oil in a test tube containing a few powdered crystals of potas- 
sium oxalate.^ With very few exceptions, withdrawal of blood 
was done between 9 and 11 o'clock in the morning. 

The sample was centrifuged and the separated plasma sat- 
urated with carbon dioxide at the alveolar tension of the writer. 
The plasma total carbon dioxide was then determined in 1 cubic 
centimeter at room temperature. In a few instances 0.5 cubic 
centimeter was used. The determinations were usually per- 
formed within seven hours from the time the blood was drawn. 
Occasionally, however, the samples were centrifuged and then 
kept overnight in the refrigerator, covered with paraffine oil 
and well stoppered. As a check on the possible influence of 
standing upon the alkali reserve, two specimens of normal blood 
were tested after standing five hours and twenty-two hours, 
respectively; the results thus obtained showed no appreciable 
change. Specimens that were partially coagulated or con- 
taminated by haemoglobin were rejected. 

At the start of the work, duplicate examinations were made 
of each sample. Since the duplicate results generally agreed 
exactly and always within 0.02 cubic centimeter, single deter- 

* For a discussion of the relation between alkali reserve and hydrogen 
ion concentration the reader is referred to Myers, Pract. Analysis of 
Blood, 2d ed., 96-120, and to Stitt, Pract. Bact. Blood Work, Parasitology, 
7th ed., 655-665. 

'Meyers, V. C, and L. E. Booher, Journ. Biol. Chem. 59 (1924) 711. 

'^ For complete details of the method the reader is referred to Van Slyke, 
Journ. Biol. Chem. 30 (1917). 



33,2 Paras: Blood-chemistry Studies in Leprosy, II 157 

minations were used thereafter if the results were within 
normal limits. Abnormal results were always checked. 

As to the effect of diet, a thorough study on this subject has 
been made by J. F. McClendon '' and his coworkers, who con- 
cluded that the alkali reserve is remarkably resistant to such 
influence. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 
THE ALKALI RESERVE OF NORMAL INDIVIDUALS 

For the purpose of comparison twelve healthy adults were 
examined, five of whom were professionals and seven laborers. 
The results are grouped in Table 1. It can be seen that the 
range of carbon dioxide reading is from 60 to 78 volume per 
cent, with an average of 70. The values obtained from the 
laboring class appear to have much wider limits of variation 
than do those from the professional staff. This may be because 
the conditions of activity, occupation, and probably diet, besides 
other factors, were more nearly uniform in the latter class 
than in the former. 

In Table 2, the range of values obtained by other inves- 
tigators for normal individuals is compared with the data I 
obtained. From this table it can be noted that the normal 
values given by Van Slyke and CuUen and by Gettler and Baker 
vary more widely than do Cullen and Robinson's, Jonas's, or 
mine. This difference in variability may be attributed to the 
differences of conditions as above stated (age, activity, oc- 
cupation, etc.), that may be encountered for different indi- 
viduals, so that when normal persons are taken at random, 
greater variations are likely to be obtained. At least, this holds 
true in the present instance. Another example is that of Cullen 
and Robinson,^ who took for their normal individuals medical 
students whom they examined while these students were at 
class work between 10 and 11 o'clock in the morning. The 
readings obtained ranged from 59 to 71, showing a variation 
of only 12. It can also be seen that Gettler and Baker, and 
Van Slyke and Cullen obtained 56 and 53 volume per cent, 
respectively, as their lower limit for normal individuals. Jonas 
and I both have 60 volume per cent as our lower limit. That 
of Cullen and Robinson is practically the same as mine. Van 
Slyke stated that a great majority of plasma specimens obtained 

•Journ. Biol. Chem. 38 (1919) 539. 
Mo^:irTi. Biol. Chein. 57 (1923) 533. 



158 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

by the use of McRae needles show figures between 60 and 70. 
For the present, therefore, the values of 60 and 78 may be 
taken as the lower and upper limits, respectively, for normal 
individuals. 

THE ALKALI RESERVE IN LEPERS 

(a) Uncomplicated leprosy, — Table 3 shows the carbon 
dioxide percentages for cases of uncomplicated leprosy. These 
readings range from 60 to 83, with an average of 67.9, which 
is practically 2 lower than the normal average. Most of the 
values are between 60 and 70 and only two are above 78, the 
upper limit for normal individuals. It may be stated, there- 
fore, that leprosy alone is not accompanied by significant change 
in alkali reserve. No correlation could be found between the 
alkali reserve and the duration, type, advancement of leprosy, 
the antileprosy treatment, or the age of the patient. Practi- 
cally all of the patients examined were adult males. Since no 
conclusion could be drawn as to the relation of the values to 
the sex, and to economize space, this item is omitted in the 
tabulations. 

(6) Lepra reaction without alkaline treatment. — In the 
group of patients having lepra reaction without alkaline treat- 
ment (Table 4) the carbon dioxide readings ranged from 52 to 
78 volume per cent. Out of twenty cases examined, three were 
below 60 and the rest had normal values. The average is 66.5 
per cent, which is 3.5 per cent lower than the normal average. 
From this average it appears that in lepra reaction there is 
a tendency toward reduction of alkali reserve, although most 
of the individual cases gave readings within the normal limits. 

(c) Lepra reaction 2vith alkaline treatment. — In the lepra 
reaction cases with alkaline treatment ^ before and up to the 
time the blood was drawn for examination (Table 5), the va- 
riation was from 64 to 98, with an average of 75.7, about 6 
per cent above the average for normal individuals. Of the 
fifteen cases examined five gave results below 70, five ranged 
from 70 to 79, and the remaining five between 80 and 98. The 
latter range may be considered to show conditions of alkali 
excess. In this connection, the following comment by Meyers 
and Booher ^ may be quoted : 

• For method of alkaline treatment, the reader is referred to Catalino 
Nicolas and Luis B. Delgado, The alkaline treatment of lepra reaction, 
Journ. P. I. Med. Assoc. 6 (1926) 373-380. 

•Journ. Biol. Chem. 59 (1924) 708. 



33,2 Paras: Blood-chemistry Studies in Leprosy, II 159 

The highest CO2 we have found associated with a high pH was 88. 
This figure for COa capacity increased to 104 shortly before death. The 
lowest CO2 found associated with a high pH was 50. 

We are inclined to think that alkalosis is a condition often overlooked 
and sometimes confused with acidosis by the clinician. We believe that 
a great deal of care should be exercised in the administration of alkali. 
In cases with impairment of renal function the administration of alkali 
is a dangerous procedure, unless it is accompanied by estimations of the 
blood bicarbonate. 

A more-detailed investigation by the medical section of the 
Culion Leper Colony, of lepra reaction in connection with the 
alkali reserve and alkaline treatment, is now in progress. 

(d) Leprosy with tuberculosis, — Relative to Table 6, repre- 
senting cases of leprosy with tuberculosis, it may be stated 
that, although the number examined is too small to warrant 
a definite conclusion, the findings can for the present be con- 
sidered as negative. The average for this group is 72, which 
is only 2 volume per cent higher than the normal average. In 
this connection it may be mentioned that Sweany ^^ could draw 
no conclusion after making only one hundred tests; but, by con- 
tinuing the investigation to include several hundred patients, 
the results showed that there was an indication that the general 
average of tuberculosis patients had a slight tendency toward 
"acidosis." He concludes that — 

fibroid cases have a higher average of alkali reserve than patients having 
the same amount for involvement more acutely. 

Certain far advanced cases gave relatively high readings. 

David S. Hachen,^^ in a study of two hundred thirteen tuber- 
culous patients having every variety of lesions, also concluded 
that — 

in tuberculosis there is a moderate depletion in the blood alkali reserve 
only after the lesion becomes far advanced and is accompanied by rather 
severe clinical symptoms, such as increased fever, chills and sweats, 
slight dyspnea, and general malaise. 

{e) Leprosy with nephritis, — Table 7 represeiits cases of lep- 
rosy with nephritis. Although only a few were examined and 
the majority of the individual cases are within normal limits, 
the results show on the whole a reduction of alkali reserve. The 
average obtained for this group of eight cases is 61 per cent, 
which is 9 per cent lower than the normal average. One case 
(43) gave a reading of 26 per cent. This patient died about 

''Am. Reviews of Tuberculosis 7 (1923) 193. 
"Arch. Int. Med. 29 (1922) 705. 

227284 3 



16Q The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

half an hour after the blood was drawn and autopsy findings 
established ursemia as a cause of death. Two other cases (46 
and 80) had readings below the lower normal limit; the rest 
of the figures are within the normal limits. Low carbon 
dioxide values are the rule in severe nephritis. The normal 
figures found in the majority of the patients in this group 
may probably be considered as an index of the extent 
of kidney deficiency in these patients. This is in comformity 
with certain clinical observations ^^ here relative to the fre- 
quency of extensive cedemas and low phthalein readings, which 
are not in accord with the comparatively frequent diagnosis 
of uraemia as the cause of death. 

(/) Leprosy with miscellaneoits complications, — In cases with 
miscellaneous complications (Table 8) the carbon dioxide 
readings range from 50 to 84 per cent, with an average of 59.6. 
This is 10.4 per cent lower than the normal average. Out of 
nineteen cases, five are below the lower normal limit. Four 
of these five cases have nephritis as a part of their com- 
plications. Case 17 is above the upper normal and the rest 
are within normal limits. 

Case 19, with a reading of 42, had broncho-pneumonia when 
blood was drawn for examination. 

{g) Summarized data, — In the summary of data for the va- 
rious groups (Table 9) it will be noticed that the average value 
is very slightly lower than the normal average in the group of 
lepers having no complications, and somewhat lower still in 
the group with lepra reaction without alkaline treatment. In 
the group with lepra reaction with alkaline treatment a some- 
what more marked upward deviation from the normal average 
may be noted. The groups of lepers with nephritis and with 
miscellaneous complications show markedly low averages. In 
the group of cases with tuberculosis, the average carbon 
dioxide value is about the same as the normal average. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

1. The Van Slyke determination of carbon dioxide capacity 
was performed on twelve specimens of blood plasma from 
healthy subjects and on one hundred ten cases of leprosy 
classified as follows : (a) leprosy without complication; (&) lepra 
reaction without alkali treatment; (c) lepra reaction with 

"Lara, C. B., Journ. P. I. Med. Assoc. 3 (1923) 241, 275. 



33,2 Paras: Blood-chemistry Studies in Leprosij, II 161 

alkali treatment; (d) leprosy with tuberculosis; (e) leprosy 
with nephritis ; and (/) leprosy with miscellaneous complications. 

2. The readings obtained for normal nonlepers range from 
60 to 78 volume per cent. This variation is about the same 
as that found by other investigators for normal individuals. 

3. Uncomplicated leprosy is not accompanied by any signif- 
icant change in the alkali reserve. 

4. From the study of the average readings for the various 
groups of cases, the following points were brought out: 

(a) In lepra reaction most cases gave normal results ; possibly 
reduction of alkali reserve occurs only in a severe febrile 
reaction. 

(b) Characteristic readings of alkalosis were observed in some 
of the cases with lepra reaction who received alkali treatment. 

(c) Significant reduction of the alkali reserve was observed 
in the group of lepers with nephritis and in the group with 
miscellaneous complications. 

(d) Practically normal results were noted for the group of 
lepers with tuberculosis. 

5. Determination of alkali reserve, in connection with alkali 
therapy, is evidently important in lepra reaction, and is 
valuable in the study of nephritis among lepers. 

6. No correlation can be traced between the alkali reserve 
and the duration, type, and advancement of leprosy, or the 
antileprosy treatment. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am greatly indebted to Dr. Elisa Roxas-Pineda, unit phy- 
sician, of the medical section, for furnishing the clinical data 
required for this work as well as some of the blood specimens; 
and to Dr. G. A. Perkins, chief chemist, for his valuable sug- 
gestions and criticism offered in connection with the preparation 
of this paper. 

SYMBOLS USED IN TABLES 

In Tables 3 to 8 the following abbreviations and symbols 
are used: 

si =: slight, 
mc =r moderate, cutaneous. 

sc r= slight, cutaneous. 

sn =r slight, neural. 

an m advanced, neural, 
mn =z moderate, neural. 

ac := advanced cutaneous. 



162 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



mod == moderate, 
adv = advanced, 
neg = negative. 
C.E.I. = Chaulmoogra ethyl esters with 0.5 per cent iodine. 
C.E.I.Cr. = Chaulmoogra ethyl esters with 0.5 per cent iodine and 
10 per cent creosote. 
W.E.I. =: Hydnocarpus wightiana ethyl esters with 0.5 per cent 

iodine. 
W.O.I. = Hydnocarpus wightiana oil with iodine. 
W.O.E. = Hydnocarpus wightianxi oil with 20 per cent eucalyptus 
oil. 
W.O. = Hydnocarpus vnghtiana oil. 

= No antileprosy drugs were given. 
? = No record. 

Table 1. — The alkali reserve in normal nonlepers, 

[Carbon dioxide bound as bicarbonate in the plasma.] 



Name. 


Nationality. 


Plasma 
CO 2 capa- 
city, vol- 
ume 
per cent. 


Remarks. 


H. W. W . . _ 


American . 


75 
72 
72 
78 
72 
66 
77 
60 
70 
74 
68 
62 


Professional. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Laboring class. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 


G. A. P 

E. v. P 

E. M. P . 


do 

Filipino 


_ .do __ 


T.B.V 

E.E 


do 

_ .do 


I. L 


do 


A. M 


do 


S. G 


do 


A. A --_ _-- .._ - 


_ .do - 


B. R 


do 


F. L 


do 


Average . _ __ - - 




70 







Table 2. — Normal range of alkali reserve as given by various investigators. 

[Carbon dioxide bound as bicarbonate in the plasma.] 



Investigator. 


Nationality studied. 


Plasma CO 2 

capacity, 

volume per 

cent. 


Varia- 
tion, 
volume 
per cent. 


Average. 


CuUen-Robinson * _ _ _ _ _ 


American 

do 


59 to 71 
« 55 to 76 

56 to 78 

60 to 70 
60 to 78 


12 
23 
22 
10 
18 


67.6 
70 


Van Slyke-Cullen b__ _ 


Gettler-Baker d_ _. 


do 


Jonas ^ _ _ - 


_-_ -do -- 


Paras 


American and Filipino __. 





«Journ. Biol. Chem, 57 (1923) 534. 
»>Journ. Biol. Chem. 30 (1917) 308. 

^- "60 is the minimum normal figure if venous blood is drawn under oil and 53 when 
blood is drawn with momentary exposure to air (McRae needle)." 
d Journ. Biol. Chem. 25 (1916) 211. 
« Therapeutic Gazette 44 (1920) 468. 



33,2 Paras: Blood-chemistry Stvdies in Leprosy, II 163 



Table 3. — The alkali reserve in cases of uncomplicated leprosy, 

[Expressed in volume per cent of carbon dioxide combined in the plasma.] 



Case No. 


Age in 
years. 


Duration 
of lepro- 
sy. 


Type of 
leprosy. 


Advancement 
of leprosy. 


Antileprosv 
drugs used. 


CO J com- 
bining 
capacity. 


7 


41 
37 
20 
16 
22 
26 
26 
53 
25 
16 
21 
27 
24 
41 
39 
39 
40 
20 
19 
65 
28 
18 
22 
21 
27 
52 
35 
28 
50 
39 
47 
26 
63 
37 
24 
21 
32 


Years, 
7 

12 
7 
3 
3 
9 

14 
5 
6 
2 

11 
4 
6 
7 
5 

10 

10 
8 
3 

10 
8 
5 

10 
3 
4 

15 

17 
5 

12 
5 
6 
2 

12 
8 

14 
5 
5 
5 

20 
3 
6 


Cutaneous. . 

Mixed 

do 

do 

Cutaneous.. 

Mixed 

do 

do 

Cutaneous.. 

Mixed 

do 

neg 

Mixed 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Neural 

Cutaneous.. 
do 

Mixed - 

-----do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Neural 

do 

do 

Cutaneous.. 

Mixed 

do 

Neural 

Cutaneous.. 

do 

do 

Mixed 

do 

Neural 


si . 


C.E.I 

do 

do 

do 

do 

C. E. I. Cr - 

C.E.I 

do 

do 

do 

w.o 

C. E. I. Cr . 

C. E. I 

do 


64 
64 
61 
62 
72 
76 
68 
72 
62 
66 
76 
83 
70 
66 
72 
60 
68 
73 
70 
76 
64 
70 
80 
60 
70 
72 
64 
64 
70 
74 
68 
64 
66 
66 
60 
64 
64 
60 
70 
64 
68 


8 


si 

mc sn 

mod 

adv 

scan _. 

sc sn 

mcmn 

si 

mod- 

adv 

neg .._ 

si 

mod 


9 . 


14 _ 


18 


22_ . 


24 


29... 


31_.. 


32 


33... ._ 


36 


38 


40 


47 


mod 

adv 


do 

do 


48 


49 


mod 

sc mn 

mod 

si 

mod 

mod 

scan 

mod 

si 


C. E. I. Cr. 

C.E.I 

W. 0. I..-- 
do 

C. E. I. Cr. 

do 

do 

C. E. I..-. 

W. O. I.._- 

C. E. I. Cr. 

C. E. I 

do 


51 


61 


64 


65 


66 


67 


72 


73 


74 


mod 

mod 

mod 


75 . 


77 


78 


adv mc mn . 

mc mn 

mod 

mod 

scsn 

mod 

neg 

si 

si 


do 

do 

do 

do 

C. E. I. Cr. 

do 

C.E.I 

C. E. I. Cr. 

C. E. I 

W. O. I.._. 
C.E.I .... 

do 

do 


82 


88 


89 


90 


93... 


94 


95 


98 


99 


si 

adv 

mod 

neg 


100 


36 
26 
31 


102 


107 


Average 






67.9 


— 













164 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



Table 4. — The alkali reserve in cases of lepra reaction (without alkaline 

treatment) , 

[Expressed in volume per cent of carbon dioxide combined in the plasma.] 



Case No. 


Age in 
years. 


Dura- 
tion of 
lepro- 
sy. 


Type of 
leprosy. 


Advancement 
of leprosy. 


Antileprosy 
drugs. 


CO2 
capaci- 
ty. 


Clinical types » 
and remarks. 


1 


22 


Yrs. 
2 


Mixed 


mod 


W. E. I..._ 


74 


II. 


2 


33 


3 


do 


mod 


do 


64 


III. 


3 


19 


4 


do 


mod 


C. E.I 


74 


II, III. 


10 


20 


8 


do 


mc sn 


do 


69 


Ill, mod. 


11 


36 


? 


do 


mod 


do 


76 


m. 


12 


36 


3 


do 


adv 


do 


78 


II. 


15 


36 


8 


do 


scsn 


do 


63 


VII. 


28 


23 


4 


do 


adv 


W.O - 


62 


Mild. 


30 


20 


10 


do 


mod 


do 


76 


IV. 


43 


17 


3 


do 


mod 


C.E.I .._- 


68 


Ill, VIII, subsiding. 


50 


19 


5 


do 


sc sn 


C. E. I. Cr _ 


74 


III. 


58 


22 


5 


do 


mod 


W. 0. E.._ 


52 


II, severe, with chills. 


63 


17 


5 


Cutaneous.. 


adv 


C. E. I .._- 


68 


IV. 


70 


24 


7 


Mixed 


si 


C. E. I. Cr _ 


68 


III. 


84 


17 


4 


do 


scsn 


C.E.I 


62 


II. 


85 


18 


10 


do 


mcsn 


W.O 


57 


III. 


86 


17 


5 


Mixed - 


mc sn 


C.E.I.._- 


64 


IV, mod. 


96 


12 


3 


.__..do..... 


si 


do 


52 


Moderately severe. 


108 

Av 


25 
erage . 


9 


do 


mc an 


W.O 


66 


VII. 


66.5 











^ Clinical types of lepra reaction, according to classification followed by the medical 
section, Culion Leper Colony: 

I, Acute reaction of old lesions, with or without appreciable fever. 

II, Eruptions of new lesions without reaction of old lesions. 

III, Reactions of old lesions with eruptions of new lesions. 

IV, Successive eruptions. 

V, Febrile with delayed cutaneous reaction. 

VI, Febrile attacks, prolonged and severe without cutaneous reactions. 

VII, Neuritic manifestations with or without demonstrable neuritis. 

VIII, Rheumatoid manifestations ; arthritic, muscular, or both. 

IX, Conjunctivitis, iritis, or other ocular manifestations only. 

X, Orchitis. 



33,2 Paras: Blood-chemistry Studies in Leprosy, II 165 



Table 5. — The alkali reserve in cases of lepra reaction (with alkaline 

treatment) , 

[Expressed in volume per cent of carbon dioxide combined in the plasma.] 



Case No. 


Age in 
years. 


Dura- 
lion of 
lepro- 
sy. 


Type of 
leprosy. 


Advancement 
of leprosy. 


Antileprosy 
drugs. 


COa 

capa- 
city. 


Clinical tsrpes and 
remarks. 


16 


28 


Yrs. 
6 


Mixed 


mc sn 


C. E. I 


80 


Severe. 


20 


20 


6 


do 


mod 


do 


80 


Moderately severe. 


21 


27 


6 


do 


acmn 


W. 


78 


Protracted. 


23 


31 


4 


do 


adv 


W. O. I--- 


64 


IV, mild. 


26 


27 


5 


do 


mod 


C. E. I .--- 


68 


Repeated. 


41 


24 


12 


do 


adv 


W. 0. I-.-- 


98 


III. 


42 


20 


6 


do 


mod 


C.E.I ..-- 


82 


Ill, VIII, subsiding. 


53 


26 


7 


do 


mcsn 


C. E. I. Cr . 


73 


VIII, III. 


54 


34 


6 


do 


adv 


W.O 


66 


Ill, IX. 


55 


41 


4 


do 


mod 


do 


68 


MUd. 


60 


25 


4 


do 


mod 


C. E. I.-- 


68 


Moderately severe. 


62 


36 


4 


do 


mod 


W. 0. E ._- 


86 


Recurrent. 


71 

83 


23 
22 


13 
11 


Cutaneous.. 
Mixed 


ac- _ _ _ 


W.O 

C.E.I 


74 
74 


IX. 

Ill, VIII. 


mc mn 


104 


45 


8 


..__.do..___ 


mod 


do 


74 


Ill, VIII. 


105 

A^ 


14 
rerage. 


4 


Cutaneous.. 


si 


W. E. I--- 


68 


IV. 




75.7 











Table 6. — The alkali reserve in lepers with tuberculosis. 

[Expressed in volume per cent of carbon dioxide combined in 100 cubic centimeters plasma.] 



Case No. 


Age. 


Duration 

of 
leprosy. 


Type of 
leprosy. 


Advancement 
of leprosy. 


Antileprosy 
drugs used. 


COi 
combin- 
ing 
capacity. 


Advancement of 
tuberculosis. 


25. 


Years. 
18 
41 
27 
31 
28 
21 
26 
verage _ 


Years. 

7 
16 

5 

5 
12 
13 

3 


Mixed 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 


si 





C.E.I .... 




C.E.I 


69 
78 
72 
73 
76 
70 
68 
72 


mod. adv. 
adv. 


37.. _. 
39 


adv 

mod 

scan 

adv . 

adv . 

mod 


45 

56 ... 

92 _.. 

103 _._ 

A 


adv. 
adv. 
adv. 
adv. 















166 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



Table 7. — The alkali reserve in lepers with nephritis, 

[Expressed in volume per cent carbon dioxide combined plasma.] 



Case No. 


Age. 


Duration 

of 
leprosy. 


Type of 
leprosy. 


Advancement 
of leprosy. 


Antileprosy 
drugs used. 


COt combin- 
ing capacity. 


4 


Years. 
26 
59 
42 
29 
39 
59 
27 
40 


Years, 

8 

10 

8 

3 

5 

6 

11 

12 


Mixed 

do 

Cutaneous. - 

Mixed 

do 

do 

do 

do 


adv 

adv 

adv - 

mcsn 

si __. 








? 

C.E.I. ._- 

W.O.I. ._. 

C.E.I ..-. 




70 
58 
26 
78 
70 
58 
62 
66 
61 


46 


69 


68 


76 

80 


adv - 

mod 

mod 


101 


109 _ -. . 

















Table 8. — The alkali reserve in lepers with miscellaneous complications, 

[Expressed in volume per cent of carbon dioxide combined in 100 cubic centimeters plasma.] 



Case No. 


Age. 


Dura- 
tion of 
lep- 
rosy. 


Type of 
leprosy. 


Advancement 
of leprosy. 


Antileprosy 
drugs. 


C02 

combin- 
ing 
capacity. 


Remarks. 




Yrs, 


Yrs, 












5..._ 


23 


4 


Mixed 


adv. 


W.O.I .- 


68 


p. t. b., incipient: 
nephritis, chron- 
ic; ankylosto- 
miasis; ascaria- 
fcis; secondary 
anaemia. 


6 


23 


5 


do 


mod 


W.O 


63 


Lepra reaction III, 
VIII, severe; ne- 
phritis, chronic. 


13 


20 


4 


do 


adv 


W.O.I... 


72 


Lepra reaction IV, 
VII, VIII, se- 
vere; p. t.b.; an- 
kylostomi a s i s ; 
secondary ane- 
mia; treated with 
alkaline drugs. 


17 


28 


4 


do 


mod 


C.E.I 


84 


Abscess post injec- 
tion, etc. 


19 


37 


21 


Cutaneous.- 


adv 


W. 0. 1. .- 


42 


Broncho-pneumo- 
nia. 


27._.. 
34 


14 
31 


3 

7 


Neural 

Mixed 


si 


W.O.I .... 
C.E.T 


76 
50 


Measles. 

Cardiac dilatation; 


adv 
















nephritis, chron- 
















ic; p. t. b. 


35 


41 


10 


do 


adv 





66 


Lepra reaction IV; 
nephritis, chron- 
ic; p. t. b.; treat- 
ed with alkaline 
drugs. 


44 


32 


16 


do 


sesn 


W.O.I ... 


58 


Malaria, acute; 
nephritis, chron- 
ic; temperature 
40.70c. 



33,2 Paras: Blood-chemistry Studies in Leprosy, II 167 

Table 8. — The alkali reserve in lepers with miscellaneous 
complications — Continued. 



Case No. 


Age. 


Dura- 
tion of 

lep. 

rosy. 


Type of 
leprosy. 


Advancement 
of leprosy. 


Antileprosy 
drugs. 


COi 

combin- 

capacity 


Remarks. 




Yrs, 


Yrs. 












52 


29 


7 


Cutaneous. - 


mod mc 


W.O 


64 


Malaria, malig- 
nant. 


57 


34 


14 


Mixed 


ac mn 


W.O 


72 


Lepra reaction IV, 
VIII; nephritis, 
chronic; treated 
with alkaline 
drugs. 


69 


25 


14 


do 


adv 





73 


p. t. b.; nephritis, 
chronic. 


79 


39 


10 


do 


mod 





62 


Nephritis, chronic; 
p. t. b. 


81 


30 


8 


do 


adv._. ... 





66 


Lepra reaction; 
nephritis, chron- 
ic; annmia. 


87 


52 


11 


do 


ac mn 





54 


Nephritis, chronic; 
lepra reaction 
IV; osteoarthri- 
tis, right knee. 


91 


34 


6 


do 


adv 





68 


Nephritis, chronic; 
lepra reaction. 


97.... 


16 


6 


Cutaneous.. 


mc 


W.O 


76 


Nephritis, chronic; 
















lepra reaction; 
















treated with al- 
















kaline drugs. 


106 


25 


11 


Mixed 


adv 





58 


Lepra reaction; 
nephritis, chron- 
ic; ankylosto- 
miasis; second- 
ary aneeroia. 


110.,. 
Ave 


37 
rage.. 


5 


do... _. 


mc sn. 


C.E.I 


69 
59.6 


Nephritis, chronic; 
lepra reaction 
II; secondary 
anaemia; anky- 
lostomiasis. 













Table 9. — The alkali reserve; group range and average. 

[Expressed in volume per cent carbon dioxide combined in 100 cubic centimeters plasma.] 



Table. 



Condition of cases. 



1 Normal nonlepers 

3 Lepers without complication 

4 Lepers with lepra reaction (without alkaline treatment) 

5 Lepers with lepra reaction (with alkaline treatment) 

6 Lepers with tuberculosis . 

7 1 Lepers with nephritis 

8 Lepers with miscellaneous complications 



Range. 



60 to 78 
60 to 83 
52 to 78 
64 to 98 
68 to 78 
26 to 78 
50 to 84 



Average. 



70.0 
67.9 
66.5 
75.7 
72.0 
61 
59.6 



SALTS OF ALPHA LINOLIC TETRABROMIDE (SODIUM, 
POTASSIUM, ZINC, BARIUM, CALCIUM, AND STRON- 
TIUM) FROM PHILIPPINE LUMBANG OIL 

By Adelaida T. Oreta 

Assistant in Chemistry^ University of the Philippines 

and 

Augustus P. West 
Professor of Chemistry, University of the Philippines 

Recent experiments ^ indicated that Philippine lumbang oil con- 
tains various linolic glycerides corresponding to different linolic 
acids. These glycerides, together with linolenic glyceride, are 
the principal substances that absorb oxygen from the air and 
cause the oil to dry.^ Alpha linolic glyceride is perhaps the 
most important of the linolic glycerides. This glyceride and 
the corresponding free alpha linolic acid are, therefore, sub- 
stances of considerable importance. Although the glyceride and 
the free acid are 3ubstances that oxidize readily, they may 
be separated from an oil in the form of a stable tetrabromide.' 

Br Br Br Br 

CH3 (CH^) .CH-CHCH^CH-CH (CH,) ,COOH 
alpha linolic tetrabromide 

Since this crystallized alpha linolic tetrabromide is a stable 
form of the alpha linolic compounds, it is an important 
substance in the chemistry of vegetable drying oils. Only a 
very few derivatives * of this substance (alpha tetrabromide) 
have ever been prepared and, in view of this fact, it seemed 
desirable to make a few salts of this substance and determine 
their solubility in various organic solvents. The data thus ob- 

' Santiago, S., and A. P. West, Philip. Journ. Sci. 32 (1927) 41-52. 
' Lewkowitsch, J., Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats, and 
Waxes 2 (1922) 42. 
*Ibid. 1 (1921) 202. 
' Ibid. 204. 

169 



170 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1921 

tained may be useful in devising new methods for separating 
mixtures of various linolic tetrabromides. 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 

Preparation of alpha linolic tetrabromide. — Philippine lum- 
bang oil was used as the material for preparing a supply of 
alpha linolic tetrabromide. Lumbang oil is obtained from the 
seeds of Aleurites mohiccana. It is a drying oil and is used 
in making paints, varnishes, and similar products.^ The 
lumbang oil was pressed from seeds of good quality and filtered, 
first through glass wool and then through filter paper. Lumbang 
oil consists almost entirely of the unsaturated glycerides of 
linolenic, linolic, and oleic acids.^ 

The alpha linolic tetrabromide was prepared from lumbang 
oil in accordance with the procedure adopted by Santiago and 
West^ in a recent investigation of lumbang compounds. The 
lumbang oil was saponified with aldehyde-free alcoholic po- 
tassium hydroxide.^ The mixed potassium soaps thus obtained 
were converted into the mixed acids. The mixed acids were bro- 
minated in ether solution, according to the procedure used by 
Imperial and West^ in preparing linolenic hexabromide. The 
ether solution of mixed acids was stirred mechanically by means 
of a hot-air motor and brominated at — lO"" C. The insoluble 
linolenic hexabromide was removed by filtering. The ethereal 
filtrate from the hexabromide was treated with sodium thio- 
sulphate solution to remove the bromine, dehydrated with 
sodium sulphate, and distilled to eliminate the ether. The 
residue was treated with cold petroleum ether which pre- 
cipitated a mixture of linolic tetrabromides. The crude solid 
tetrabromides were separated from the oily (gamma) tetra- 
bromide and oily oleic dibromide by filtering. The crude 
crystalline tetrabromides were washed with petroleum ether, 
after which they were crystallized from ethyl alcohol (95 per 
cent) . Two crops of impure alpha linolic tetrabromide (melting 
point 110 to 113° C.) were obtained. The crude alpha tetra- 
bromide was washed again with petroleum ether and crystallized 
once from gasoline and several times from ethyl alcohol. After 
this further purification the melting point was 112.3 to 114.3° C. 

''West, A. p., and F. L. Smith, 2d, Bull. P. I. Bur. Forestry 24 (1923). 

•West, A. P., and Z. Montes, Philip. Journ. Sci. 18 (1921) 619. 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. 32 (1927) 41-52. 

•Dunlap, F. L., Journ. Am. Chem. Soc. 28 (1906) 397. 

•Philip. Journ. Sci. 31 (1926) 441. 



33,2 Or eta and West: Salts from Lumbang Oil 171 

Salts of alpha linolic tetrabromide were prepared by first 
converting the acid into the potassium salt. An alcoholic so- 
lution of the potassium salt was then treated with a solution 
of an inorganic salt, such as zinc chloride. The precipitated 
salt thus obtained was purified and the melting point and sol- 
ubility in various solvents were determined. The sodium and 
potassium salts were, however, prepared directly from the free 
alpha linolic tetrabromide. In preparing these salts ethyl al- 
cohol (95 per cent) was used as a general solvent. 

Potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide. — Thirty-five 
grams of alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved in about 
600 cubic centimeters of hot ethyl alcohol (95 per cent). To 
this alcoholic solution there was added from a burette an excess 
of the calculated amount of half normal alcoholic potassium hy- 
droxide solution prepared with aldehyde-free alcohol. The potas- 
sium salt of the alpha linolic tetrabromide was formed as a white, 
gelatinous precipitate which dissolved when the mixture was 
boiled. The mixture was heated (reflux) on a water bath for 
about five hours. When the mixture was cooled the potassium 
salt separated out and was removed by filtering. The potassium 
salt was crystallized once from methyl alcohol and once from 
ethyl alcohol. It was then placed on a watch glass and dried 
in a vacuum desiccator. 

Analysis: Bromine. 

Per cent. 

Calculated for CnHsiBriOzK 50.10 

Found 50.13 

Zinc salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide, — Eight grams of alpha 
linolic tetrabromide were dissolved in about 200 cubic centi- 
meters of hot ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) . To the hot clear solu- 
tion was added with shaking a slight excess of the calculated 
amount of half normal alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution. 
The mixture was heated (reflux) on a water bath for about two 
hours and then treated with a slight excess of the calculated 
quantity of hot alcoholic zinc chloride solution (0.9287 gram 
of zince chloride dissolved in 150 cubic centimeters of ethyl 
alcohol). A white flocculent precipitate of the zinc salt of 
alpha linolic tetrabromide was formed. The mixture was 
heated (reflux) on a water bath until the alcohol above the 
precipitate was completely clear indicating that the reaction 
was complete. This required about seven hours. The mixture 
was cooled and filtered. The precipitate was washed several 
times with ethyl alcohol to remove any unchanged alpha linolic 
tetrabromide, and with ethyl alcohol (50 per cent) until the 



172 The Philippine Journal of Science i»27 

washings gave a negative test for chlorides. After washing 
again with a small quantity of ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) the 
product was dried in an oven at 60° C. and then placed in a 
vacuum desiccator. 

The melting point determination showed that the salt began 
to melt at 154.7° C. and melted completely at 158.8° C. without 
turning brown. 

The formula of the salt was checked by determining the zinc 
as zinc oxide. A weighed quantity of the salt, placed in a 
porcelain crucible, was treated with a few drops of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid and heated gently. After ignition with 
a Bunsen flame the zinc was weighed as zinc oxide. 

Analysis : 

Zinc. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C36H62Br804Zn 5.17 

Found 5.31 

Calcium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide. — Eight grams of 
alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved in 200 cubic centi- 
meters of hot ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) and to this hot solution 
27.5 cubic centimeters of alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution 
(1 cubic centimeter = 0.02873 gram potassium hydroxide) con- 
taining a very slight excess of the calculated amount of potas- 
sium hydroxide were added with vigorous shaking. The mixture 
was heated (reflux) on a water bath for about two hours. The 
solution of the potassium salt was then treated with an 
alcoholic solution of calcium bromide (1.5 grams CaBr2 dis- 
solved in 125 cubic centimeters of ethyl alcohol) containing a 
very slight excess of the calculated amount of calcium bromide. 
The calcium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide was precipitated. 
When the mixture was boiled (reflux) on a water bath the liquid 
above the precipitate became perfectly clear. The boiling was 
continued for about four hours to insure the completion of the 
reaction. The mixture was then cooled and the calcium salt 
removed by filtering, after which it was washed with ethyl al- 
cohol (50 per cent) until the washing gave a negative test 
with silver nitrate which indicated that no potassium or 
calcium bromides were present as impurities. The calcium 
salt was then washed with hot ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) to re- 
move any unchanged alpha linolic tetrabromide. The salt was 
then dried in a vacuum desiccator. 

When the melting point was determined, the salt began to 
turn brown at 208.7° C. and melted completely at 213.4° C. 
with decomposition. 



33,2 Or eta and West: Salts from Lumbang Oil 173 

In order to check the formula a weighed quantity of the salt 
was treated with sulphuric acid and the calcium determined as 
calcium sulphate. 

Analysis : 

Calcium. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for GcHe^BrsO^Ca 3.24 

Found 3.03 

Strontium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide. — The strontium 
salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide was prepared by mixing a 
hot solution of 8 grams of the tetrabromide dissolved in 200 cu- 
bic centimeters of ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) with a slight excess 
of half normal alcoholic potassium hydroxide. The mixture was 
heated (reflux) on a Water bath for about three hours and 
then treated with a hot alcoholic solution of strontium bromide 
which was prepared by dissolving 2.7 grams of crystallized 
strontium bromide (SrBrg.eHgO) in 50 cubic centimeters of 
ethyl alcohol. The mixture was diluted with hot ethyl alcohol 
to a volume of about 1,200 cubic centimeters and heated (reflux) 
on a water bath until the liquid above the precipitate was 
perfectly clear, indicating that the reaction was complete. This 
required about ten hours. As a portion of the alcohol evap- 
orated while the mixture was boiling, small quantities of 
alcohol were added occasionally to replace the loss. 

The mixture was then cooled to room temperature and the 
strontium salt removed by filtering. The strontium salt was 
washed with ethyl alcohol (50 per cent) until free from bromides, 
as determined by the silver nitrate test. The salt was next 
washed with hot ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) to eliminate any 
unchanged tetrabromide and dried in a vaccuum desiccator. 

The melting point determination showed that the salt began 
to turn brown at 200.4° C. and melted completely at 206° C. 
with decomposition. 

The formula was checked by treating a portion of the salt 
with sulphuric acid and determining the strontium as sulphate. 

Analysis : 

strontium. 

Per cent. 
Calculated for C«jH«2Brs04Sr 6.81 

Found 6.52 

Barium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide. — Eight grams of 
alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved in about 200 cubic 
centimeters of ethyl alcohol. The solution was treated with 
a slight excess of the calculated amount of half normal alcoholic 



174 The Philippine Journal of Science i»27 

potassium hydroxide solution and heated (reflux) on a water 
bath for about one and a half hours. A solution of barium 
bromide was prepared by treating 2.36 grams of crystallized 
barium bromide (BaBr2.2H20) with 5 cubic centimeters of 
water and 100 cubic centimeters of hot ethyl alcohol. The hot 
clear solution of barium bromide was added to the alcoholic 
solution of the potassium salt previously prepared. The mix- 
ture was diluted with about 150 cubic centimeters of ethyl 
alcohol and heated (reflux) on a water bath until the liquid 
above the precipitate was entirely clear. This required about 
six hours. Small quantities of ethyl alcohol were added from 
time to time to replace the alcohol lost by volatilization. 

The mixture was then allowed to cool and was filtered. The 
barium salt was then washed with ethyl alcohol (50 per cent) 
until free from bromides as indicated by the silver nitrate test. 
The salt was next washed with hot ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) 
to remove any linolic tetrabromide and dried in a vacuum 
desiccator. 

A determination of the melting point showed that the salt 
began to turn brown at 196.3° C, and melted completely at 
202.5° C. with decomposition. 

The salt was analyzed for barium by treating a portion with 
sulphuric acid and determining the barium as sulphate. 

Analysis : 

Barium. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for Ca6H«Br,04Ba 10.29 

Found 9.87 

Sodium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide, — Twenty grams 
of alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved in 600 cubic centi- 
meters of hot ethyl alcohol. The solution was treated with 
70.5 cubic centimeters of alcoholic sodium hydroxide solution 
(1 cubic centimeter = 0.02943 gram sodium hydroxide). The 
mixture was heated (reflux) on a water bath for about three 
hours to eliminate the turbidity and then poured into a beaker, di- 
luted with about 100 cubic centimeters of ethyl alcohol, and 
cooled. The gelatinous sodium salt was removed by filtering 
and washed with ethyl alcohol. The salt was then recrystallized 
from hot ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) and dried in a vacuum desic- 
cator. The sodium salt is considerably more soluble in ethyl 
alcohol than are the other salts that were prepared. The filtrate 
and washings from the first crop were concentrated to about a 
fourth of the original volume and a second yield was obtained. 



33,2 Or eta and West: Salts from Lumbang Oil 175 

The melting point determination showed that the salt began 
to turn brown at 194.2° C, and melted completely at 201.1° C. 
with decomposition. 

The percentage of sodium was determined by converting a 
portion of the salt into sodium sulphate. 

Analysis: ^^^^ 

Per cent. 

Calculated for Ci8H3iBr402Na 3.69 

Found 3.28 

Melting point. — A determination of the melting point of the 
salts that were prepared showed that most of them decomposed 
when heated to a sufficiently high temperature. This is not un- 
usual since, according to the literature,^^ a number of salts of 
long-chain aliphatic acids do not give a sharp melting point. 

Solubility. — Qualitative solubility experiments on the salts 
that were prepared were made at room temperature (about 
30° C. and designated as cold), and also in hot solvents. For 
low-boiling solvents, like acetone, the solubility in hot solution 
was determined at the boiling temperature of the solvent. With 
high-boiling solvents, such as benzyl alcohol, the temperature 
for solubility determination was about 90° C. In reporting the 
qualitative solubility data, the term "soluble" is used for sol- 
vents which dissolve the salt to the extent of about 1 to 4 per 
cent. For solubility below 1 per cent the terms "insoluble" or 
"slightly soluble" are used. The term "very soluble" is used 
when about 5 per cent or more of the salt is dissolved. 

As shown by the solubility data given in Table 1, the salts 
of alpha linolic tetrabromide, prepared in this research, are 
not very soluble in the ordinary organic solvents. Experi- 
ments showed that 100 cubic centimeters of hot ethyl alcohol 
dissolved about 5.4 grams of the sodium salt and 1.5 grams of 
the potassium salt. One hundred cubic centimeters of hot 
methyl alcohol dissolved about 12 grams of the sodium salt and 
2.5 grams of the potassium salt. One hundred cubic centi- 
meters of warm benzyl alcohol dissolved about 2 grams of the 
sodium salt and 13.6 grams of the potassium salt. One hun- 
dred cubic centimeters of warm normal propyl alcohol dis- 
solved about 6.7 grams of the sodium salt and 14.5 grams of 
the potassium salt. One hundred cubic centimeters of ethyl 

" Lewkowitsch, J., Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats, 
and Waxes 1 (1921) 156, 157, 160, 163, 172, 175, 191, 192, 200, 240, 207. 

Beilstein's Handbuch der Organischen Chemie, Vierte Auiiage, 2 (1920) 
361, 369, 372, 374, 395, 396, 466, 473. 

227284 4 



176 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



benzoate dissolved about 11.7 grams of the zinc salt, 9 grams 
of the barium salt, 7 grams of the calcium salt, and 8.6 grams 
of the strontium salt. 

Table 1. — Solubility of salts of alpha linolic tetrabromide. 

[I, insoluble ; ss, slightly soluble ; S, soluble ; VS, very soluble.] 



Solvent. 


Sodium 
salt. 


Potassium 
salt. 


Zinc 

salt. 


Barium 
salt. 


Calcium 
salt. 


Strontium 
salt. 


2 
o 


w 

ss 

I 

ss 
S 
ss 
ss 
ss 
VS 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
VS 
VS 
ss 

I 

ss 


2 

"o 
U 

ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
ss 

ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 
I 
I 


o 

w 

ss 

I 

ss 
VS 
ss 
ss 
ss 

s 

ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

s 

VS 
ss 

I 

ss 


2 

"o 

ss 

I 
I 
I 

ss 

ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 
I 
I 


o 

w 

ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
VS 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 

ss 


2 
"o 
U 

ss 
I 
I 
I 
ss 
ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 
I 

I 


o 

w 

ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
VS 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

ss 


2 

o 

o 


o 


2 
o 


o 

w 


Acetone 


ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 

ss 

S3 
S3 
SS 

ss 
ss 
ss 

I 
I 
I 


ss 

I 
I 
I 

ss 
ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
ss 

BS 

ss 

SS 

ss 

I 
I 
I 


ss 

I 

ss 
ss 

ss 
ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
VS 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 

ss 


ss 
I 

I 
I 
ss 

ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 
I 

I 


ss 

I 

ss 
ss 

ss 
ss 

I 

ss 
ss 
VS 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 
ss 

I 

ss 


Amyl alcohol 


Benzene 


Benzyl alcohol 

Chloroform 


Carbon tetrachloride _ . 
Ether __ 


Ethyl alcohol 


Ethyl acetate ._ 


Ethyl benzoate 

Ethyl bromide _ _ . 

Isopropyl alcohol 

Methyl alcohol 

Propyl alcohol (n) 

Petroleum ether 

Toluene_ 


Xylene 





These solubility experiments indicate that ethyl, methyl, and 
normal propyl alcohols are good solvents for the sodium salt; 
benzyl and normal propyl alcohols are good solvents for the 
potassium salt; ethyl benzoate appears to be the best solvent 
for the zinc, barium, calcium, and strontium salts. 

SUMMARY 

Alpha linolic tetrabromide (melting point, 112.3 to 114.3° C.)' 
was prepared from lumbang oil. 

The sodium and potassium salts of alpha linolic tetrabromide 
were prepared by treating an alcoholic solution of the free acid 
with an alcoholic solution of the corresponding alkali. 

From the potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide the 
zinc, barium, calcium, and strontium salts were prepared. 

The melting point of these compounds was determined and 
the formulas were checked by analysis. 

The solubility of the sodium, potassium, zinc, barium, 
calcium, and strontium salts of alpha linolic tetrabromide was 
determined for various solvents. 



COMPOSITION AND COMPARATIVE SERVICE VALUE 

UNDER PHILIPPINE CONDITIONS OF SOME 

IMPORTED PREPARED PAINTS 

By R. H. Aguilar 

Of the Division of General^ Inorganic^ and Physical Chemistry 
Bureau of Science^ Manila 

SEVEN PLATES 

Recently a marked tendency has been observed among paint 
consumers in the Philippine Islands to use prepared paints, 
already mixed for application. Possibly, the main factors that 
have contributed to this situation are the ever-increasing difficulty 
of securing the services of skilled painters capable of properly- 
mixing different paints and colors, and the relatively low price 
of the ready-mixed products. 

Prior to American occupation and some years since, Great 
Britain practically monopolized the exportation of paints and 
paint materials to the Islands. The English paints are generally 
imported in the form of paste, and on the average are of good 
quality. Foremost among the well-known brands is Hubbuck. 
Until very recently, master painters of long experience could 
not be induced to accept any other brand, in spite of the fact 
that American paints of similar grade and quality were being 
offered in the local market. The superiority of Hubbuck be- 
came more apparent when, in the period 1917 to 1919, the in- 
creased demand for paint and paint materials attracted the 
attention of unscrupulous dealers who, encouraged by the high 
prices then prevailing, flooded the market with all sorts of 
paints of inferior class, the greater proportion of which were 
of the "Ready Mixed'' variety. Of course, the unsatisfactory 
results soon became evident, and the consumer felt that these 
results justified his former doubts of the service value of all 
unknown brands of paints and paint materials, irrespective of 
their physical and chemical characters. 

In this connection, the statistics on the comparative importa- 
tion of paints from the United States and the United Kingdom, 
those two countries supplying the bulk of this material consumed 
in the Philippines, taken from the Statistical Bulletin of the 

177 



178 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Bureau of Commerce and Industry, 1919, 1922, and 1924, are of 
interest. The figures show that, while the imports from the 
United States increased 233 per cent from 1917 to 1919, those 
from the United Kingdom increased 3 per cent only. On the 
other hand, imports from the United States from 1919 to 1922 
decreased 61 per cent, while those from Great Britain increased 
51 per cent. The unsatisfactory results obtained from the use 
of paints of inferior quality, imported during the prosperous 
years 1917 to 1919, in all probability were the cause of the drop 
from 1919 to 1922, in the imports from the United States, whence 
the bulk of the prepared paints come. To obtain reliable results 
the consumer had to return to the use of the well-known brands 
of paint imported from the United Kingdom. 

However, from 1922 on a steady increase in the imports from 
the United States has been observed. The change seems to in- 
dicate that the good qualities of high-grade American paints are 
beginning to be appreciated by the intelligent consumer, and 
these paints are fast gaining a foothold in the Philippine market. 

PREVIOUS WORK ON THE SUBJECT 

I know of no published data on the actual service value of 
paints under local conditions. The Bureau of Public Works, 
the Bureau of Supply, the various paint importers and, very 
recently, a local paint manufacturer have been doing some work 
along this line. Apparently the data so obtained are kept 
for the information of the interested parties and are not in- 
tended for publication. 

OBJECT OF THE PRESENT ARTICLE 

This article deals with the results of exposure tests, under 
Philippine conditions, mainly of imported prepared paints sub- 
mitted for analysis to the Bureau of Science by the Bureau of 
Supply, the Bureau of Public Works, and paint agents in con- 
nection with Government bids. 

Our experience with the service value of a large number of 
these prepared paints has been very discouraging. Paints which 
were sold at a good price, on the strength of the claim of the 
manufacturers and their agents that they have given satisfactory 
service in temperate countries, have shown very poor weather- 
resisting properties under Philippine conditions. Some of the 
paints were even advertised to be especially prepared for use 
in the Tropics. 



33,2 Aguilar: Service Value of Paints 179 

It is for the purpose of ascertaining the relationship existing 
between the chemical analysis and the service value of these 
paints, under local climatic conditions, that this work has been 
undertaken. 

The importance of the knowledge of local conditions and their 
relation to the composition of the paint has long been recognized 
by Chessman.^ He makes the following statement: 

The Manufacturer should also know the condition under which his 
paint is to be used, otherwise perfect results in some locations, will prove 
a failure elsewhere. 

Other factors, which cannot be disregarded without seriously 
affecting the life of the paint, are atmospheric conditions at the 
time of painting, kind and condition of the painted surface, man- 
ner of application, and many other more or less important details 
that have a direct bearing on the endurance and wearing qualities 
of the paint films. 

SCOPE OF THE WORK 

The work can be divided into two general stages; namely, 
chemical analyses and exposure tests. The chemical analyses 
embrace the separation of the vehicle from the pigment, the 
analysis of the vehicle, and the analysis of the pigment. The 
exposure tests embrace the preparation of the surface to be 
painted, the application and the drying of the paint, and the 
exposure of the painted surface after the paint film is thoroughly 
dry. 

METHODS OP PROCEDURE 

The analyses of the vehicle and the pigment followed 
mainly Holley's methods of procedure,^ supplemented by Grifiin's 
methods.^ It was also found convenient to follow electro-analjrt- 
ical methods ^ in the determinations of lead and of zinc. 

In the preparation and exposure of the panels, the general 
methods described by Gardner ^ were followed ; namely, painting 

^The Review of Technical Paints, Williamsport, Pa., Chessman and 
Elliot (1911) 10. 

^ Analysis of Paints and Varnish Products, New York, John Wiley and 
Sons (1912). 

•Griffin, R. C, Technical Methods of Analysis, New York, McGraw- 
Hill Co., Inc. (1921) 193-279. 

' Smith, E. F., Electro-Analysis, 4th ed., Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co. (1907) 100 and 109. 

'Paint Technology and Tests, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co (1911) 
105. 



180 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

the panels within the building so that each class of paint might 
be subjected to fairly equal conditions of application and drying, 
determination of the spreading rate, and the general arrange- 
ment of the panels in the framework of the test fence. 

The panels used were of two kinds; namely, iron panels 61 
by 40 centimeters and wooden panels 61 by 30 centimeters. 

The iron panels were 4 millimeters thick; before use they 
were cleaned by pickling in 10 per cent sulphuric acid, washed 
in water and then in a 10 per cent solution of caustic soda, and 
washed again with plenty of water. Afterward they were wiped 
with a dry cloth. Any rust spots formed while drying, which 
apparently is difficult to avoid, were sandpapered. Before the 
application of the paint the surface was polished to a metallic 
luster. The wooden panels were white lauan boards, 1 inch 
thick, and were well planed and smoothed before they were 
painted. 

Two coats of paint were applied to each panel; the first coat 
was thoroughly dry before the second coat was applied. Al- 
though the panels were not painted during any particular season 
of the year (some were painted whenever a sample of paint was 
received in the Bureau of Science), the average condition within 
the building, at about the same hour of the day, was practically 
uniform as far as temperature and humidity are concerned. 
Therefore, it can be stated that the paints were applied under 
practically the same average local indoor conditions. 

Inspection of the painted surfaces was made every three 
months. Note was made of any changes in the appearance of 
the paint films, such as degree of discoloration, cracking or 
checking, chalking and wearing out of paint and, in the case 
of the iron panels, the quantity of rust developed. 

LOCATION OF THE TEST FENCES 

The test fences shown in Plate 1, figs. 1 and 2, were built on 
the roof of the Bureau of Science, which is about 10 meters 
above the ground. The location is higher than many of the 
buildings in the neighborhood and the surrounding trees. Out- 
side influences other than those of changes in the local atmos- 
pheric condition were thus eliminated as much as possible. The 
longer fence, fig. 1, runs north and south, while the shorter 
fences, fig. 2, run east and west. The panels were arranged 
in a vertical position. Each sample of paint was applied on two 
panels; one of the panels was placed on the north-south fence, 
and the other on one of the east-west fences. The panels placed 



33,2 Aguilar: Service Value of Paints 181 

on the north-south fence were exposed to the winds blowing 
from east and west as well as to the direct and more-severe 
action of the sun rays. The serial numbers of these panels 
carry the letter A. The panels placed on the east-west fences 
were exposed to the north and south winds and did not receive 
directly the action of the sun rays. The serial numbers of these 
panels carry the letter B. By means of these arrangements the 
comparative weathering action on the paint films of atmospheric 
elements from the four main geographical directions could be 
better appraised. 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PAINTS 

The greater number of the paints tested were of the mixed 
variety, prepared for application. 

One sample, painted on panel 1, carried instructions on its 
label giving quantities of oil and of thinner to be added to the 
paint, when applied as first coat, second coat, and final coat. 
Another sample was a little too thick for immediate application 
and had to be thinned with small amounts of oil and turpentine. 

Some white paint pastes (painted on panels 13, 14, 15, 16, 
and 28) were also received. A sufficient quantity of linseed oil 
and a small amount of turpentine were incorporated with the 
pastes until they attained a good flowing consistency and could 
be worked easily with the brush. Four of these pastes were 
combinations of two or more pigments ground in linseed oil, 
and one consisted of only one pigment. 

The greater proportion of the pigments composing the red 
and the green paints were inert materials, the barytes predom- 
inating. Some specimens were mixtures of color and whiting, 
representing perhaps the cheapest variety of imported paints. 

Four samples of bituminous paints were also tested. These 
paints are mainly composed of asphalt dissolved in petroleum 
oils or resin oils, or a mixture of both and mineral colors. The 
solvents consist of oils of different boiling points, and the 
more volatile of these possesses a strong penetrating odor which 
seems to persist for several hours. For this reason these paints 
should not be used for interior work or in places where ventila- 
tion is poor. 

TABULATED RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSES AND SERVICE TESTS 

Tables 1 to 4 represent condensed reports of the chemical com- 
position of the paints and their service value under local con- 
ditions. 



Ig2 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Tables 1 and 2 are composed of six sections ; Table 3 gives data 
for bituminous paints, and Table 4 for white paste paints. 

Under the first and the second sections, the compositions of 
the paint and the vehicle, respectively, are tabulated. The figures 
given under these sections should not be considered as represent- 
ing accurate quantities of different ingredients used by the man- 
ufacturer. No method of extraction will absolutely remove all 
the vehicle from the pigment,^ the insoluble portion being possibly 
metallic soap or linoxin."^ In the determination of the volatile 
oils, either by steam distillation or hot air-bath, appreciable 
quantities are lost. The results obtained by the air-bath method 
are usually lower than those obtained by steam distillation ; ^ on 
the other hand, by the latter method water-soluble volatile liquids 
are lost. Similar difficulties are encountered in the determina- 
tion of water in paints. As to the determination of resinous 
gums, none of the known methods is absolutely reliable. 

Figures given under section 3 are the results of separate 
chemical determinations of the basic and acid radicals from 
which the probable composition of the pigment under section 4 
is computed. Holley® gives the chemical analyses of various 
commercial paint products. By comparing these analyses with 
the results under section 3, the different constituents were 
grouped together to represent well-known commercial pigments 
such as ochers, barytes, whitings, silicates, kaolins, and reds. 

The names of colors adopted under section 5 ^ are descriptive, 
and furnish some idea of the difference in the intensity of the 
shades of paints of the same color. The data on the painted 
panels and the condensed remarks on the results of exposure 
tests are self-explanatory. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE RESULTS OF THE TESTS 

Before discussing the general behavior of paints under local 
conditions, it was thought convenient to furnish a short descrip- 
tion of the prevailing weather in Manila during the year. 

•Bottler, Max, and A. H. Sabin, German Varnish Making, New Yorkj 
John Wiley and Sons (1912) 282. 

'Gardner, H. A., Physical and Chemical Examination of Paints, Var- 
nishes and Colors, 2d ed., Institute of Paint and Varnish Research, Wash- 
ington, D. C. (1925) 214. 

'Analysis of Paints and Varnish Products, New York, John Wiley and 
Sons (1912) 84, 85, 90, 179, 181. 

• By comparison with the color plates in Robert Ridgway's Color Stand- 
ards and Color Nomenclature, Washington, D. C. (1912). 



33,2 



Aguilar: Service Value of Paints 



183 



?3 



1 



^ « 



'^ 






< 





Com- 
bined 
water 
and un- 
deter- 
mined. 


(75 O 1 
C<J 00 t 


1 lO 

1 CO 




1 
1 




00 
CJ5 


u 










1 1 '^ 
1 1 t> 






a 






1 


. o 

1 1 C<J 










iO 




u 


l 1 






C 




o o 












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1927 





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Aguilar: Service Value of Paints 



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190 ^^fee Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

The year can be divided into two distinct seasons; namely, 
the dry season and the rainy season. The dry season generally 
begins in the month of December and lasts until May, while the 
rainy season starts in May and lasts until the month of Decem- 
ber. In the dry season the prevailing winds are the north 
northeast and the east southeast, and in the rainy season the 
south southwest and the west northwest. The mean maximum 
temperature in the months of June, July, and August is about 
SLS"" C. (mean during the year, 26° C). It is during these 
months that typhoons are frequent and the rainfall heavy. The 
average daily velocity of the wind during these three months 
is over 300 kilometers (mean for the year, 200 kilometers) 
and the average monthly rainfall is over 450 millimeters (mean 
for the year, 180 millimeters). The figures given were taken 
from the Annual Report of the Weather Bureau for 1920. 
Deviation from these figures from year to year is slight. 

From the foregoing the following general observations on the 
results of tests are apparent. The paint films were less affected 
by the weather in the dry season than in the rainy season. In 
the rainy season, especially in the months of June, July, and 
August, marked and rapid changes were observed in the general 
appearance of the paint coats. Discoloration, disintegration, 
checking, chalking, etc., appeared at this period of the year. 
The south and west side portions of the panels showed a more 
weather-beaten condition than did the north and the east side 
portions. Earlier failures, due to the action of typhoons, were 
also observed on all paint coats exposed to the west. 

It was also apparent that very few of the red and the green 
paints offered a fair degree of resistance to discoloration, due 
probably to the combined action of the rain and the moist heat 
of the tropical sunshine prevailing during the months of June, 
July, and August. The energetic action of ultra-violet rays on 
certain types of paint, causing disintegration and bleaching out 
of colors, is a known fact.^^ That tropical sunshine is richer in 
ultra-violet rays than is the sunshine in the temperate regions 
was demonstrated by Bacon ^^ in 1910. Permanency of colors, 
therefore, is one of the most important properties to be consid- 
ered in the preparation of paints for tropical countries. 

'* Gardner, A. H., Paint Technology and Tests, New York, McGraw- 
Hill Book Co. (1911) 112. 

"Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 5 (1910) 269. 



33,2 Aguilar: Service Value of Paints 191 

REMARKS ON THE SERVICE VALUE OF THE DHi^FERENT PAINTS 
PAINTS FOR IRON SURFACES 

Red-lead paint used as primer for iron surfaces is excellent. 
Panel 26A, Table 2, Plate 2, fig. 1, was given a priming coat of 
red lead paint on which a second coat of a cheap green paint 
was applied. The results are very satisfactory. The green 
paint alone, without the priming coat of red lead would have 
failed within a few months ; it is one of the cheapest varieties 
of imported prepared paints. More-expensive paints, such as 
those painted on panels 20 and 21, Table 2, failed within three 
months. These results agree with Gardner's ^^ statement that 
practically any moisture-excluding paint may be used, whether 
it be inhibited in action or not, provided the contact coat is 
inhibitive. 

Panel 6 A, Table 2, Plate 3, fig. 1, was painted with a graphite 
paint. From the appearance of the film this paint can be con- 
sidered the best of the imported ready-mixed metallic paints 
reported in this paper. It consists of linseed oil, to which no 
volatile thinner has been added, and pigment in the approx- 
imate proportion of 2 : 1. The pigment is mainly a mixture of 
amorphous carbon, graphite, and ocher. It was pointed out by 
Gardner ^^ that carbon, lampblack, and graphite are good con- 
ductors of electricity and, therefore, stimulate the formation of 
rust on the iron surface with which they are in contact. How- 
ever, Table 2, of the 1910 report of committee U of the American 
Society for Testing Materials,^* classifies natural graphite with 
pigments possessing excellent protective properties. Reid,^' 
speaking of paints, mentions the fact that paints containing 
graphite lasted much longer and had a very great resistance 
to wetting by water. Rain did not adhere to paint mixed with 
graphite but ran off. Jennings ^^ also stated that graphite paint 
as a protector of iron had been markedly successful. 

The foregoing discrepancies and the results of tests suggest 
the conclusion that paints containing graphite should not on that 
account be condemned. Our results, therefore, indicate that 
graphite paint, properly incorporated with the right quantity of 

" Paint Technology and Tests, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1911) 
231. 

"Op. cit. 242. 

'*0p. cit. 236. 

''Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. Trans. No. 1, 44 (1925) 31. 

"Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. Trans. No. 1, 44 (1925). 

227284 5 



192 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

oil of good quality, renders as good and satisfactory service 
as do other paints containing pigments known to posses inhibitive 
properties. 

The paint coat on panel 5A, Table 2, Plate 3, fig. 1, contains 
about 17 per cent amorphous carbon. The early failure of this 
paint should be attributed to the high percentage of thinner in 
the vehicle rather than to its carbon content. The vehicle of this 
paint contains 51 per cent thinner. 

The paints on panels 8A and 7, Tables 1 and 2, were prepared 
in the Bureau of Science and tested for purposes of comparison. 
Both paints gave fair results. The oil used for painting panel 

7 was commercial boiled linseed oil, and that for painting panel 

8 was lumbang oil. The higher proportion of vehicle to pigment 
in the lumbang-oil paint was due to the somewhat thicker con- 
sistency of the oil. After sixteen months of exposure, panel 8 
was still in perfect condition, as shown in Plate 2, fig. 2, while 
this period of time was the approximate life of the paint on 
panel 7. 

The ready-mixed metallic paint applied on panel 17, Table 1, 
also gave fair results. This paint is lumbang-oil paint, mixed 
with a very high percentage of volatile mineral thinner, to 
which the relative early failure of the paint might be attributed. 
The pigment consists of practically equal proportions of bright 
iron oxide and clay, both of which possess fairly good protective 
properties.^^ 

This behavior of lumbang oil under actual service test is in 
line with the findings and conclusions of West and Smith ^^ and 
of Aguilar;^^ namely, that lumbang oil, as a drying oil, is just 
as good as linseed oil, and either oil can be used as an efficient 
substitute for the other. 

How the different constituents of paints affect their service 
value is illustrated in Plate 3, fig. 2, showing panels 18A, 19A, 
and 20A (Table 2). The vehicle of the paint used on panel 18A 
consists of fairly well-balanced components containing, perhaps, 
a little more than the correct amount of resinous drier, but the 
pigment is nearly all whiting, which apparently is subject to 
rapid decay.^^ The paints coated on panels 19A and 20A are 

"Gardner, H. A., Bull. Paint Mfrs. Assoc. U. S. A., Scientific Section, 
32 (1912). 

"Bull. P. I. Bur. Forestry 24 (1923). 
"Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 12 (1917) 235-245. 
^BuU. Paint Mfrs. Assoc. U. S. A. 32 (1912) 8. 



33,2 Aguilar: Service Value of Paints 193 

both high in volatile thinners and, therefore, not satisfactory 
for painting iron surfaces. Excessive volatile thinner, on evap- 
oration, leaves a weak porous film, which furnishes very poor 
protection to the iron surface. A good contrast between the 
protective qualities of two paints, one containing a high per- 
centage of volatile thinner and the other containing no volatile 
thinner, is shown in Plate 3, fig. 1, panels 5A and 6A. The 
paint applied on panel 19A gave better service than did that 
applied on panel 20A; the water contained in the latter, used as 
emulsifier, stimulated the formation of rust. This paint is more 
especially adapted for use on wooden surfaces. 

Panel 2B, Table 1, Plate 4, fig. 1, was painted with a rather 
expensive paint, well advertised as a metallic paint of superior 
quality. In less than six months the paint showed unmistakable 
evidence of failure by ^'aUigatoring." The paint vehicle con- 
tains a very high percentage of resinoid drier. According to 
Smith,2i excessive resinous drier in a paint injures the wearing 
properties of that paint, causing it to perish sooner than it 
should. 

Panel 4B, Table 1, Plate 4, fig. 2, was painted with a lower- 
grade, cheaper metallic paint. The paint vehicle contains an 
extraordinarily high proportion of volatile thinner, and the pig- 
ment consists of whiting and ocher. Rust eruptions were plainly 
visible in less than five months' time. 

In Plate 5, figs. 1, 2, and 3, the condition of panels 9A, llA, 
and lOA, Table 3, is shown after five months' exposure. The 
panels were painted with metallic bituminous paints which have 
been extensively advertised as the paints most especially adapted 
for use in the Tropics. It is interesting to note the poorer 
protective properties of the gray paint applied to panel 9A and 
the green paint applied to panel 11 A, as compared with the 
brown paint applied to panel lOA, Plate 5, fig. 2. The vehicles 
of the gray and of the green paints consist essentially of 
resinous oils, and the pigments contain, among other things, 
titanic oxide. The brown paint consists of bitumen and petro- 
leum spirit and the pigment is free from titanic oxide. It seems 
probable that either the resinous oils or the titanic oxide pig- 
ments are the immediate cause of the relatively unsatisfactory 
behavior of the gray and the green paints. 

" The Manufacture of Paint, 2d ed., London, Scott Greenwood & 
Son (1915) 134. 



194 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

PAINTS FOR WOODEN SURFACES 

Of the prepared paints received at the laboratory for use on 
wooden surfaces, the brown paint applied on panel 1, Table 1, 
and the white paint applied on panel 13B, Table 4, gave the best 
results. Panel 1, unlike all the rest, received three coats of 
paint, in compliance with the instructions printed on the label of 
the original container. It follows that, under the same condi- 
tions, the three coats of paint on this panel would show better 
wearing qualities than the two coats of paint on the other panels. 
For the first coat, 230 grams of linseed oil and 70 grams of tur- 
pentine were added to every kilogram of the paint ; for the second 
coat, 140 grams of linseed oil and 70 grams of turpentine were 
added to every kilogram of the paint; and for the third coat, the 
paint was applied as received. The paint vehicle consists almost 
entirely of linseed oil and the pigment is composed of two-thirds 
the mixture of basic lead sulphate and zinc oxide, in the pro- 
portion of 2 : 1, and one-third ocher. 

The paint applied on panel 13B, Table 4, showed excellent 
protective properties and it was free from discoloration after 
forty months of exposure (Plate 6). The proportion of oil to 
volatile thinner in the vehicle is about 3 : 1, and the pigment is 
composed, approximately, of two-thirds lead sulphate and zinc 
oxide, in the proportion of 1 : 3, and one-third silicates. It is 
far superior to the paints applied on panels 14B and 16B (Plate 
6) . The pigment of the paint on panel 14B, Table 4, consists of 
a mixture of three-fifths lead carbonate and zinc oxide, in the 
proportion of 1 : 1, and two-fifths baryte ; the pigment of the 
paint on 16B is pure zinc oxide. The condition of the paints at 
the end of the thirty-second month is shown in Plate 6. 

At a glance, both paints, on panels 14B and 16B, are in fairly 
good condition, although closer examination would show that the 
paint on panel 14B is beginning to fail. At the end of the thirty- 
fifth month, 14B failed and 16B was beginning to fail (Plate 7) . 

Panel 15B, Table 4, Plates 6 and 7, painted with a mixture 
of lead carbonate and baryte in the proportion of 1:1, failed 
at the end of the tenth month. On the other hand, panel 28, 
Table 4, painted with the pigment consisting of two-fifths zinc 
oxide and lead carbonate and about three-fifths baryte and sili- 
cate gave fair service. 



33,2 Aguilar: Service Value of Paints 195 

The foregoing results seem to corroborate a general statement 
enunciated by Chessman ^- several years ago, namely : 

A combination paint made from two or more selected pigments is su- 
perior in durability to a single pigment paint. 

It appears also true : 

(1) That paints made up of composite pigments containing 
zinc oxide show better protective qualities than do paints from 
which zinc oxide is absent. 

(2) That the mixture of zinc oxide and lead sulphate gives 
better results than does the mixture of zinc oxide and lead 
carbonate. 

(3) That incorporation with the composite zinc oxide and 
lead sulphate pigment of a reasonable amount of inert material, 
such as clay, asbestine, ocher, etc., improves the service value of 
the paint. 

Some of these conclusions have been partially established in 
the paint tests conducted at the experimental farm of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, Arlington, Va., by the Amer- 
ican Society for Testing Materials.^^ 

Two ready-mixed green paints of the cheapest variety, applied 
on panels 24 and 25, Table 2, gave satisfactory results. The 
vehicles and pigments of these paints are well proportioned. 
The paint applied on panel 24 contains a relatively smaller quan- 
tity of thinner, just sufficient to give it a good penetrating power. 
This paint is superior to that painted on panel 25, which contains 
larger proportions of thinner and drier. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

The greater proportion of the prepared paints imported into 
the Philippine Islands are of poor quality. This is especially 
true of paints for iron surfaces. 

The cause of failure of metallic paints is apparently the use 
of relatively excessive proportions of volatile thinner, resinous 
drier, and pigments of poor protective qualities, such as whiting 
and natural barytes. 

'' The Review of Technical Paints, 8th ed., New York City National Paint 
Works (1911) 10. 

^ Gardner, H. A., Paint Researches and their Practical Application, 
Washington, D. C, Press of Judd and Detweiler Inc. (1917) 137-149. 



196 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

Paints containing water as emulsifier are not properly adapted 
for use in direct contact with iron surfaces. These paints can be 
used, provided a priming coat of good red-lead paint is first ap- 
plied. 

Bituminous paints consisting of pure asphaltic material and 
pure mineral volatile solvent possess better protective qualities 
than do similar paints containing a high percentage of resinous 
oil. 

Lumbang oil is just as good as linseed oil for use in the prep- 
aration of paints for iron surfaces. 

White paste paints, composed of mixtures of white lead, either 
carbonate or sulphate, zinc oxide, and a reasonable amount of 
inert pigment such as baryte or silicates, possess good protective 
qualities. Lead carbonate alone and baryte, without zinc oxide, 
is not so good and satisfactory. 

A white paint composed of two-thirds the mixture of zinc oxide 
and lead sulphate, in the proportion of 3:1, and one-third 
silicate, either asbestine or China clay, properly incorporated 
with the right proportion of oil, appears to possess excellent 
wearing qualities. 

In general, the use of an excessive quantity of volatile thinner, 
resinous drier, water as emulsifier, or inert pigments is detrimen- 
t:.! to the life of the paint. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Test fence running north and south. 
2. Test fences running east and west. 

Plate 2 

Fig. 1. Iron panel, given a priming coat of red-lead paint and a second 
coat of cheap green paint. Panel 26A. 
2. Lumbang-oil paint, painted on iron panel. Condition of paint after 
sixteen months' exposure. Panel 8A. 

Plate 3 

Fig. 1. Two iron panels; 5A, coated with paint containing a high per- 
centage of volatile thinner; 6A, coated with paint containing no 
volatile thinner. 
2. Three iron panels; 18A, coated with paint containing excessive 
quantities of inert pigments; 19 A and 20 A, coated with paints 
high in volatile thinners. 

Plate 4 

Fig. 1. Iron panel coated with paint containing excessive quantities of 
resinous drier. Panel 2B. 
2. Iron panel coated with paint high in volatile thinner and 
inert pigments. Panel 4B. 

Plate 5 

Fig. 1. Iron panel coated with bituminous paint, in which mainly resinous 
oil is used as solvent and the pigment contains titanic oxide. 
Panel 9A. 

2. Iron panel 11 A, with treatment similar to that £:iven panel 9 A. 

3. Iron panel lOA, coated with bituminous paint in which petroleum 

spirit is used as solvent and the pigment is free from titanic 
oxide. 

Plate 6 

White paints applied to wooden panels. Condition of the paints at the 
end of the thirty-second month. Results are shown in Table 4. 

Plate 7 

Condition of the paints shown in Plate 6, at the end of the thirty-fifth 
month. 

197 



Aguilar: Service Value of Paints.] 



[Philip, Journ. Sci., 33, No. 2. 





PLATE 1. 



Aguilar: Sp]RVick Value of Paints.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33. No. 2. 




Aguilar: Servicp: Value of Paints.] 



[Philip. Journ, Sci., 33, No. 2. 





t9A 



lOA 








PLATE 3. 



Aguilar: Service Value of Paints.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 2. 






< 

-J 




:'fc.-..J-^j6iSji 



-■-J 




THE PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF KUHLIID^ 

By Albert W. Herre and Heraclio R. Montalban 
Of the Bureau of Science y Manila 

ONE PLATE 

KUHLIID^ 

The oblong, laterally compressed body is covered with large 
ciliated scales, the head partly naked ; the large protractile mouth 
has the maxillary exposed and without a supplemental bone, 
the lower jaw projecting; the jaw teeth in villiform bands; there 
are also teeth on vomer, palatines, entopterygoids, and ectop- 
terygoids, none on tongue; the preorbital and preopercle dentic- 
ulate, the opercle with two spines; the lateral line complete, 
nearly straight. 

Dorsal X, 9 to 13, the spinous portion longer than the rayed 
portion; anal equal to soft dorsal. III, 10 to 12; both dorsal and 
anal folding into a well-developed sheath; 6 branchiostegals ; 
pseudobranchise large; gill rakers long, slender, 9 or 10 + 18 
to 25 ; vertebrae 25 (10 or 11 + 14 or 15) . 

A small group of marine and fresh^water fishes, abundant in 
the tropical Pacific, occurring from East Africa to Japan, north 
Australia, and the islands off the coast of Mexico ; certain species 
apparently occur only in fresh-water rivers, others only about 
coral reefs. 

The Kuhliidse are closely related to the North American family 
of sunfishes and black bass, the Centrarchidae, with which they 
have skeletal characters in common. In their appearance as well 
as in their habits the fresh-water Kuhliidse resemble black bass. 

Careful study of the various species of Kuhliidse confirms 
us in the belief that they all belong to the same genus. We are 
therefore unable to follow those authors who divide the family 
into two genera. 

The length does not include the caudal fin. 

Genus KUHLIA Gill 

Kuhlia Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 13 (1861) 48; Boulenger, 
Cat. Perciform Fishes, Brit. Mus. 2d ed. 1 (1895) 35; Regan, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pt. 3 (1913) 374. 

199 



200 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Moronopsis Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 15 (1863) 82. 

Paradules Bleeker, Ned. Tijd. Dierk. 1 (1863) 257. 

Boulengerina Fowler, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (1906) 512 

(name preoccupied). 
Safole Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 42 (1912) 655. 

The oblong body and head strongly compressed laterally; the 
mouth oblique, short ; the maxillary 2 to 2.7 times in head. 

Coloration silvery, in some species more or less spotted or 
mottled with olive brown or black. 

We are unable to recognize generic differences based on the 
comparative length of the maxillary or the relative length and 
height of the dorsal and anal; a series of specimens shows no 
essential differences in these characters. 

Species living in fresh water are active fishes with much 
the same habits as the North American black bass and sunfishes. 
They take the hook readily, offer fair sport to the angler, and 
are good pan fish. 

Key to the Philippine species of Kuhlia, 

a\ Caudal fin with two pairs of converging diagonal black bands and a 
median longitudinal one; 50 to 55 scales in lateral line.... K. taeniura. 
a^ Caudal fin without two pairs of oblique black bands. 

6*. Fifty-three to 56 scales in lateral line; caudal edged with blackish 
all round. 

Twenty-four to 28 gill rakers on lower part of first arch K. male. 

6^ Forty to 44 scales in lateral line; 17 or 18 gill rakers on lower part 
of first arch. 
c\ Body with irregular blackish spots above lateral line; no blackish 

spots at base of anal K. marginata. 

c^ Body with black spots all over sides at scale bases; anal usually 
with rounded spots at base K. rupestris. 

KUHLIA TAENIURA (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Plate 1, fig. 1. 

Dules taeniurus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 3 (1829) 

85; GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 267; Kner, Reise Novara, 

Fische (1865) 47. 
Kuhlia taeniura Jordan and Bollman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 12 

(1889) 159; Boulenger, Cat. Fishes, ed. 2, 1 (1895) 39; Herre, 

Occ. Papers Bishop Museum 2 (1903) 129; Jordan and Seale, 

Bull. Bur. Fisheries 25 (1905) 255; Jordan and Thompson, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. 41 (1912) 522. 
Perca argentea Bennett, Fishes Ceylon (1834) 22, pi. 22. 
Dules hennetti Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (1855) 532; 

GuNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 270. 
Dules argenteus Klunzinger, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 20 (1870) 

62; GuNTHER, Fische der Siidsee 1 (1873) 25, pi. 19, fig. C; Day, 

Fishes of India (1878) 67, pi. 18, fig. 2. 
Moronopsis taeniurus Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 7 (1876) 119, pi. 345, 

fig. 5. 



33,2 Herre and Montalban: Philippine Kuhliidx 201 

Moronopsis argenteus Klunzinger, Fische des Rothen Meeres (1884) 

25. 
Kuhlia arge JORDAN and Bollman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 12 (1889) 

159. 

Dorsal X, 10 or 11; anal III, 11; there are 54 scales on the 
lateral line to the base of the caudal fin, 6 between the lateral 
line and the origin of the dorsal, and 11 between the lateral 
line and the origin of the anal. 

The depth of the oblong, strongly compressed body contained 
from 3 to 3.2 times in length; the head, which is much longer 
than deep, from 3.6 to 3.8 times in length of body; the elongate 
and compressed caudal peduncle lowest posteriorly, its least 
depth 2.3 times in length of head or from 8.2 to 8.6 times in 
the total length; the interorbital space moderately convex and 
narrowest in front, its least width 3.4 times in head and a little 
narrower than eye diameter, which is contained 3.2 times in 
head; the snout from 1.4 to 1.5 times in maxillary, which is 
contained 2.5 to 2.7 times in head and ends posteriorly below 
anterior third of eye ; the narrowest portion of the serrated pre- 
orbital about a third of orbit's diameter ; the gape of the moder- 
ately small mouth markedly oblique and the lower jaw slightly 
projecting; the preopercle serrated below and behind; on pos- 
terior edge of opercle are two flat, rather sharp spines. 

The top of the head naked as are the orbital ring, snout, and 
the edges of preopercle; the cheek has four longitudinal rows 
of scales; the lateral line slightly arched anteriorly; the fifth 
dorsal spine is highest and contained from 1.5 to 1.6 times in 
head, or nearly as long as pectoral, which is 1.4 times ; the last 
dorsal spine contained from 2.2 to 2.3 times in head, a little 
higher than third anal and as long as ventral spine; the dorsal 
and anal rays decrease in height posteriorly, their first rays 
lower than the highest dorsal spines; the caudal fin deeply 
forked, with the lobes equally produced, both pectoral and ven- 
tral fins are pointed and do not quite extend to above anus. 

In alcohol the ground color is yellowish silvery which passes 
into bluish gray on back ; there appears to be a series of silvery 
white longitudinal lines passing through center of each row of 
scales; the rayed dorsal broadly margined with blackish; the 
caudal fin has five black bands, the middle one along the middle 
rays and two pairs which converge posteriorly ; the spinous dorsal 
and other fins yellowish. 

This species, which undoubtedly occurs in the PhiUppines, 
is described here from two examples, 86 and 120 millimeters 



202 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i92t 

long, obtained in Guam, and from twenty-seven others, the 
largest only 39 millimeters long, collected at Tanegashima Is- 
land, Japan. It is easily distinguished by the presence of the 
five blackish bands on the caudal fin, and is widely distributed. 
It occurs from the east coast of Africa, through the seas of India 
and the East Indian Archipelago and the islands of the tropical 
Pacific to the islands off the west coast of Mexico and north- 
ward to southern Japan. Unlike most other members of the 
family, this species is strictly marine. 

Kuhlia malo (Cuvier and Valenciennes). 

Dules malo CuviER and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 7 (1831) 

360; GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 270. 
Kuhlia malo Boulenger, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. 2d ed. 1 (1895) 40; 

Jordan and Evermann, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. 23' (1905) 207; 

Sealb and Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 33 (1907) 242. 
Dules mato Lesson, Voy. Coquille, Zool. 2 (1831) 223. 
Dules marginatum Gunther, Fische der Siidsee 1 (1873) 24, pro 

parte. 
Moronopsis sandvicensis Steindachner, Sitzb. Ak. Wiss. Wien 96 

(1887) 56, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

Dorsal X, 11; anal III, 11; 53 to 56 scales in lateral line, 5 
or 6 above and 14 or 15 below lateral line; gill rakers 25 to 
28 on lower part of anterior arch. 

Depth 2.6 to 3 times, head 3.33 to 3.66 times in length; snout 
short, rather blunt, half to two-thirds diameter of the very large 
eye, which is 2.5 to 3.2 times in head; width of convex inter- 
orbital 3 to 3.3 times in head; maxillary extending to below 
anterior margin of eye or a little beyond, 3 times in head ; mouth 
oblique, lower jaw projecting, mandible 2.3 times in head; angle 
and lower border of preopercle finely denticulated; lower oper- 
cular spine strong. 

Fifth dorsal spine longest, 1.5 to 1.66 times in head, a little 
longer than anterior soft rays; tenth dorsal spine longer than 
ninth, equal to or a little shorter than third ; base of soft dorsal 
shorter than anal base; anal longer than its distance from cau- 
dal ; third anal spine a little longer than second, nearly equal to 
tenth dorsal spine; pectoral 1.5 times in head; ventrals usually 
a little shorter, reaching anus or only three-fourths of the dis- 
tance; caudal deeply forked; four rows of scales on cheeks, 
those on bases of vertical fins very small; about 12 scales before 
dorsal. 

Color silvery, darker above; first dorsal and caudal narrowly 
edged with black. 



33,2 Herre and Montcdban: Philippine Kuhliidse 203 

This handsome little fish reaches a length of about 250 milli- 
meters. It occurs from the coast of South Africa to Tahiti, 
where it was first collected, and northward to the Hawaiian 
Islands. It abounds in running fresh-water streams through- 
out Polynesia and takes the hook readily. 

We have seen no Philippine specimens. Seale and Bean had 
a small specimen from Zamboanga. It should be expected to 
occur in Mindanao, since it is found in the Moluccas. 

KUHLIA MARGIN ATA (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Plate 1, figr. 3. 

Dules marginatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 3 
(1829) 87, pi. 52, and 7 (1831) 356; Hombron and Jacquinot in 
Voy. Pole Sud, Poiss. (1853) 41, pi. 3, fig. 3; Gunther, Cat. Fishes 
1 (1859) 268. 

Dules marginatus (in part) Gunther, Fische der Sudsee 1 (1873) 
24. 

Kuhlia marginata Boulenger, Cat. Fishes ed. 2, 1 (1895) 38; Jordan 
and Seale, Fishes of Samoa, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 25 (1905) 255; 
Jordan and Richardson, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 27 (1907) (1908) 
254; Jordan and Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 41 (1912) 525; 
Weber, Siboga Exp., Fische (1913) 194. 

Dules maculatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 7 (1831) 
357. 

Dules malo (not of Cuvier and Valenciennes) Hombron and Jacqui- 
not in Voy. Pole Sud, Poiss. (1846) 41, pi. 3, fig. 4. 

Paradules marginatus Bleeker, Ned. Tijd. Dierk. 1 (1863) 257. 

Moronopsis ciliatus Blebker, Atlas Ichth. 7 (1876) 120, pi. 316, fig. 
1, and 8 (1877) pi. 324, fig. 2. 

Dules ciliatus MacLeay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 7 (1882) 237. 

Dules papuensis MacLeay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 8 (1883) 
257. 

Dorsal X, 10 or 11 ; anal III, 11 ; there are 40 to 44 scales on the 
lateral line, 5 between the lateral line and the origin of dorsal, 
and 8 between the lateral line and the origin of anal ; 16 to 18 
gill rakers on lower part of first arch. 

The oblong and compressed body 2.8 to 3 times in length, 
depth of the upper and lower outlines equally and almost 
evenly arched; the head much longer than deep, 3.2 to 3.5 
times in length of body, its upper profile nearly straight; 
the compressed, rather long caudal peduncle lowest posteriorly, 
the least depth 2.2 to 2.7 times in length of head or 7.6 to 8.3 
times in that of body; the wide interorbital space moderately 
convex, its narrowest portion 2.9 to 3.4 times in head; the 
diameter of the large, rounded eye from 3 to 3.4 times in length 
of head and slightly longer than snout, which is contained from 



204 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

3.3 to 3.8 times; the long maxillary is 2.1 to 2.5 times in head 
and extends posteriorly to below anterior third of eye ; the least 
width of preorbital is hardly one-third the diameter of eye; the 
large mouth oblique, with the lower jaw slightly projecting; two 
nostrils, close together, in front of each eye, the anterior one 
with a fleshy rim and the other a vertical slit; the preorbital 
coarsely serrated; the preopercle finely serrated on its lower 
and hind edges; the opercle armed posteriorly with two flat, 
rather sharp spines, the lower one much the stronger. 

There are no scales on top of head, and none present on snout, 
orbital ring, chin or both limbs of preopercle ; the cheek has four 
longitudinal rows of scales ; the lateral line is highest anteriorly 
and curves downward below third and fourth dorsal spines; 
the fifth dorsal spine the highest and slightly higher than the 
last, which is about twice in head ; the third anal spine, which is 
contained from 2.1 to 2.6 times in head, is about as long as 
ventral spine; the dorsal and anal rays decrease in height pos- 
teriorly, the anterior rays about as high as the highest dorsal 
spines; the caudal fin rather deeply forked, with pointed lobes; 
the pectoral fin is contained from 1.4 to 1.8 times in length of 
head and terminates above the fifth or sixth scale in front of 
anus; the ventral fin extends almost to anus. 

The ground color in alcohol silvery grayish and frequently with 
irregular blackish spots above lateral line; soft dorsal and anal 
narrowly edged with white and having a blackish submarginal 
band which is broader in front ; the caudal fin is narrowly edged 
with white above and below, and has a blackish posterior border 
which is rather broad in the young; this blackish border appears 
to be margined in front with whitish ; there is a blackish spot at 
axil of pectoral. 

We have examined fifty-seven alcoholic specimens, varying 
in length from 27 to 165 millimeters, collected at the following 
localities; Bataan Province; Pansipit River; Batangas; Pina- 
malayan, Mindoro ; Bigaa and Arimbay Rivers, Albay Province ; 
San Jose de Buenavista, Antique ; Dumaguete, Oriental Negros ; 
Lazi, Siquijor Island; Cagayan de Misamis; Kolambugan and 
Malabang Spring, Lanao; Balabac Island; Davao, Davao; Saub 
River and southern coast, Cotabato Province; Gandasole River, 
Jolo Island; and Malum River, Tawitawi Island. This fish has 
been previously recorded from the Philippines by Jordan and 
Richardson from Aparri, Cagayan Province, and Baco River, 
Mindoro, and by Jordan and Thompson from Mindoro. 



33,2 Herre and Montalban: Philippine Kuhliidse 205 

This species occurs throughout the East Indies and southeast- 
ward in the South Pacific from the Gilbert Islands to the Society 
Islands. 

KUHLIA RUPESTRIS (Lacepede). Plate 1, fiff. 2. 

Centropomus rupestris LacepI:de, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 4 (1802) 252 

and 273. 
Kuhlia rupestris BouLENGER, Cat. Fishes ed. 2, 1 (1895) 36; Jor- 
dan and Seale, Fishes of Samoa, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 25 (1905) 

255; Seale and Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 33 (1907) 242; Jordan 

and Richardson, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 27 (1907) (1908) 254. 
Dules rupestris Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Foiss. 3 
(1829) 89, and 7 (1831) 359; Gunther, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 268; 

Peters, Monatsber, Akad. Wiss. Berlin (1868) 256; Sauvage, Hist. 

Madag., Poissons (1875-1899) 150, pi. 41B, fig. 3. 
Perca ciliata Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 2 (1828) 

38. 
Dules fuscas Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 3 (1829) 

88; Gunther, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 268; Sauvage, Hist. Madag., 

Poissons (1875-1899) 149, pi. 15, fig. 4. 
Dules guamensis Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 7 

(1831) 359; Hombron and Jacquinot in Voy. Pole Sud, Poiss. 

(1853) 41, pi. 3, fig. 1; Gunther, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 269. 
Dules vanicolensis Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 7 

(1831) 359; Hombron and Jacquinot in Voy. Pole Sud, Poiss. 

(1853) 42, pi. 3, fig. 2. 
Percichthys ciliata Gunther, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 62. 
Kuhlia ciliata Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (1861) 48. 
Paradules rupestris Bleeker, Ned. Tijd. Dierk. 2 (1865) 276. 
Moronopsis rupestris Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 7 (1876) 121, and 8, pi. 

339, fig. 2. 
Dules marginatum Day, Fishes of India (1878) 67, pi. 18, fig. 1. 
Dules haswelli MacLeay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 5 (1880) 359. 
Moronopsis fuscum Steindachner, Sitzb. Akad. Wien 82 (1881) 240. 

Dorsal X, 11; anal III, 10; there are 41 to 43 scales on the 
lateral line to the base of the caudal, 5 between the lateral line 
and the origin of dorsal, and 9 between the lateral line and the 
origin of anal ; 17 or 18 gill rakers on lower part of first arch. 

The oblong body a little compressed, with the profiles evenly 
and equally arched; the depth contained from 2.6 to 2.9 times 
in length ; the length of head equal to or a little less than depth 
of body, and from 2.6 to 3.1 times in total length; the depth 
of the rather elongate, compressed caudal peduncle from 7.1 to 
7.8 times in length of body, the slightly arched interorbital 
contained from 3 to 3.5 times in length of head, and slightly 
wider than length of snout, which is contained from 3.2 to 3.6 
times; the rounded eye moderately large, its diameter 3.3 to 



206 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

4.6 times in head; the long maxillary, which ends posteriorly 
below center or posterior third of pupil, is from 2 to 2.3 times 
in length of head or nearly twice eye; the least width of 
preorbital equal to or less than a third diameter of eye; the 
mouth rather large, with the lower jaw slightly in advance of 
the upper; two rounded nostrils close together in front of each 
eye, the first one provided with a fleshy rim which is highest 
posteriorly and the other a simple opening; the preorbital finely 
serrated, as are the inferior and posterior edges of preopercle; 
the opercle has two flat, rather sharp spines behind, the lower 
one much the stronger. 

The top of head rugose and naked; the snout, orbital ring, 
edges of preopercle, and chin also unsealed; four longitudinal 
rows of scales on cheek ; the lateral line is highest anteriorly and 
curves posteriorly below fourth and fifth dorsal spines ; the fifth 
dorsal spine the highest, 1.9 to 2.4 times in head; the third anal 
spine, which is contained from 2.3 to 3.2 times in length of head, 
is higher than last dorsal on ventral spine; the dorsal and anal 
rays decrease in height posteriorly, the anterior rays much 
higher than the highest dorsal spine ; the caudal fin emarginate, 
with the lobes rounded or obtusely pointed; the pectoral fin is 

1.7 to 2 times in head, and falls much short of reaching a vertical 
through anus; the ventral fin extends almost to anterior border 
of anus. 

In alcohol the ground color is yellowish brown, much darker 
above and paler on belly, with a silvery gloss over all but most 
evident on sides ; some or all of the scales have a black spot at 
base or at posterior free margin; rounded black spots usually 
present at base of anal fin ; a portion of the soft dorsal blackish, 
the caudal fin has a wide, rather indistinct black band and a 
whitish edge on each lobe; pectoral and ventral yellowish, the 
former with a blackish brown spot at axil. 

Of this widely distributed species, we have examined in the Bu- 
reau of Science collection forty-eight specimens, 30 to 253 milli- 
meters long, collected at the following localities. Abulug, Ca- 
gayan; Kiangan, Ifugao; Bataan Province; Pansipit River, Ba- 
tangas; Nauhan River, Mindoro; Pawis River, Legaspi, Albay; 
Ulot River, Samar ; Concepcion, Busuanga Island ; Cuyo Island ; 
Anajawan and Cabalian, Leyte; Dumaguete, Oriental Negros; 
Titunod River, Kolambugan, Lanao; Balabac Island; Gandasole, 
Bangtoli, and Tagbili Rivers, and Asturias, Jolo Island; and 



33,2 Herre and Montcdban: Philippine Kuhliidm 207 

Tawitawi Island. The collection contains also two specimens 
from Fiji which are identical with the Philippine examples. 

Jagor was the first to collect this fish in the Philippines, ob- 
taining it from Basey River, Samar, and Burauen River, Leyte. 
Meams collected it at Zamboanga as recorded by Seale and Bean, 
and McGregor caught the specimens recorded by Jordan and 
Richardson from Mindoro. 

This widespread species is common in rivers throughout the 
Indian and tropical Pacific oceans ; it occurs on the east coast of 
Africa, in the East Indies, and in Polynesia to Guam and the 
Tonga Islands. 

227284 6 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

[Drawings by P. Bravo. J 

Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Kuhlia taeniura (Cuvier and Valenciennes). 

2. Kuhlia rupestris (Lacepede). 

3. Kuhlia marginata (Cuvier and Valenciennes). 

209 



Herre and Montalban: Philippine Kuhliida:.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 2. 




PLATE 1. 



/o^ 



NEW STEPHANID^ FROM BORNEO AND THE 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, II 

By E. A. Elliott 

Fellow of the Zoological Society of London and of the 
Entomological Society of London 

Four of the six subfamilies of the Stephanidae are represented 
in this collection; only the South American Hemistephanus and 
the African Neostephanus are wanting, and they are not likely 
to occur in this region. The number of species appears rather 
large, but this is probably due to the number of islands, each of 
which may have given rise to special variations, from differences 
of climate, position, vegetation, or isolation. Nothing definite 
appears to have been ascertained as to the hosts. 

As a general rule, the males appear to agree with the females 
in the sculpture of the head, thorax, and median segment; the 
petiole is usually longer in proportion, and often differs in sculp- 
ture; the color is no trustworthy guide. It is impossible to 
assign many males to their true females, and they are described 
as separate species. 

It should be noted that the term "normal'' is used for the 
following forms: Antennse, second flagellar joint twice as long 
as first, third as long as first and second together; prothorax, 
neck transstriate, usually more coarsely apically, and as long 
as or little longer than the smooth semiannular; scutellum, 
central lobe smooth and shining, with small or medium mar- 
ginal punctures, lateral lobes evenly, not very coarsely punctate. 

In the genus Stephanus the species are mostly large, from 15 
to over 30 millimeters in length of body, with terebra up to 40 
millimeters. The males are, on an average, about 5 to 8 milli- 
meters smaller. 

Genus STEPHANUS Jurine 

Key to species of the genus Stephanus, 

FEMALES 
10. 1. Terebra black. 
5. 2. Terebra as long as body. 
4. 3. Frons granulate, neck smooth, head red; 16 mm. 

S. nigricauda (Sichel). 

211 



212 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

3. 4. Frons irregularly rugose, head black, frons red, cheeks yellow; 

14 mm S. unicolor Schlett. 

2. 5. Terebra longer than body. 

7. 6. Neck normal, oblique rugose, semiannular closely punctate, frons 

oblique rugose; 22 to 30 mm S. sulcifrons Schlett. 

6. 7. Neck short. 

9. 8. Neck quadrate, semiannular apically punctate, frons arcuate stri- 
ate; 18 to 22 mm S. quadraticollis sp. nov. 

8. 9. Neck shorter than the smooth semiannular, frons granulate, oc- 

ciput basally smooth; 14 to 18 mm S. elegans sp. nov. 

1. 10. Terebra banded. 

14. 11. Terebra shorter than body, petiole very short. 

13. 12. Frons transstriate, vertex and occiput reticulate or transrugose 
punctate, semiannular centrally transstriate; 22 mm. 

S. brevicoxis Elliott. 

12. 13. Frons arcuate striate, vertex and occiput rugose, semiannular 
diffusely punctate; 14 to 18 mm S. curtus Elliott. 

11. 14. Terebra as long as or longer than body. 

24. 15. Terebra as long as body. 

17. 16. Head black, vertex and occiput laterally punctate; 20 mm. 

S. atriceps (KiefiPer). 
16. 17. Head red. 
23. 18. Frons transrugose. 

20. 19. Posterior margin of head simple; 23 mm S. tarsatus (Sichel). 

19. 20. Posterior margin of head bordered. 

22. 21. Occiput basally and laterally smooth, petiole shorter than rest 
of abdomen, wings hyaline; 19 mm S. inaequalis sp. nov. 

21. 22. Occiput transstriate throughout, petiole slender, longer than 

the rest of abdomen, wings infumate, centrally darker; 23 mm. 

S. philippinensis Ceballos. 

18. 23. Frons granulate, vertex and occiput striate, laterally punctate; 

20 mm S. punctatus sp. nov. 

15. 24. Terebra longer than body. 

36. 25. Petiole as long as rest of abdomen. 

29. 26. Semiannular transstriate, frons and vertex arcuate striate. 

28. 27. Legs black; 31 to 37 mm S. tinctipes Kieffer. 

27. 28. Legs red, hind femora nigrescent; 25 mm. 

S. tinctipes var. rubripes Kieflfer. 
26. 29. Semiannular smooth. 

31. 30. No stronger carina between posterior ocelli, vertex laterally, oc- 

ciput basally punctate, anterior legs black; 17 mm. 

S. nigripes sp. nov. 

30. 31. With stronger carina between posterior ocelli. 

33. 32. Vertex and occiput reticulate punctate, compressed part of 

hind tibiae black; 14 to 32 mm S. aequalis sp. nov. 

32. 33. Vertex and occiput otherwise sculptured. 

35. 34. Frons strongly arcuate striate, apically carinate, occiput ar- 
cuate striate, scutellum longitudinally sulcate; 26 mm. 

S. impressus Elliott. 

34. 35. Frons subarcuate striate, occiput basally transstriate, vertex 

and occiput longitudinally impressed; 17 mm.. S. sulcatus Elliott. 



33,2 Elliott: New Stephanidds, II 213 

25. 36. Petiole shorter than rest of abdomen. 

38. 37. Semiannular transstriate, frons transversely, vertex and occiput 

arcuate rugose, latter basally more transversely; 20 to 36 mm. 

S. ducalis Westwood. 
37. 38. Semiannular not entirely transstriate. 
44. 39. Semiannular apically transstriate, basally smooth. 

41. 40. Hind coxae smooth and shining between transcarinse, vertex cen- 

trally transstriate, laterally reticulate punctate; 21 to 25 mm. 

S. glabricoxis sp. nov. 
40. 41. Hind coxse more or less regularly transstriate or transcarinate. 

44. 42. Hind coxae transstriate, vertex and occiput centrally transstriate, 

laterally reticulate punctate; 22 to 25 mm. 

S. coUectivus sp. nov. 

42. 43. Hind coxae transcarinate, vertex and occiput arcuate striate, 

latter basally more transversely; 27 to 35 mm S. similis sp. nov. 

39. 44. Semiannular entirely smooth. 

46. 45. Petiole very short and stout, head arcuate striate; 20 mm. 

S. petiolatus sp. nov. 

45. 46. Petiole little shorter than rest of abdomen, not very stout. 

48. 47. Occiput longitudinally carinate, vertex and occiput irregularly 

rugose; 25 mm S. panayanus sp. nov. 

47. 48. Occiput longitudinallly impressed. 

50. 49. Body dark red or rufescent, head finely and evenly subarcuate 

striate; 17 to 20 mm S. ruber sp. nov. 

49. 50. Body black, head mostly red. 

54. 51. Occiput more or less reticulate punctate. 

53. 52. Occiput reticulate punctate, centrally basally transstriate, meso- 
notum diffusely punctate with central row of round punctures, 
metapleurae reticulate punctate; 19 to 28 mm. 

S. reticulatus Elliott. 

52. 53. Occiput centrally arcuate carinate, laterally reticulate punctate, 
mesonotum centrally smooth with row of oblong punctures; 23 
to 31 mm S. variantius Elliott. 

51. 54. Occiput not reticulate punctate. 

56. 55. Mesonotum densely and coarsely punctate, median segment crib- 
rate punctate; 20 to 40 mm S. coronator (Fabricius). 

55. 56. Mesonotum centrally smooth, laterally rugose, median segment 

evenly and not deeply punctate ; 19 to 22 mm S. samaris sp. nov. 

MALES 

6. 1. Head black. 

3. 2. Occiput laterally punctate; 18 mm S. atriceps (Kieffer). 

2. 3. Occiput not punctate. 

5. 4. Frons, vertex, and occiput coarsely arcuate punctate, legs rufes- 
cent; 14 mm S. rugicaput sp. nov. 

4. 5. Frons, vertex, and occiput irregularly rugose, legs bright ru- 

fotestaceous, basal half of hind tibiae dark brown; 17.5 mm. 

S. tricolor sp. nov. 
1. 6. Head rufescent or red. 
10. 7. Body dark red or rufescent. 
9. 8. Body dark red, pronotum sometimes black, neck apically coarsely, 
basally finely transstriate; 10 to 23 mm S. ruber sp. nov. 



214 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

8. 9. Body rufescent, neck apically smooth; 14 mm....S. rufus sp. hot. 
7. 10. Body chiefly or entirely black. 

12. 11. Neck apically transstriate, basally smooth; petiole short; 16 mm. 

S. lepidus sp. nov. 
11. 12. Neck not basally smooth. 

14. 13. Neck quadrate, occiput basally smooth, hind tarsi red; 14 to 

20 mm S. quadraticollis sp. nov. 

13. 14. Neck normal or elongate, not quadrate. 

18. 15. Petiole not more than half as long as rest of abdomen. 

17. 16. Head light red, abdomen from second segment rufous; 10.5 mm. 

S. linearis sp. nov. 
16. 17. Head red, abdomen black; 17 mm S. curtus Elliott. 

15. 18. Petiole shorter than but more than half as long as rest of abdomen. 

20. 19. Petiole unusually stout; frons, vertex, and occiput arcuate striate, 

median segment reticulate punctate; 20 mm. 

S. petiolatus sp. nov. 

19. 20. Petiole normal. 

22. 21. Hind tibiae bicolored, compressed part black; occiput laterally 

reticulate punctate; 16 to 22 mm S. aequalis sp. nov. 

21. 22. Hind tibiae unicolorous. 

24. 23. Pleurae, petiole, and legs with long v^hitish hairs; third flagellar 

joint little longer than second; 17 mm S. hirsutus sp. nov. 

23. 24. Pubescence normal and not conspicuous. 
36. 25. Wings infumate, centrally darker. 

27. 26. Occiput mostly reticulate punctate; 21 mm.... S. reticulatus Elliott. 
26. 27. Occiput transversely or arcuately rugose. 

31. 28. Occiput transrugose, median segment coarsely reticulate rugose. 

30. 29. Legs black, joints red; 22 to 26 mm S. tinctipes KieflPer. 

29. 30. Anterior tibiae and all tarsi red-brown; 20 mm. 

S. tinctipes var. rubripes Kieffer. 

28. 31. Occiput apically arcuately, basally transversely rugose; median 

segment cribrate punctate. 

33. 32. Legs black, semiannular transstriate; 20 to 23 mm. 

S. ducalis Westwood. 
32. 33. Anterior legs chestnut brown or red. 

35. 34. Anterior legs chestnut brown, semiannular smooth, metapleurse 
coarsely punctate; 15 to 30 mm S. coronator (Fabricius). 

34. 35. Anterior legs red, semiannular apically more or less transstriate, 

metapleurae smooth above; 14 to 25 mm S. similis sp. nov. 

25. 36. Wings not centrally darker. 

38. 37. Wings evenly infumate, median segment scrobiculate punctate, 

abdomen fuscopiceous; 24 mm S. tarsatus (Sichel). 

37. 38. Wings basally infumate, apically hyaline, median segment ru- 
gose punctate, abdomen black; 16 mm S. variantius Elliott. 

STEPHANUS NIGRICAUDA (Sichel), female. 

Megischus nigricauda Sichel, Soc. Ent. France; Annales IV 5 (1865). 

Stephanus nigricauda Schlett., Berl. Ent. Zeit. 33 (1889) 106; 
Elliott, Mon. of Hymenop. Fam. Stephanidae, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lon- 
don (1922) 722, female. 



33,2 Elliott: New Stephanidw, II 215 

STEPHANUS UKICOLOR Schlett^ female. 

Stephanus unicolor Schlett., Berl. Ent. Zeit. 33 (1889) 104; Elliott, 
Mon. of Hymenop. Fam. Stephanidge, Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1922) 
725, female. 

STEPHANUS SULCIFRONS Schlett., female. 

Stephanus sulcifrons Schlett., Berl. Ent. Zeit. 33 (1889) 110; 
Elliott, Mon. of Hymenop. Fam. Stephanidae, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London (1922) 724, female. 

STEPHANUS QUADRATICOLLIS sp. nov. 

Female. — Frons coarsely arcuate striate, vertex transcarinate, 
centrally impressed, occiput apically irregularly, centrally more 
regularly transstriate, basally narrowly smooth, posterior mar- 
gin of head finely bordered ; posterior tubercles well developed in 
the larger specimens, less so in the smaller; scape longer than 
cheeks, nearly three times as long as the first flagellar joint, 
antennse normal; neck very short, quadrate, deeply bifoveate, 
with central carina, semiannular punctate, basally smooth; 
mesonotum centrally smooth with three distinct rows of punc- 
tures, apically and laterally punctate; central lobe of scutellum 
smooth, with large marginal puncture, lateral lobes very diffusely 
punctate ; propleurse very finely transstriate ; mesopleurse finely 
aciculate above, punctate beneath, metapleurse smooth above, 
otherwise punctate, separated by a punctate or crenulate sulcus 
from the cribrate punctate median segment; petiole basally ru- 
gose, then gradually more regularly transstriate to the narrowly 
smooth apex, much shorter than the remaining segments; tere- 
bra longer than body, black. Hind coxse transcarinate, as long 
as the smooth bidentate femora, tibiae compressed to beyond 
middle. Radius in forewing emitted from about middle of 
stigma, its basal section more than half as long as the distal. 

Black; head and two basal antennal joints red, anterior legs 
and hind tarsi dark red. Wings lightly infumate, median cell 
and a streak below it to margin of wing brownish. 

Length, 18 to 22 millimeters; abdomen, 12 to 15; petiole, 5 
to 6 ; terebra, 23 to 27. 

Male, — The petiole almost smooth and tarsi 5-jointed, other- 
wise as in female. 

Length, 14 to 20 millimeters ; abdomen, 10 to 13 ; petiole, 3 to 5. 

Borneo, Sandakan. Negros, Cuernos Mountains. North- 
western Panay (Baker) . 

This species resembles S, nigricauda Sichel in the quadrate neck 
and the black terebral sheaths, but differs entirely in sculpture. 



216 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Sichel states that the occiput is basally striate, apically smooth, 
a type of sculpture unknown to me. Has he reversed the posi- 
tions ? 

STEPHANUS ELEGANS sp. nov. 

Female, — Frons granulate, vertex and occiput transstriate, 
latter basally broadly smooth, both longitudinally impressed, 
posterior tubercles obsolete, posterior margin of head bordered ; 
scape as long as cheeks, more than twice as long as the first 
flagellar joint, antennae normal; neck rugose, shorter than the 
semiannular, which is apically finely rugose, basally smooth; 
mesonotum smooth and shining, diffusely punctate, with central 
longitudinal impression, the lateral ones only apically distinct; 
scutellum normal; mesopleurae very finely transstriate above, 
punctate beneath, metapleurae smooth above, otherwise punctate, 
median segment rather finely and not deeply punctate; petiole 
finely transstriate, shorter than the remaining smooth, shining 
segments; terebra longer than body, black. Hind coxae finely 
striate between coarser rugosities, femora bidentate, about as 
long as the coxae, tibiae longer than femora, but shorter than 
femora and trochanters together, compressed to beyond middle, 
metatarsus not quite twice as long as the remaining joints. 
Radius emitted from middle of stigma, its proximal section not 
half as long as the distal. 

Black; head and three or four antennal joints red; wings 
hyaline, centrally slightly infumate, stigma and nervures black- 
•brown. 

Length, 14 millimeters ; abdomen, 9 ; petiole, 4 ; terebra, 16. 

SiBUYAN {Baker), 

STEPHANUS BREVICOXIS Elliott. 

Stephanus brevicoxis Elliott, Philip. Journ. Sci. 29 (1926) 517, fe- 
male. 

STEPHANUS CURTUS Elliott. 

Stephanus curtus Elliott, Philip. Journ. Sci. 29 (1926) 517, female. 

Female and male, — Frons basally arcuate, apically transversely 
striate, vertex and occiput irregularly reticulate or transrugose 
punctate, three carinse behind posterior ocelli, posterior margin 
of head bordered, posterior tubercles distinct, scape longer than 
cheeks, second flagellar joint half as long again as first, third as 
long as or slightly longer than first and second together; neck 
rather short, apically transcarinate, basally transstriate, cen- 



33,2 Elliott: New Stephanid^, II 217 

trally impressed (this is indistinct in some examples), semi- 
annular smooth, apically centrally more or less lightly trans- 
striate; mesonotum centrally apically smooth, otherwise closely, 
sometimes confluently punctate, three rows of punctures distinct ; 
lateral lobes of scutellum punctate ; meso- and metapleurse smooth 
above, punctate beneath, latter separated by a rugose sulcus and 
sometimes an indistinct sulcus from the cribrate punctate median 
segment; petiole in female stout and transstriate, in male slen- 
derer and more finely striate, little more than half as long as the 
remaining segments ; terebra in female shorter than body, with 
subapical white or yellowish band, three or four times as long 
as the black apex. Hind coxae coarsely transstriate, femora 
bidentate, smooth, about as long as the coxse, tibise as long as 
femora and trochanters together, compressed to middle, meta- 
tarsi about three times as long as the remaining joints in female, 
about as long in male. Radius emitted from beyond middle of 
stigma, distal section fully twice as long as the proximal. 

Black ; head red, with or without a central black line on vertex 
and occiput, antennae basally dark red, anterior legs rufescent. 
Wings slightly infumate, discal and outer submedian cells brown- 
ish ; two pale brown streaks in hind wing ; stigma and nervures 
red-brown. 

Length, female, 14 to 18 millimeters; abdomen, 10 to 11; 
petiole, 3.5 to 4.5; terebra, 11 to 16; band, 3 to 4; apex, 1 to 1.5. 
Male, 17 millimeters ; abdomen, 10 ; petiole, 3.5. 

Borneo, Sandakan (Baker) . 

This is an amended and extended description of this species. 
It varies to some extent in the sculpture, and I at first inclined 
to separate it into two, and named the second ''curticauda/' 
but further examination showed that the diff'erences were in- 
sufficient to justify that course. 

Distinguished chiefly by the sculpture of vertex and occiput, 
and by the short petiole and terebra. 

STEPHANUS ATRICEPS (Kieflfer). 

Stephanus tinctipes var. atriceps Kieffer, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 1 1 
(1916) 405. 

Female and male. — Frons arcuate rugose, vertex and occiput 
centrally arcuate rugose, laterally coarsely punctate, three strong 
carinas behind the posterior ocelli; posterior margin of head 
bordered; antennae about normal; neck transcarinate, apically 



218 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

dorsally impressed, more than twice as long" as the smooth, shin- 
ing semiannular ; mesonotum centrally smooth, laterally punctate, 
three rows of punctures distinct ; central lobe of scutellum large 
with large marginal punctures, lateral lobes with large, not very 
close punctures; mesopleurse apically above very finely trans- 
striate and dull, otherwise punctate; metapleurse smooth above, 
coarsely punctate beneath, separated by a crenulate sulcus from 
the reticulate punctate median segment; petiole transstriate, 
basally more coarsely, a little shorter than or as long as the re- 
maining segments, second segment basally rugose ; terebra in fe- 
male longer than body, black with yellowish subapical band. 
Hind coxae transstriate between coarser rugosities, femora bi- 
dentate, rather longer than coxae, tibiae as long as femora and 
trochanters together, compressed in basal two-fifths. Radius 
emitted from slightly beyond middle of stigma. 

Black; cheeks sometimes, mandibles except apices, maxillary, 
palpi, and scape rufescent; anterior legs and hind tibiae, some- 
times also their femora and tarsi except apices red. Wings 
infumate, discoidal cell slightly darker. 

Len^h, female, 17 to 23 millimeters; abdomen, 11.5 to 15; 
petiole, 5.5 to 7.5; terebra, 18 to 25; band, 3 to 4; apex, 1.5 to 
2.5. Male, 18 millimeters ; abdomen, 12 ; petiole, 5.5. 

Mindanao, Dapitan, Davao. {Baker) . 

I have no doubt that this is Kieffer's var. atriceps. It agrees 
in sculpture of vertex and occiput, color, and the proportions of 
terebra and apex. The differences from tinctipes Kieffer are 
so great as to entitle it to specific rank. 

STEPHANUS TARSATUS (Sichel), female. 

Megischus tarsatus Sichel, Soc. Ent. France; Annales IV 5 (1865) 

476. 
Stephanus tarsatus Schlett., Berl. Ent. Zeit. 33 (1889) 107; Elliott, 

Mon. of Hymenop. Fam. Stephanidae, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 

(1922) 729, female. 

STEPHANUS INAEQUALIS sp. nov. 

Female. — Frons and vertex transrugose, the former more 
closely, the latter longitudinally impressed, occiput transrugose, 
the rugosities becoming narrower toward back of head, laterally 
broadly, basally narrowly smooth, posterior margin of head 
strongly bordered, posterior tubercles small but distinct, the 
usual stronger carinse behind posterior ocelli indistinct; scape 
rather longer than cheeks, antennae normal; neck apically 



33,2 Elliott: New Stephanidse, II 219 

strongly, basally less strongly carinate, more than twice as long 
as the smooth, finely and diffusely punctate semiannular; meso- 
notum centrally smooth, laterally rugose punctate, central row 
of punctures large and distinct, the lateral ones indistinct; 
scutellum centrally smooth with large marginal punctures, lateral 
lobes coarsely punctate; mesopleurse smooth above, punctate be- 
neath, metapleurse finely transstriate above, otherwise coarsely 
punctate, separated by a carina from the cribrate punctate me- 
dian segment; petiole very stout, transstriate, basally rugose, 
much shorter than the remaining smooth, shining segments; 
terebra as long as body, white banded. Hind coxse transcarinate, 
shorter than the smooth, bidentate femora, tibise longer than 
femora and trochanters together, compressed in basal third, 
metatarsi not quite three times as long as the remaining joints. 
Radius emitted from apical third of the stigma, distal section 
one and a half times as long as the proximal. 

Black ; head red, anterior legs ruf escent ; wings hyaline, stigma 
and nervures black-brown. 

Length, 19 millimeters; abdomen, 12; petiole, 5; terebra, 19; 
band, 3; apex 1.5. 

SiBUYAN (Baker). 

Distinguished by the sculpture of vertex and occiput, and the 
short, stout petiole. 

STEPHANUS PHILIPPINENSIS CebaUos. 

Stephanus philippinensis, "Eos," Rev. Esp. Entom. 2 (1926) 140, 
female. 

STEPHANUS PUNCTATUS sp. nor. 

Female. — Frons granulate, vertex and occiput centrally arcuate 
striate, laterally coarsely punctate, latter longitudinally im- 
pressed; two strong carinse behind posterior ocelli, posterior 
tubercles very small, ocellar space rugose ; scape as long as cheeks, 
antennae normal; neck transcarinate, apically foveate, twice as 
long as the smooth semiannular, which has a few lateral punc- 
tures ; mesonotum with large, diffuse punctures, the central row 
of punctures distinct, the lateral ones only apically; scutellum 
smooth, with large marginal punctures, lateral lobes diffusely 
punctate; meso- and metapleurse smooth above, otherwise punc- 
tate, the latter basally feebly rugose, separated by a slightly 
rugose sulcus and a carina from the reticulate punctate, apically 
carinate median segment; petiole transstriate, basally rugose, 



220 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

as long as the remaining smooth segments; terebra as long as 
body, white banded. Hind coxae with finer striation between 
transcarinse, shorter than the smooth, bidentate femora, tibise 
longer than femora and trochanters together, compressed in 
basal two-fifths, metatarsi more than twice as long as the re- 
maining joints. Radius emitted from apical third of stigma, 
its distal section rather longer than the proximal. 

Black; head, scape, and anterior legs red, ocellar space and 
vertex apically black ; wings subhyaline, centrally slightly darker, 
stigma and nervures black. 

Length, 20 millimeters; abdomen, 14; petiole, 7; terebra, 20; 
band 4.5; apex, 2. 

SiBUYAN {Baker). 

Distinguished by the sculpture of vertex, occiput, and meso- 
notum, and partly by the color of the head. 

STEPHANUS TINCTIPES Kiefifer. 

Stephanies tinctipes Kieffer, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 11 (1916) 403, 
female, male. 

STEPHANUS TINCTIPES van RUBRIPES Kieffer. 

Stephanus tinctipes var. rubripes Kieffer, Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 11 
(1916) 405, female, male. 

STEPHANUS NIGRIPES sp. nov. 

Female, — Frons arcuate striate, vertex and occiput subar- 
cuate striate, former laterally, latter basally punctate, both 
strongly longitudinally impressed, no distinct carinse behind 
posterior ocelli, posterior margin of head bordered ; scape longer 
than cheeks, second flagellar joint more than twice as long as 
first, third little longer than second ; neck apically strongly, then 
less strongly transcarinate, more than twice as long as the 
smooth semiannular; mesonotum apically finely, laterally 
coarsely punctate, all three rows of punctures large and distinct ; 
scutellum centrally smooth, lateral lobes coarsely punctate; 
meso- and metapleurse smooth and shining above, otherwise 
punctate, latter more coarsely, separated by a fine punctate sulcus 
and a carina from the reticulate punctate median segment; 
petiole transstriate, basally rugose, as long as remaining seg- 
ments, second segment basally finely rugose; terebra longer than 
body, yellowish white banded. Hind coxae transcarinate, femora 
smooth, bidentate, tibise as long as femora and trochanters 
together, compressed not quite to middle, metatarsi about twice 



yy,2 Elliott: New Stephanidse, II 221 

as long as the remaining joints. Radius emitted from apical 
third of stigma, its distal section one and a half times as long 
as the proximal. 

Black; head light red, anterior legs and hind tarsi rufescent 
basally. Wings infumate, centrally slightly darker. 

Length, 17 millimeters; abdomen, 11; petiole, 5.5; terebra, 
20; band, 3.5; apex, 1.5. 

Mindanao, Surigao (Baker) . 

Agrees in some respects with S. aequalis mihi, especially 
in the absence of the usual stronger carinse on vertex, but differs 
in the longer and slenderer petiole, infumate wings, and in color. 

STEPHANUS AEQUALIS sp. nov. 

Female and male. — Frons coarsely transrugose, vertex and 
occiput centrally more or less broadly transstriate, laterally 
reticulate punctate, former centrally impressed, posterior margin 
of head finely bordered, three costse behind posterior ocelli, ocellar 
space centrally smooth, otherwise rugose; posterior tubercles 
small; scape longer than cheeks, antennae subnormal, third 
flagellar joint slightly shorter than first and second together; 
neck coarsely transrugose, semiannular smooth, finely and dif- 
fusely punctate; mesonotum centrally smooth, laterally coarsely 
punctate, three rows of punctures distinct; central lobe of 
scutellum smooth with a few punctures, lateral lobes coarsely 
but not closely punctate; meso- and metapleurse smooth above, 
otherwise punctate, latter more coarsely, separated by a sulcus 
and a carina from the median segment, which is cribrate punctate, 
apically more or less distinctly bicarinate ; petiole basally rugose, 
then transstriate to the rather broadly smooth apex, as long as 
or very slightly shorter than the remaining smooth segments; 
terebra in female longer than body, white banded. Hind coxae 
transcarinate, apically transstriate, about as long as the smooth, 
bidentate femora, tibiae about as long as femora and trochanters 
together, compressed in basal two-fifths, metatarsus about twice 
as long as the remaining joints in female, as long in male. Ra- 
dius emitted from beyond middle of stigma, its proximal section 
little shorter than the distal. 

Black ; head, scape, and legs red, apex of mandibles and com- 
pressed part of hind tibiae black. In male the legs are somewhat 
darker, also sometimes the hind femora in female, but the charac- 
teristic bicolored hind tibiae are always unmistakable. 



222 The Philippine Journal of Science i»2t 

Len^h, female, 16 to 32 millimeters; abdomen, 11 to 21; 
petiole, 5.5 to 10.5; terebra, 19 to 40; band, 3.5 to 5.5; apex, 
1.5 to 3.5. Male, 14 to 22 millimeters. 

Dapitan, Davao, Kolambugan, Basilan Island, Malinao, Ta- 
yabas (Baker), 

STEPHANUS AEQUALIS var. RUFICAUDA var. nov. 

Female. — Agrees in sculpture with the type, but the scutellum, 
median segment, and terebra are paler, rufescent, the explanate 
part of the hind tibise and their tarsi testaceous and the hind 
femora darker. 

Mindanao, Dapitan (Baker), 

Very much like S. similis mihi, differing especially in the 
smooth semiannular and the bicolored hind tibiae. 

STEPHANUS IMPRESSUS ElUott. 

Stephanus impressus Elliott, Philip. Joum. Sci. 29 (1926) 519, fe- 
male. 

STEPHANUS SULCATUS EUiott. 

Stephanus sulcatus Elliott, Philip. Joum. Sci. 29 (1926) 521, fe- 
male. 

STEPHANUS DUCALIS Westwood, female, male. 

MegischiLS ducalis Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc. London II 1 (1851). 
Stephanus ducalis Schlett., Berl. Ent. Zeit. 33 (1889) 112; Elliott, 

Mon. of Hymenop. Fam. Stephanidae, Proc. Zool. Soc. London 

(1922) 740, female. 

STEPHANUS GLABRICOXIS sp. nov. 

Female, — Frons strongly arcuate striate, vertex centrally im- 
pressed and transstriate, laterally punctate, occiput centrally 
strongly, laterally more finely transstriate, three carinse behind 
posterior ocelli, posterior tubercles distinct, ocellar space smooth 
and shining below the ocellus, otherwise rugose; scape longer 
than cheeks (antennae broken off) ; neck and apex of semiannular 
transcarinate, latter basally broadly smooth ; mesonotum rather 
elongate, basally and apically punctate, central row of punctures 
distinct, lateral ones indicated by an apical impression and a 
few punctures; scutellum centrally smooth, lateral lobes coarsely 
punctate; meso- and metapleurse smooth above, otherwise punc- 
tate, latter separated by a carina from the cribrate punctate 
median segment; terebra longer than body, tricolored. Hind 
coxse with transcarinae wide apart, the space between them on 
dorsal two-thirds smooth and shining, apically and laterally 
finely transstriate, somewhat rugose beneath ; femora bidentate, 
longer than coxae, tibiae as long as femora and trochanters to- 



33.2 Elliott: New Stephanidse, II 223 

gether, compressed about to middle, metatarsi twice as long as 
the remaining joints. Radius emitted from beyond middle of 
stigma, its distal section little longer than the proximal. 

Rufescent; head red, pronotum except apex, mesonotum, and 
abdomen from second segment more or less nigrescent, anterior 
tibiae paler, front tarsi clothed with short white hairs. Terebra 
basally black, then rufescent to an indistinct Whitish band, 
about 5 millimeters broad, and apically black. Wings lightly 
infumate, centrally much darker. 

Length, 21 millimeters ; abdomen, 14 ; petiole, 6 ; terebra, 25. 

Borneo, Sandakan (Baker), 

The sculpture of the hind coxse and the color, especially that 
of the terebra, are distinctive. 

STEPHANUS COLLECTIVUS sp. nor. 

Female, — Frons arcuate striate, vertex and occiput with central 
longitudinal transstriate impression not reaching base of head, 
remainder reticulate punctate, occiput basally laterally finely 
obliquely striate, three carinse behind posterior ocelli, posterior 
margin of head bordered; scape rather longer than cheeks, an- 
tennae normal; neck short, apically coarsely, basally, and the 
semiannular apically finely transstriate, latter basally smooth; 
mesonotum apically punctate, central row of punctures only dis- 
tinct, laterally coarsely, confluently punctate ; scutellum centrally 
smooth with large marginal punctures, lateral lobes closely punc- 
tate; meso- and metapleurse smooth above, otherwise punctate, 
latter separated only by a smooth sulcus from the median seg- 
ment, which is reticulate punctate, the apical third coarsely 
transrugose ; petiole transstriate, basally scarcely more coarsely, 
stout, and much shorter than the remaining smooth shining seg- 
ments; terebra much longer than body, white banded. Hind 
coxae coarsely transstriate, shorter than the smooth, bidentate 
femora, tibiae not much longer than the femora, compressed in 
basal two-fifths, metatarsi not quite three times as long as the 
remaining joints. Radius emitted from just beyond middle of 
stigma, its distal section barely one and a half times as long as 
the proximal. 

Pro- and mesonotum and scutellum black, median segment, 
abdomen, and anterior legs rufescent, head, scape, and first 
flagellar joint dark red; wings centrally darker, stigma and 
nervures red-brown. 

Length, 20 millimeters; abdomen, 13.5; petiole, 4.5; terebra, 
27; band, 5; apex, 2. 

227284 7 



224 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

This species appears to combine the characters of several 
others; the sculpture of the head closely resembles that of S. 
punctatvs; it has a short neck, like S, quadraticollis ; the semi- 
annular is as in S, similis, and the short petiole as in S. petio- 
latus, with color much like that of S, ruber, 

STEPHANUS SIMILIS sp. nov. 

Female and male, — Frons and vertex arcuate striate, occiput 
centrally impressed, arcuate rugose, becoming more transverse 
toward the finely bordered posterior margin of head, three or four 
strong carinse behind the posterior ocelli, posterior tubercles small 
but distinct; scape as long as cheeks, third flagellar joint slightly 
shorter than first and second together ; neck transcarinate, semi- 
annular transstriate, basally more or less broadly smooth, later- 
ally finely punctate; mesonotum centrally smooth with a few 
large punctures, and distinct central row; laterally coarsely 
punctate, with two shallow impressions and indistinct lateral 
rows of punctures ; scutellum centrally smooth with a few large 
punctures, lateral lobes coarsely but not closely punctate ; meso- 
and metapleurae smooth above, otherwise punctate, latter more 
coarsely, separated by a crenulate sulcus from the cribrate 
punctate, apically carinate median segment; petiole in female 
basally coarsely, then more finely transstriate to the broadly 
smooth apex, shorter than rest of abdomen; in male basally 
rugose, remainder smooth, sometimes finely punctate beneath, 
second segment basally rugose in both sexes; terebra in female 
longer than body, white banded. Hind coxse transcarinate, fem- 
ora bidentate, as long as coxse and trochanters, tibiae as long 
as femora and trochanters, compressed in basal two-fifths, 
metatarsi in female not quite twice as long as the remaining 
joints, in male about as long. Radius emitted from apical third 
of stigma, both sections of equal length. 

Black; head, scape, apex of pronotum, and anterior legs red. 
Wings infumate, centrally darker, stigma and nervures rufescent. 

Length, female, 18 to 35 millimeters; abdomen, 12 to 23; 
petiole, 5 to 10; terebra, 21 to 34; band, 4 to 9; apex, 1.5 to 4. 
Male, 12 to 25 millimeters; abdomen, 9.5 to 13; petiole, 4 to 7. 

Dapitan, Surigao, Davao, Zamboanga, Mindanao, Sandakan, 
Borneo {Baker), 

This species strongly resembles S. ducalis Westwood, but differs 
in the sculpture of the mesonotum and mesopleurae, and in the 
color of the legs. 



33,2 Elliott: New Stephanidse, II 225 

STEPHANUS PETIOLATUS sp. nov. 

Female, — Frons, vertex, and occiput arcuate striate, vertex 
centrally impressed, two or three strong carinse behind posterior 
ocelli, posterior tubercles subobsolete, ocellar space rugose, pos- 
terior margin of head finely bordered ; scape longer than cheeks, 
third flagellar joint shorter than first and second together; neck 
transcarinate, semiannular smooth, laterally punctate; meso- 
notum with three distinct rows of punctures, laterally coarsely 
punctate ; scutellum normal ; meso- and metapleurse smooth above, 
otherwise punctate, latter separated by an indistinct sulcus from 
the reticulate punctate median segment; petiole short and very 
stout, basally rugose, then finely transstriate to the broadly 
smooth apex, much shorter than the remaining segments, second 
segment basally rugose ; terebra longer than body, white banded. 
Hind coxae transcarinate, as long as the smooth, bidentate femora, 
tibiae as long as femora and trochanters together, metatarsi 
not quite twice as long as the remaining joints. Radius emitted 
from apical third of stigma, its proximal section little shorter 
than the distal. 

Male. — Neck basally smooth, passing imperceptibly into the 
smooth semiannular; the stout petiole very finely transstriate 
and the metatarsi only as long as the remaining joints. Other- 
wise as in female. 

Black; head, scape, and legs red, hind tibiae basally darker; 
in male the hind tibiae are black, with red tarsi. Wings cen- 
trally infumate, stigma and nervures red-brown. 

Length, female, 25 millimeters; abdomen, 16; petiole, 6; tere- 
bra, 31 ; band, 5 ; apex 2.5. Male, 20 millimeters ; abdomen, 13 ; 
petiole, 5. 

Mindanao, Surigao (Baker) . 

This species has a strong resemblance to S. aeqimlis mihi, 
but differs chiefly in the short, stout petiole. 

STEPHANUS PANAYANUS sp. nov. 

Female. — Frons subarcuate rugose, vertex and occiput irregu- 
larly rugose, latter with central longitudinal carina, posterior 
margin of head finely bordered, posterior tubercles small but 
distinct; scape slightly longer than cheeks, antennae normal; 
neck rather long, apically transcarinate, basally transstriate, 
semiannular smooth; mesonotum punctate, central row of punc- 
tures distinct throughout, lateral ones apically only; scutellum 
smooth, lateral lobes diffusely punctate; meso- and metapleurse 
smooth above, the former finely, the latter coarsely punctate 



226 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

beneath, separated by a carina from th€ reticulate punctate 
median segment; petiole transstriate, basally more coarsely, 
shorter than the rest of abdomen, second segment basally rugose ; 
terebra longer than body, yellowish banded. Hind coxse trans- 
carinate, femora smooth, bidentate, as long as coxse and trochan- 
ters, tibiae compressed nearly to middle, metatarsi more than 
twice as long as the remaining joints. Radius emitted from 
apical third of stigma, its distal section half as long again as the 
proximal. 

Black ; head red, anterior legs, hind trochanters, and tarsi dark 
red ; wings hyaline, centrally feebly inf uscate. 

Length, 25 millimeters; abdomen, 17 petiole, 8; terebra, 32. 

Northwestern Panay (Baker), 

The carinate occiput is peculiar. 

STBPHANUS RUBSR sp. nor. 

Female and male, — Frons, vertex, and occiput finely and evenly 
subarcuate striate, the vertex centrally impressed, posterior 
margin of head finely bordered, posterior tubercles very small; 
scape longer than cheeks, antennae normal, neck apically trans- 
carinate, basally more finely transstriate, twice as long as the 
smooth semiannular; mesonotum centrally smooth vdth three 
distinct rows of punctures, laterally with broad, deep impres- 
sions; meso- and metapleurse narrowly smooth above, otherwise 
punctate, latter separated by a crenulate sulcus from the lightly 
reticulate punctate median segment; petiole finely transstriate, 
rather shorter than the remaining smooth, shining segments; 
terebra in female longer than body, white banded. Hind coxse 
finely transstriate between coarser transrugosities, rather 
shorter than the bidentate femora, tibise rather longer than the 
femora and trochanters together, compressed not quite to middle, 
metatarsi three times as long as the remaining joints in female, 
about as long in male. Radius emitted from distal third of 
stigma, its proximal section more than half as long as the distal. 

Dark red, anterior legs lighter, head and two basal antennal 
joints rufotestaceous, pronotum often black. Wings lightly in- 
fumate, stigma and nervures brown-red. 

Length, female, 17.5 to 24 millimeters; abdomen, 11.5 to 16; 
petiole, 5 to 7; terebra, 20 to 25; band, 3.5 to 4; apex, 1.5 to 2. 
Male, 14 to 23 millimeters; abdomen, 9.5 to 16:5; petiole, 4 to 7.5. 

Surigao, Dapitan. Sandakan (Baker), 

The even striation of frons, vertex, and occiput is unusual ; the 
color is very constant. 



33,2 Elliott: New Stephanidas, II 227 

STEPHANUS RETICULATUS EUiott. 

Stepkanus reticulatus Elliott, Philip. Journ. Sci. 29 (1926) 510, 
female. 

In some of the female specimens the three rows of punctures 
on the mesonotum are very distinct, and the hind tarsi are 
nigrescent. 

The male corresponds with the female in sculpture and color, 
except that the central striation on vertex and occiput is rather 
more extended, and the lateral puncturation restricted. 

Length, female, 19 to 26 millimeters; abdomen, 12 to 17; 
petiole, 5 to 8 ; terebra, 22 to 24 ; band, 4 to 4.5 ; apex, 2 to 2.5. 
Male, 21 millimeters; abdomen, 14; petiole, 6.5. 

STEPHANUS VARIANTIUS Elliott. 

Stephanus variantius Elliott, Philip. Journ. Sci. 29 (1926) 518, fe- 
male. 

Male. — Agrees in sculpture with the female from the same 
locality, except that the lateral rows of punctures on the meso- 
notum are more distinct. 

Black; head, scape, anterior legs, hind trochanters, and tarsi 
red ; wings basally lightly inf umate, apically hyaline. 

Length, 16 millimeters; abdomen, 11; petiole, 5. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker). 

STEPHANUS CORONATOR (Fabricius), female, male. 

Pimpla coronator Fabricius, Sy sterna Piezatorum (1804). 
Stephanus corormtor auct. 

STEPHANUS SAMARIS sp. nov. 

Female. — Frons, vertex, and occiput arcuate striate, frons 
apically and occiput basally more transversely, latter longitu- 
dinally impressed, posterior margin of head finely bordered, 
three carinse behind posterior ocelli; scape longer than cheeks, 
second flagellar joint twice as long as first, third little longer 
than second; neck apically carinate, basally transstriate, twice 
as long as the smooth semiannular ; mesonotum centrally smooth, 
laterally rugose, central row of punctures distinct, lateral ones 
apically only; scutellum normal; meso- and metapleurse smooth 
above, otherwise punctate, former basally more rugose; median 
segment evenly and not deeply punctate; petiole transstriate, 
basally rugose, shorter than the rest of abdomen, second segment 
basally rugose; terebra longer than body, white banded. Hind 
coxae transrugose, femora bidentate, tibiae as long as femora 
and trochanters together, compressed in basal two-fifths, meta- 



228 3^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

tarsi twice as long as the remaining joints. Radius emitted 
from slightly beyond middle of stigma, its distal section half 
as long again as the proximal. 

Black; head, scape, and anterior legs red, apex of pronotum 
rufotestaceous. Wings centrally darker. 

Length, 19 to 22 millimeters; abdomen, 12 to 15; petiole, 5 
to 7 ; terebra, 22 to 25 ; band, 4 ; apex, 2. 

Samar (Baker). 

This may well be an insular variety of S. coronator Fabricius, 
from which it appears to differ chiefly in the rather fine sculpture 
of the head, metapleur«, and median segment, and the shorter 
petiole. 

STEPHANUS RUGICAPUT sp. nor. 

Male. — Frons coarsely arcuate striate, vertex and occiput ar- 
cuate carinate, three stronger carinse behind posterior ocelli, 
posterior tubercles small but distinct, posterior margin of head 
bordered ; scape as long as cheeks, antennae normal ; neck apically 
strongly, basally less strongly carinate, semiannular smooth; 
mesonotum centrally smooth, laterally rugose, central row of 
punctures distinct throughout, lateral ones apically only ; scutel- 
lum normal; mesopleurae punctate, metapleurae smooth above, 
coarsely punctate beneath, separated by a carina and a trans- 
striate sulcus from the cribrate punctate median segment ; petiole 
transstriate, slightly shorter than the remaining smooth, shining 
segments. Hind coxse transstriate between coarse rugosities, 
femora smooth, bidentate, as long as coxae and trochanters to- 
gether, tibiae much longer than femora, compressed not quite to 
middle, metatarsi a little longer than the remaining joints. 
Radius emitted from end of second third of stigma, its proximal 
section half as long as the distal. 

Black ; legs ruf escent, apices of hind tibiae and their tarsi paler. 

Length, 14 millimeters; abdomen, 9.5; petiole, 4.5. 

Mindanao, Davao (Baker). 

This species greatly resembles *?. variantius mihi, and may 
be a form of the male. 

STEPHANUS TRICOLOR sp. nov. 

Male. — Frons, vertex, and occiput irregularly rugose, pos- 
terior margin of head lightly bordered, posterior tubercles small 
but distinct; scape longer than cheeks, antennae normal; neck 
transcarinate, about twice as long as the smooth, finely and 
diffusely punctate semiannular; mesonotum laterally coarsely 



33,2 Elliott: New Stephanidse, II 229 

punctate, central row of punctures distinct, lateral ones less so, 
with apical fovese; central lobe of scutellum smooth with fine 
marginal punctures, lateral lobes with large, but not close 
punctures; meso- and metapleurse smooth above, former finely, 
latter coarsely punctate beneath, separated by a carina from the 
reticulate punctate median segment ; basal third of petiole rugose, 
remainder smooth, shorter than rest of abdomen. Hind coxae 
transcarinate, apical third transstriate, about as long as the 
smooth bidentate femora, tibise about one-third longer than the 
femora, compressed in basal third, metatarsus as long as the 
remaining joints. Radius emitted from beyond middle of stigma, 
the distal section not quite twice as long as the proximal. 

Black ; petiole and abdomen rufescent, all coxae and trochanters 
black, compressed part of hind tibiae brown, remainder of legs 
bright rufotestaceous. Wings lightly and evenly infumate, 
stigma and nervures rufescent. 

Length, 17.5 millimeters ; abdomen, 12 ; petiole, 5. 

Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Bongu, New Guinea. 

In the sculpture of the head and petiole and the color of the 
hind tibiae, this species recalls S. aequalis mihi, but the locality 
makes it improbable that it can be an insular variety of that 
species. 

STEPHANUS RUFUS sp. nov. 

Male, — Frons arcuate striate, two carinae behind posterior 
ocelli, vertex, and occiput trans-striate, lightly longitudinally 
impressed, latter laterally punctate, posterior margin of head 
extremely finely bordered; scape a little longer than cheeks, 
antennae normal; neck elongate, anterior half smooth, deeply 
foveate, basal half finely transstriate, semiannular smooth; 
mesonotum smooth, with deep smooth central longitudinal im- 
pression, laterally rugose punctate, lateral rows of punctures 
distinct ; scutellum normal ; meso- and metapleurse smooth above, 
otherwise punctate, latter separated by a weak carina from the 
reticulate punctate median segment ; petiole transstriate, shorter 
than the remaining smooth segments. Hind coxae transstriate, 
as long as the smooth, bidentate femora, tibiae about as long as 
the femora and trochanters together, compressed nearly to mid- 
dle, metatarsi as long as the remaining joints. Radius emitted 
from beyond middle of stigma, its distal section little longer 
than the proximal. 

Rufescent; scutellum, petiole, hind coxae, and femora darker; 
head, scape, and first flagellar joint dark rufotestaceous. 



230 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Length, 14 millimeters ; abdomen, 9 ; petiole, 4. 
Mindanao, Zamboanga {Baker), 

STEPHANUS LEPIDUS sp. nov. 

Male, — Frons arcuate rugose, three carinae behind posterior 
ocelli, ocellar space, vertex, and occiput rugose, posterior margin 
of head bordered; scape about as long as cheeks, more than 
twice as long as first flagellar joint, antennae normal, very 
slender and the joints indistinctly discrete; neck elongate, the 
apical half transcarinate, basal half smooth and gradually merg- 
ing into the smooth semiannular ; mesonotum diffusely punctate,, 
the central row of punctures only distinct; central lobe of scu- 
tallum smooth with diffuse marginal punctures, lateral lobes not 
very closely punctate; meso- and metapleuree smooth above, 
otherwise punctate, latter separated by a carina from the median 
segment, which is superficially reticulate punctate, the bottom 
of the punctures finely punctate ; petiole finely transstriate, much 
shorter than the rest of abdomen. Hind coxae transrugose, their 
femora smooth, bidentate, as long as the coxse, tibiae as long as 
femora and trochanters together, compressed not quite to middle. 
Radius emitted from apical third of stigma, distal section twice 
as long as the proximal. 

Black; head and two basal antennal joints red, anterior legs 
and tegulae rufescent; wings infumate. 

Length, 16 millimeters ; abdomen, 10.5 ; petiole, 4. 

SiBUYAN {Baker), 

A slender insect. The formation and sculpture of the pro- 
notum are distinctive. 

STEPHANUS LINEARIS sp. nov. 

Male, — Frons basally rugose, apically transstriate, vertex and 
occiput superficially rugose punctate, latter basally narrowly 
smooth, posterior margin of head bordered, two arcuate carinae 
and a short straight one behind the posterior ocelli, posterior 
tubercles distinct; scape longer than cheeks, third flagellar joint 
longer than second, but shorter than first and second together; 
pronotum rather elongate, transstriate, semiannular basally 
broadly smooth; mesonotum punctate, central impression distinct, 
lateral ones apically only; mesopleurae smooth above, otherwise 
punctate, metapleurae apically smooth above, basally and laterally 
coarsely punctate, separated by a line of punctures and an in- 
distinct carina from the reticulate punctate median segment; 
petiole transstriate, basally more coarsely, only half as long as 



33,2 Elliott: New Stephanidas, II 231 

the remaining narrow, shining segments. Hind coxse rather 
coarsely transstriate, shorter than the smooth, bidentate femora, 
tibiae nearly as long as femora and trochanters together, com- 
pressed to middle, metatarsi as long as the remaining joints. 
Eadius emitted from far beyond middle of stigma, its distal 
section fully three times as long as the proximal. The cubital 
cell very large. 

Black; head and apex of pronotum light red, abdomen from 
second segment rufous, with indistinct dusky basal marks on 
the segments; scape and legs rufescent. 

Length, 10.5 millimeters; abdomen, 6; petiole, 2. 

Borneo, Sandakan (Baker). 

The sculpture of the head and the color of the abdomen are 
peculiar, and it is rather small for this subfamily. Possibly a 
small S. curtus, 

STEPHANUS HIRSUTUS sp. nor. 

Male. — Frons coarsely arcuate striate, vertex and occiput 
rugose, three carinas behind posterior ocelli, all tubercles distinct, 
posterior margin of head bordered; scape longer than cheeks, 
third flagellar joint little longer than second ; neck normal, trans- 
carinate, semiannular smooth ; mesonotum lightly punctate, three 
rows of punctures distinct ; scutellum normal ; mesopleuree punc- 
tate, metapleurse smooth above, otherwise strongly punctate, 
separated by a carina from the reticulate punctate median seg- 
ment; petiole transstriate, basally more coarsely, shorter than 
the remaining smooth, shining segments. Hind coxae coarsely 
transstriate, femora bidentate, as long as coxae and trochanters 
together, tibiae longer than femora, compressed in basal two- 
fifths, metatarsi about as long as the remaining joints. Pleurae, 
petiole, and legs with rows of long whitish hairs. Radius 
emitted from end of second third of stigma, its distal section 
half as long again as the proximal. 

Black; head, scape, anterior legs, apices of hind tibiae and 
their tarsi red. Wings lightly infumate, centrally darker. 

Length, 17 millimeters; abdomen, 11; petiole, 5. 

Mindanao, Davao {Baker) . 



The Philippine 
Journal of Science 

Vol. 33 JULY, 1927 No. 3 

INQUIRY INTO THE SEROLOGIC SIDE-EFFECTS OF THE 
ANTIRABIC PREVENTIVE TREATMENT 

By K. Yasuyama' 

Of the Division of Biology and Serum Laboratory 
Bureau of Science, Manila 

This study was undertaken with the view to establish the 
presence or absence of such heterogenic antibodies as may 
occur in the blood of patients receiving antirabic preventive 
treatment or, in other words, receiving repeated injections of 
rabbit nerve tissue. It occurred to me that repeated injections 
of rabbit nerve tissue of the spinal cord in the form of an 
emulsion might act as a heterogenic antigen and produce a 
phenomenon in the blood of the patient similar to that known 
as Forsemann's phenomenon. The antirabic preventive treat- 
ment as practiced in the Philippines consists of twenty-five in- 
jections with emulsions of three-day-dried cord of a rabbit that 
has been inoculated with fixed virus by the subdural method 
and become completely paralyzed seven to nine days after in- 
oculation. 

The plan of the study was to follow the natural antibodies of 
human blood before and during treatment and further to study 
the specific antirabbit protein antibodies that might lead to 
hypersensibility of the patient to the foreign protein. It is 
true that the cord as prepared for drying is practically devoid 
of all blood ; yet there must be traces of serum and protein that 
are being admixed with the antirabic vaccine. 

^ Lieutenant Surgeon, Imperial Japanese Navy, 

228111 233 



234 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Although the findings were negative throughout, yet the in- 
formation gained from this investigation is both important and 
satisfying in that no unnecessary harm is done to the patient 
receiving this treatment. 

As a preliminary experiment the Forsemann's phenomenon 
was repeated. 

A guinea pig was killed and the kidney and the cerebellum of 
the animal were removed. 

The kidney was ground in a sterilized mortar and 10 cubic 
centimeters of physiological salt solution were added to make a 
suspension. 

The suspension was heated on a water bath at 56° C. for 
thirty minutes. The heated suspension was centrifuged and the 
supernatant fluid filtered through sterile filter paper. 

The resulting fluid was injected intravenously into a rabbit 
in amounts of 0.5 cubic centimeter, 1 cubic centimeter, and 2 
cubic centimeters, every six days. The rabbit was bled ten days 
after the last injection. The guinea pig's cerebellum was 
treated in the same manner. The results are given in Table 1. 
They show that guinea pig central nerve tissue acts as a hetero- 
genic antigen when injected into a rabbit. 

HEMOLYSIS OF GUINEA PIG RED CORPUSCLES BY HUMAN SERUM 
DURING PREVENTIVE ANTIRABIC TREATMENT 

TECHNIC 

Antigen, — The blood was withdrawn from the guinea pig's 
heart by means of a sterilized syringe previously washed out 
with sterile physiological salt solution ; the blood thus withdrawn 
was placed in a test tube which contained about 5 cubic centi- 
meters of a 1.5-per-cent solution of sodium citrate to prevent 
coagulation. The red corpuscles were washed four times by 
adding saline solution to the sediment of the blood corpuscles in 
the centrifuge tube. A 2-per-cent suspension of red blood cor- 
puscles was used. 

Patient's serum, — Blood withdrawn from the cubital vein of 
a patient by means of a syringe was placed in a sterilized test 
tube and allowed to stand until the serum separated from the 
clot. The serum was then centrifuged clear of red corpuscles. 

ARRANGEMENT OF EXPERIMENT 

Four small test tubes for each patient and one test tube for 
control were arranged in a rack. 



33,3 



Yasuyama: Antirabic Preventive Treatment 



235 



Into the four small test tubes the patient's serum was placed 
in the following amounts : 0.7, 0.5, 0.3, and 0.1 cubic centimeter. 
Physiological salt solution was added to each tube to make the 
total amount of the fluid in each test tube 1 cubic centimeter. 
The control tube received 1 cubic centimeter of saline solution. 
The tubes were thoroughly stirred so as to mix well the serum 
and the saline solution. 

One cubic centimeter of a 2-per-cent suspension of guinea 
pig red blood corpuscles was added to each tube of the above- 
mentioned series and all of the tubes were stirred thoroughly. 

Incubation at 37° C. followed. Reading of hsemolysis was 
made every fifteen minutes. 

At the end of two hours' incubation the tubes were taken 
out of the incubator and the last reading was protocoled. 

TITRATION OF HEMOLYSINS IN THE SERA OP PATIENTS 

The titration of hsemolysins in the patient's serum was made 
in such a way that the minimal amount of the serum that 
produced complete haemolysis after not more than two hours' 
incubation was ascertained. 

HEMOLYSIS OF SHEEP AND RABBIT RED CORPUSCLES BY THE BLOOD 
SERUM OF PATIENTS DURING THE ANTIRABIC TREATMENT 

The technic and the arrangement of the experiments with rab- 
bit and sheep red corpuscles were the same as described above. 
The details are evident from the attached tables. For results 
of this test see Tables 1 to 7. They show that rabbit central 
nerve tissue does not act as a heterogenic antigen when repeatedly 
injected into human beings in the form of antirabic vaccines. 

Table 1. — Showing the results of a hsemolytic test using heterogenic 
hsemolytic serum and sheep red cells,'- 

[-{- = complete haemolysis ; it = no haemolysis.] 



Dilution. 


1:1 


1:4 


1:16 


1:512 


1:640 


1 : 1280 


1:2560 


1 : 5120 


Rabbit: 

Normal 

Kidncv 


+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


4- 
+ 


4- 
+ 


+ 


+ 
+ 


+ 


Cerebellum 



a Five-tenths cubic centimeter of 1 :10 dilution of guinea pig complement inactivated 
hsemolytic serum ; 1 cubic centimeter of 2 per cent suspension of sheep red cells, recorded as 
hsemolysis. 



236 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



?5 
5i. 



^ S 






C3S . 



+ 
+ 



i 

5- 



+ 



5)i 




R 






^ 


^ 




►^ 


P. 


^ 


O 




u 


c4 


II 


» 


+ 




+ 


< 


+ 


H 


+ 







+ + 1 

+ + + . ; 
+ + + ^ ; 

+ + ! 


.'4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4- 
14-4-4- , 4-4-4-4-4-4- 4- 4-4-, 4- , 
!4-4-4- ' 4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4-"^4- ' 
!+4-4-4-4-4-4-4- 


fc 
-^ 

2 


+ + ; 

+ 4- + 1 ! 
+ + + ' ! 

+ + 1 




14-4-4- 
14- 1 4-4-4-4- 
14- ' 4-4-4-4- 
14-4-4- 






4- 4- 

4-^4-' 
4- 4- 




++++++++++++ 

+ + + ' + + + + + ' + + + + + + + + + + + 1 
++++++++++++ 




+ + + 1 + + +.4- , + . + .4- 1 4-.4-,X , 
+ + 4- ' 4-4-4-^4- ' 4- + 4- + 4- ' 4-^4-^1 ' 
4- + 4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4-4-'^ 




4-4-4-4-4-, 4-4-4-4-4- 

+ | + |+ + + + I| + t + l + |4-.4-,4-, 

4-'4-'4-4-4-^X' + ' + ' + '++' + ' 

4-4-4-4-4-"^4-4-4-4-4- 


li 

< 


CO tH CO 

d d d 


iCOrHCOTHCOr-fCOTHCOrHCOTHCOr-iCOrHCOr-t 

loooooooooooooooo dd 


§1 

si 


OOOOClT}<lO0Ca;OC0 

a 




OGO<N«>THC<lTf<OCriOCW 






1 




! d c 


' d d d c 

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2, => 


6 


a 




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HH 1-3 


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Patient's No. 




ca 


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Ti< u; 


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33, S 



Yasuyama: Antirabic Preventive Treatment 



237 



Table 3. — Showing the results of titration of normal antiguinea pig 
hsemolysin in the blood of patients at the end of antirabic treatment, 

[+ + + + = complete haemolysis ; + + -f- = almost complete haemolysis ; -f + = weak 
haemolysis ; + = traces of haemolysis ; — =: no haemolysis.] 







Results. 






Duration of 
treatment. 


Name of patient. 


Amount 
ot serum. 


1 


15 min. 


30 min. 


Ihr. 


1.5 hrs. 


2 hrs. 


Days. 




cc. 












r 0.7 


+ + + + 


+ -I- + + 


+ 4- + + 










5 


+ 4- + + 


+ + + -f 


+ + 4-4- 






20 


M.R 


0.3 
0.1 


+ + + + 
+ + + + 


+ + + + 
+ + + + 


+ + + + 
+ + + + 
















05 








+ 










01 
















' 0.3 

0.1 

1 0.05 


+ + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 





+ + + + 


20 


P. G 











+ 






I 0.01 


— 


— 


— 




— 






r 0.3 


+ 


+ + + 


+ + + 


+ + + 


+ + + 


21 


T. S - 


0.1 
0.05 













I 








I 0.01 


— 


— 


— 


— 


__ 






r 0.3 
J 0.1 
] 0.05 
I 0.01 


+ + 


+ + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


20 


N. M 


I 


I 


I 


I 













— 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 






r 0.3 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


20 


J.T 


J 0.1 
1 0.05 


+ + 


+ + + 


+ + + 
+ 


+ + + 
+ 


+ + + 
+ 






l 0.01 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






r 0.3 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


20 


J.L 


J 0.1 
1 0.05 


+ 


+ 


+ + + 


+ + + 


+ + + 






I 0.01 

r 0.3 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


20 


P.D 


J 0.1 
1 0.05 


+ + 


+ + 
+ 


+ + 

+ 


+ + 
+ 


+ + 
+ 






L 0.01 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






r 0.3 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


20 


C.A 


J 0.1 
1 0.05 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 








I 0.01 1 — 


— 


— 


— 


_ 






r 0.3 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


25 


C. G 


J 0.1 
1 0.05 


— 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










I 0.01 


_ 


— 


__ 


— 


— 






r 0.3 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


20 


J. C 


J 0.1 
1 0.05 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 








I 0.01 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






r 0.3 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 





+ + + + 


20 


E. M 


J 0.1 
1 0.05 


— 


— 


— 




+ 










L 0.01 


— 


— 


— 




— 



238 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



Table 4. — Showing the results of titration of normal antiguinea pig 
hsemolysin in the blood serum of the same patients at the beginning and 
at the end of antirabic treatment. 



[-f- + + + = complete haemolysis ; -|- -f- -f- = almost 
haemolysis ; -|- — traces of haemolysis ; 



complete haemolysis ; 
— = no haemolysis.] 



+ + = weak 



Pa- 
tient's 
No. 


Name. 


Sex. 
Male.... 


Age. 

Years. 
32 


Dura- 
tion of 
treat- 
ment. 


Amount 

of 
serum. 


Results. 


15 min. 


30 min. 


Ihr. 


1.5 hrs. 


2 hrs. 


25. _ 


P.G-.. 


Days. 
13 


cc. 

r 0.5 

A 0.3 

L 1 


+ + + + 
+ + 


+ + + + 
+ + + 


+ + + + 
+ + + + 


+ + + + 
+ + + + 


+ + + + 
+ + + + 












r 0.5 

























20 


i 0.3 
I 0.1 
.0.5 
0.3 
J 0.1 
1 0.5 


+ + 


+ + + + 


++++ 


+ + + + 


++++ 


26_. 


T. S... 


...do.... 


24 


5 


+ + + + 
+ + + + 




+ + + + 
+ + + + 

+ 




++++ 

++++ 

+ 




+ + + + 

+ + + + 

+ + 




++++ 

++++ 

++ 














0.3 
I 0.1 

r 0.5 

< 0.3 
I 0.1 

r 0.5 


+ 


++ + 


+ + + 


+ + + 


+++ 


27.. 


N. M.. 


...do.... 


42 


4 


++++ 
+ + + + 




++++ 

++++ 

+ 




+++ + 

+++ + 

+ 







++++ 

++++ 

+ + 












20 


< 0.3 
L 0.1 

f 0-5 

< 0.3 
n 1 


+ + 


+++ 


+++ + 


++ + + 


++++ 


28... 


J.T.... 


...do.... 


21 


2 


++++ 


++++ 
++++ 


++++ 
++ + + 




+++ + 
+++ + 












L U. X 

r 0.5 

























20 


■< 0.3 
n 1 


— 


+ 


+ 


4- 


+ 


29. . 


J.L- ._ 


...do.... 


37 


8 


r 0.5 

J 0.3 
I 0.1 

r 0.5 




+ + + + 






++++ 






++ + + 
+ 












++ 




30-. 


P.D.-- 


Female. . 


40 


20 



J 0.3 
1 0.1 
' 0.5 

- 0.3 
. 0.1 


+ + + + 

++++ 
++ + + 


++++ 

+ 
++++ 
++ + + 


++++ 

+++ 

++++ 

+++ + 


+++ + 

+++ 

++ + + 

++++ 


++++ 

+++ 

+++ + 

-f-4- + + 












r 0.5 

















31-. 


C.A.-- 


Male 


62 


20 



< 0.3 
I 0.1 
1 0.5 

S 0.3 

L 0.1 

^ 0.5 


+++ + 

+ + 
+ + + + 
++++ 

+ 4- + + 



+ + 
++++ 
+++ + 
++++ 




++++ 
++++ 
++ + + 




++++ 

++ 
++++ 
++++ 




++ 
++++ 

+ + + 4- 











20 


- 0.3 
. 0.1 


++++ 


+ + + + 
++++ 


++++ 
+++ + 


++++ 


+ + + + 
4- + + + 



33,3 



Yasuyama: Antirabic Preventive Treatment 



239 



e 
^ 



'^ 



.g i 



i s 

•Is- 
1 






r5£ 



< 






+ .2 
+ 1 

.2 'S 

o 

J < 



^ 
a 
S 



-a 



+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 



•a 
1 


^ ^4 


1 




+ + 4- ^ 

J 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 t f 1 I tt 1 1 + I 1 1 
+ + + + 


2 


+ + i i i i 
+ ''' + 111 1 : i i 

+ + Mi! 












+ + + 
t'lltlil+llljlli+lll 

+ + + 


s 


+ + + 

:I:iiit''' + 'i' + ''i + i'i 
+ + + 




+ 
tiiiiiiiiiiitiii+iii 

+ 


11 

< 


U3»-t IOtH lOrH U3tH »OfH 
C0iHOOC0»HOOC0iHOOC0THOOC0r-IOO 


• ooooooooooooooc 


? o 


o o o o 


Dura- 
tion of 
treat- 
ment. 

Days. 

1 



1 


' 


6 

^ 


O CO 00 o o> 
» ?0 Tl< CO CO N 

1 


i 


1 


a 
"5 


i ^ 


d 


a; 
1 


< 

PL 


•- 




PQ 




d 

z; 

§ 
1 




c^ 


00 


Tf 






to 



240 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



f 



e 
a 



§ a; 



.§ g 



is>. 






I 






1 


< < 


1 




+ + + 
tllltlll|l!l 
+ + + 


2 


+ + + 
lllltllltlll 
+ + + 


»4 

r-f 


+ + + 
tiM + MlJlll 
+ + + 


a 

o 


+ + 

t 1 M 1 1 M J I 1 1 
+ + 


a 


+ 

t 1 1 1 1 I I 1 t ' 1 ' 
+ 


ti 

as 


«THOO03iHOOC0rHOO 

oooooo'odooodo 

V) 


Dura- 
tion of 
treat- 
ment. 


iH O <N 

1 


< 


O Oi iH 
» (M Tit CO 




d d d 
-d 'd -d 


s 


W d cq 
<«i Q h4 


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33.8 Yasuyama: Antirdbic Preventive Treatment 241 



Table 6. — Showing the results of normal antirabbit hemolysin in the blood 
serum of the patients at the end of the treatment, 

[+ + + + = complete hsBmoIjrsis ; + + + = almost complete hsemolysis ; + + = weak 
hsemolysis ; + = traces of haemolysis ; — = no haemolysis ; Ag = agglutination.] 



Patient. 



L. C. 



P. G_ 



M. R_ 



C. A- 



J. C. 



E. M- 



L.B_ 



D. O. 



R. C- 



V. R. 



Amount 
of serum. 



cc. 
r 0.3 
I 0.1 
I 0.05 
I 0.01 

{0.3 
0.1 
0.05 
0.01 
fO.3 
0.1 
0.05 
0.01 
{0.3 
0.1 
0.05 
0.01 
{0.3 
0.1 
0.05 
0.01 
(0.3 
0.1 
0.05 
0.01 

r 0.3 

I 0.1 
1 0.05 
L 0.01 
r 0.3 
I 0.1 
j 0.05 

L 0.01 

(0.3 
0.1 
0.05 
0.01 
fO.3 
0.1 
0.05 
0.01 



Results. 



15 min. 



+ + 



+ + 



+ + + 



+ + 



+ + + 



+ + 



30 min. 



+ + + + 



+ + + + 



+ + + 



+ + + 



+ + + + 



+ + 



+ + 



+ + + 



+ + + 



Ihr. 



+ + + + 



+ + + + 



+ + + 



+ + + 



+ + + + 



+ + + 



+ + + 

+ 



+ + + + 
+ 



+ + + + 



1.5 hrs. 



+ + + + 



+ + + + 



+ + + + 



+ + + 



+ + + 



+ + + 
+ 



+ + + + 
+ 



+ + + + 



2 hrs. 



+ + + + 



+ + + 



+ + + + 



+ + + + 



+ + + 



+ + + + 



+ + + 



+ + + 
+ 



+ + + + 

+ 



+ + + + 



Re- 
marks. 



Ag. 



Ag. 
Ag. 



242 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



.3 
5 






II 
+ 



s 


S 




SK 


j:i 


J3 


Tn 


^ 


iSj 


% 




I 


g 


II 




+ 


Sh 


+ 


<^ 




^ 




^< 


.2 


•S 


>> 






5e 


o 

1 




A 


5j 




g 


1 


5S 





S o 



^ 


I! 


Qi 


+ 


•4^ 


+ 


C5i 


+ 


S 








^ 


.3 




S 


^ 


c 






+ 
+ 
+ 
4- 






§2 









+ + 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 



I I I I I I 



+ 

+ 



+ I 



e 




+ 


t2 


!;:::;!:;:!:+ I 


i lU+i 






+ 



+111111 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 111 



+ 



+ I 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 1 I 



+ + 
+ + 

+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



I I I + I I I + 



+ + 
+ + 



I I 



+ 

4- + 

+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 



llTlII+lll+ll 



+ 

+ + 
+ + 

+ 



+ + 
+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 



M i + I I ! I I 



+ 



I I I 



+ 

+ 111 
+ 



+ I I I I I 



I lt + 



^C0r-IOOC0r-IOOe0'HOOC0»HOOC0iHOO 
VjOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



a 

^ 









33,3 



Ydsuyama: Antirabic Preventive Treatment 



243 



+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 



I !+: + 



+ 1 I 



+ 

+ + 
+ + 



:t* 



+ I 



+ 
+ + 



I I ( +: 



+ I I 



+ 

+ + 
+ + 



111 + 



+ 



+ 

+ + I 
+ 



+ 



I 1 +t + 
+ ^ 



+ I 



+ 1 I 



+ 
+ 

4- 



I +: 



+ I 



+ 1 



+ I 



+ 



I I +± + 
+ ^ 



+ I i 



+ 

+ I I 
+ 



I 1 + 



+ 
+ 



+ 1 1 



I I 



koa^t- lO Oi tr- uSOJt- lOOit- 


\a Oi 


5 lOOO jOOO lOOO jOOO 


I ^ ^ 


O'-lOOCOr-tOOCCTHOOCOiHOOW 


r^ O O 



oooooooo 



ooooooooooo 



> 
6 



P5 



g 

fe 



244 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



AGGLUTINATION OF RABBIT RED CORPUSCLES BY THE HUMAN SERUM 
DURING ANTIRABIC TREATMENT 

This test was performed in the same manner as described 
above under haemolysis, but inactivated serum v^as used. The 
results are given in Tables 8 and 9. No difference was noticed 
in the contents in the patient's blood of normal agglutinins, 
when tested in the beginning and at the end of the preventive 
treatment against hydrophobia. 

Table 8. — Showing the results of agglutination test of rabbit red corpuscles 
by the patients' sera at the beginning of the antirabic treatment. 

[++ + + = complete agglutination ; -1- + -f = almost complete agglutination ; + + =: weak 
agglutination ; + = traces of agglutination.] 



Pa- 
tient's 
No. 


Name. 


Sex. 


Age. 


Dura- 
tion of 
treat- 
ment. 


Amount 

of 
serum. 


Results. 


15 min. 


30 min. 


Ihr. 


1.5 hrs. 


2 hrs. 








Years. 


Days. 


cc. 
rO.3 






+ + + + 


+ + + + 




l.__ 


P. A__. 


Male.... 


60 


1 


1o.05 






+ 


+ + 




















Lo.oi 

rO.3 






+ + + + 


+ + + + 








+ + -f + 


2.-- 


J. C... 


...do.... 


43 





. 01 
^ 0.05 

0.01 

rO.3 






+ 


+ 


+ + 
+ 

-f + + + 










-^ 




3... 


J. A... 


_._do.... 


38 





0.1 
1o.05 
U.Ol 
rO.3 










+ + + 














+ 


+ + + 


+ + + 


4... 


E. M _. 


...do.._- 


36 


1 


Jo.i 

|0.05 


I 


I 


+ + + 


+ + + 


+ + + 












U.Ol 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 












ro.3 


+ 


+ + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


5._- 


R. B .. 


.-.do.._. 


29 


1 


lo.i 

' 0.05 
.0.01 


— 


+ + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 












rO.3 


— 


+ + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


6... 


A. H .- 


Female.. 


29 


1 


0.1 
^ 0.05 
U.Ol 


— 


+ + 


+ + 


+ + 


+ + 












rO.3 


— 


— 


+ 


+ 


+ 


7.__ 


D. .. 


Male_..- 


49 





Jo.i 

1o.05 
U.Ol 
rO.3 

JO.I 
1 0.05 


+ 


+ + + 


— 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


8._- 


L. B ... 


_..do..__ 


21 


2 


— 


+ + + 
+ + 




+ + + + 
+ + + + 


+ + + + 
+ + + + 












U.Ol 


— 


— 




— 


— 



33,3 



Ydsuyama: Antirabic Preventive Treatment 245 



Table 9. — Showing the results of agglutination test of rabbit red corpuscles 
by the patients* sera at the end of the treatment. 



[-|_ ^ 4- -{- = complete agglutination ; + + + = almost complete agglutination ; + + 
agglutination ; + = traces of agglutination,] 



: weak 





Amount 
of 




Results. 


Patient. 




I 


1 1 




serum. 


15 min. 


30 min. 


Ihr. 


1.5 hrs. 


2 hrs. 1 




cc. 
( 0.3 






+ + + + 


+ + + + 


+ + + + 


L. C 


0.1 
0.05 






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] 0.05 


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+ 


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+ + + + 
+ + 






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246 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

COMPLEMENT-FIXATION TEST FOR THE PRESENCE OF ANTIBODIES 
TO RABBIT PROTEIN IN PATIENT'S SERUM 

TECHNIC 

Antigen, — ^About 6 cubic centimeters of blood were withdrawn 
from a rabbit and the blood was placed in a sterilized test tube 
and allowed to stand until the serum was separated from the 
blood clot. The serum was decanted, inactivated at 56° C. on 
a water bath for thirty minutes, and placed in a refrigerator. 

Patient's serum, — Serum was obtained from the patient's 
vein by using a sterile syringe, and after the serum separated 
it was inactivated and kept in a refrigerator. 

Complement, — About 4 cubic centimeters of blood were with- 
drawn from each guinea pig's heart, and the clear serum was 
diluted in a 1 : 10 dilution with the physiological salt solution. 

Hemolytic system, — A 5-per-cent suspension of monkey 
washed blood corpuscles was sensitized with two units of am- 
boceptor at room temperature (about 28° C.) for one hour. 

ARRANGEMENT OF EXPERIMENT 

Three test tubes for each patient's serum and one test tube 
for antigen control were arranged in a rack. 

Two-tenths cubic centimeter of rabbit serum was placed in 
the first, second, and fourth test tubes. 

Two-tenths cubic centimeter of saline solution was placed in 
the third test tube. 

Inactivated patient's serum was placed in the first, second, 
and fourth test tubes. The first test tube received 0.2 cubic 
centimeter, the second test tube 0.1 cubic centimeter, and the 
third test tube 0.2 cubic centimeter of patient's serum. 

Each tube received enough of the saline solution to make 
the total amount 1 cubic centimeter. 

Five-tenths cubic centimeter of a 10-per-cent complement was 
added to each test tube, and the tubes were stirred thoroughly 
and kept in the incubator. 

After one hour's incubation 1 cubic centimeter of sensitized 
monkey blood corpuscles suspension was added to each test 
tube. 

Incubation for an hour followed. 

The results were read and noted. 

The results are evident from Table 10. This test indicates 
that traces of antirabbit antibodies are present in the blood 
of patients at the end of the antirabic treatment. 



33,3 



Yasuyama: Antirabic Preventive Treatment 



247 



Table 10. — Showing the results of the complement fixation test for anti- 
rabbit protein in the blood serum of the patients at the end of the 
antirabic treatment. 



Patien t. 



C. G. 



T. S . 



M. L- 



J. L. 



J. T . 



C. A. 



J. C. 



L. B 



Sex. 



Male 



.do. 



.do. 



.do. 



Female- 



Male___ 



.do. 



.do. 



Age. 



Num- 
ber of 
injec- 
tions 
re- 
ceived, 



Years. 



15 



18 



20 20 



21 



38 



20 



20 



20 



20 



20 



Amount 

of 
rabDit 
serum. 



25 



21 i 



Amount 
of pa- 
tient's 

inactive 
serum. 



0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 

0.2 
0.2 



Amount 
of com- 
plement 



cc. 
0.2 
0.1 
0.2 



0.2 
0.1 
0.2 

0.2 
0.1 
0.2 

0.2 
0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.2 
0.2 
0.1 
0.2 



Amount 

of R. C, 

+2 

units. 



0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 



0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0,5 
0.5 



Amount 
of phys- 
iolog- 
ical salt 
solution 



0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.6 
0.7 
0.8 
0.8 



Result 
regis- 
tered 

as in- 
hibition 



+ + 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



CONCLUSIONS 

1. The hsemolytic power toward guinea pig red corpuscles 
of the patient's serum is not affected by the antirabic treat- 
ment. 

2. The amount of the antirabbit hsemolysin in human serum 
is not influenced by the treatment against hydrophobia. 



248 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

3. The antisheep hsemolysin in normal human serum is not 
influenced by antirabic treatment. 

4. The titer of normal human serum with regard to agglu- 
tination of guinea pig and rabbit red cells is not altered by 
antirabic treatment. 

5. Toward the end of the Pasteur treatment the patient's 
serum gives positive complement fixation with rabbit protein 
to a very slight degree. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Thanks are due to Dr. Otto Schobl, chief of the division of 
biology and serum laboratory, Bureau of Science, for valuable 
assistance in carrying out this work. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF 
ASCARIS OVA 

By C. Manalang 
Of the Philippine Health Service^ Zamboanga 

Postmortems in Zamboanga on five hundred Christian Fili- 
pinos more than 1 year old and two hundred twenty-six Chris- 
tian Filipino infants 1 year and under in age show thirteen 
(average age, 4 years) and four deaths, respectively, due to 
ascariasis. Two cases of the former group had perforation of 
the intestine (with hepatic migration in one) due to the worms, 
followed by generalized suppurative peritonitis. The other 
cases died of ascaris toxaemia. Among one hundred forty-five 
worm counts from these postmortems it was found that the 
highest incidence and heaviest infestations were recorded in 
the l-to-5-year age group in which there were thirty-nine cases, 
or 27 per cent, with a per capita count of twenty-five worms. 

The following observations on ascaris ova are along similar 
lines and have the same object as those by Wharton ^ eleven 
years ago; namely, to obtain some knowledge of their develop- 
ment and of the mode of infection upon which prophylaxis 
might be based. 

The ova were collected principally from female ascarids 
obtained at postmortem, and some from chenopodium-treatment 
stools. The worms were placed, one each (in order to oviposit 
regularly), in a Petri dish with some Kronecker fluid (1,000 
cubic centimeters physiological salt solution plus 1 cubic centi- 
meter normal sodium hydroxide) and left at room temperature 
(25 to 30° C), away from direct sunlight. The eggs were 
collected every day by pouring the Kronecker fluid into a cylin- 
der and allowing the eggs to settle. The eggs tend to cohere 
and form lumps which settle easily. By changing the Kronecker 
fluid daily the worms remain alive and deposit eggs for as long 
as ten days. The tests were begun on the day of oviposition, 
whenever possible, or the following day, if delivered at night. 
In some tests pooled ova from different females were used. 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. § B 10 (1915) 19. 

228111 2 249 



250 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Unless otherwise stated, the medium used was Kronecker 
fluid. All observations were made daily whenever necessary. 
In longevity tests weekly observations were sufficient. 

To determine the viability of the larvse, motility was depended 
upon mainly. If no larvse moved after one minute of observa- 
tion (using either f or i objective) the slide was placed in the 
incubator for five minutes or slightly warmed over the light of 
a cigar. The heat stimulated movement. Granulation, shrink- 
age, and vacuolation indicated dead larvse. The tests were 
carried out in test tubes and on slides, without cover glass, and 
these were kept in moist chambers consisting of a Petri dish 
with constantly wet filter paper in the bottom. In test-tube 
observations care was taken not to traumatize larvated ova in 
transferring them from the tube to the slide. 

Each test was carried out on at least two batches of ova 
from different females, or pooled ova from several of them. 
The 2-cell stage appeared as early as the third day and as late 
as the eighth day after delivery when kept under favorable 
conditions (average, fifth day) ; the 4- to 8-cell stages the 
seventh day; and the kidney-shaped, or prelarval, stage the 
eighth or ninth day. 

The observations were carried out from March to September. 
In the following summaries are given the results of the observa- 
tions. 

NORMAL LARVAL DEVELOPMENT TIME 

In six tests on ova from different female worms kept in 
Kronecker fluid on slides in a moist chamber, the ova developed 
into motile larvse in from nine to fifteen days at room tem- 
perature. 

EFFECT OF HEAT, DESICCATION, AND SUNLIGHT 

1. Five to ten minutes immersion in the water bath at 50° C. 
did not prevent larval development. Five minutes at 55'' C. 
prevented larval development in two batches of eggs but not 
in another. 

2. Drying on a Petri dish at room temperature and with 
humidity did not prevent larval development. The larvse de- 
veloped in from twelve to fifteen days. 

3. Ova dried on a Petri dish at room temperature and with 
humidity, transferred weekly on slides with a drop of Kronecker 
fluid and kept in the moist chamber, showed living larvse on the 



33,3 Manalang: Development of Ascaris Ova 251 

twenty-first day of drying; few remained motile thirty-four 
days thereafter, or fifty-five days from the time they began 
to dry. 

4. Ova mixed with dry sand and transferred weekly to the 
moist chamber showed the same result as in 3. 

5. Dried ova on a glass slide exposed to direct sunlight for 
a half hour were not killed ; but one and a half hours' exposure 
completely prevented larval development. 

6. Ova suspended in a drop of Kronecker fluid on a sHde in 
the moist chamber developed when exposed to direct sunlight 
for one hour. At two hours' exposure and longer there was 
no development. No retardation of development was noted in 
the drying or the sun-exposure tests. 

7. Ova allowed to dry on a Petri dish and placed in a desic- 
cator for one week, when transferred into Kronecker fluid and 
kept in a wet chamber developed into larvae twenty-one days 
after transfer into the chamber. Few larvse maintained motility 
twenty-seven days thereafter. When kept more than two weeks 
in the desiccator the ova no longer developed into motile larvae ; 
evidence of attempts to larvate were seen, however. 

ANAEROBIOSIS 

1. In some batches of ova larvae developed more quickly when 
they were placed on a slide in the moist chamber than in the 
same batch placed at the bottom of a test tube under a tall 
column of Kronecker fluid, the difference being from fifteen to 
nineteen days. In others the development time was the same, 
while in one batch they were observed to develop much more 
quickly in the test tube than on the slide in the moist chamber, 
the difference being thirteen days. 

2. Test ova under cover glass showed retarded larval for- 
mation in the middle area. The nearer the ova to the edge the 
faster the development. 

3. Ova, placed in a test tube with a column of 1.5 inches of 
boiled and cooled Kronecker fluid, overlain with 1 inch of par- 
affine oil, and corked tightly, developed into motile larvae in 
twenty-two days. 

4. When the ova of the batch in the Kronecker fluid were 
placed under a mixture of pyrogallic acid and sodium hydroxide 
in a cotton plug and tightly corked, no larvae developed after 
ninety-nine days. Transfer of the ova into the moist chamber 
showed motile larvae on the eighth day after transfer. 



252 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SUBSTANCES 

1. Ova placed in different concentrations of table salt, 5 to 
25 per cent in water, developed into larvae in all of them in 
from twelve to sixteen days, but were seen motile in only 1- to 
10-per-cent solutions in one series of tests, and up to 15 per 
cent in another series. The larvse in the higher concentrations 
were contracted and granular. 

2. Ova placed in pure Chinese sauce (toyo) did not develop. 
Ova placed in 50-per-cent solution of this sauce in water showed 
larval development in a few, but the larvse were granular, 
vacuolated, and not motile. 

3. Ova placed in different dilutions of glacial acetic acid, 2 to 
10 per cent, all developed into larvse in twenty days, but motile 
ones were noted only in solutions up to 6 per cent. The larvse 
were granular in the higher dilutions. 

4. Ova placed in pure and in 50-per-cent solutions in water 
of vinegar purchased at a grocery developed into motile larvse, 
but only a few remained motile for four months and one week. 
The larvse in pure vinegar began to show vacuoles after this 
time. At the end of five months no motile larvse were seen, 
although the larvse in the 50-per-cent solution appeared healthy 
(neither granular nor vacuolated). 

5. Ova were placed in varying sugar solutions, from 5 to 50 
per cent, in test tubes. Motile larvse were present in all in 
twenty days. 

6. Ova in dilutions of 0.1 to 2 per cent of formalin (com- 
mercial) developed in twelve days and the larvse were still 
motile in the 2-per-cent solution after one month. Larval for- 
mation was slow in the 0.1-per-cent solution. 

7. Ova placed in alcohol, 1 to 5 per cent, solution in water 
developed into motile larvse in twenty days, except those in the 
1 per cent, which developed one month later. The larvse were 
still motile in 2- to 5-per-cent dilutions twenty-seven days after 
their appearance. It was noted that larval development was 
more rapid in the 4- and the 5-per-cent solutions than in the 
2- and the 3-per-cent solutions. 

8. Ova placed in 0.1- to 0. 5-per-cent solutions of normal so- 
dium hydroxide all developed into motile larvse in twelve days. 

9. Ova placed in 0.1- to 0.5-per-cent solutions of hydrochloric 
acid developed in all in sixteen days. Larvse in 0.1- and 0.2- 
per-cent solutions were still motile twenty-seven days after their 



33,3 Manalang: Development of Ascaris Ova 253 

appearance. Those in higher dilutions were granular and not 
motile. 

OTHER OBSERVATIONS 

1. Ova placed in stool, in urine, and in a mixture of urine 
and stool on slides in the moist chamber showed motile larvae 
in all on the ninth day. 

2. Abnormally large ova, four or more times as large as the 
normal ova, were frequently seen. These developed into corre- 
spondingly large single larvse. Ova from females expelled by 
chenopodium treatment behaved in the same manner as those 
from postmortem. 

3. Ova placed in Kronecker fluid and distilled water in a test 
tube which developed into motile larvse were still motile after 
six months. 

4. Putrefaction in Kronecker fluid prevented formation of lar- 
vse when others of the same batch of eggs without putrefaction 
larvated in fifteen days. When the Kronecker fluid was changed 
the ova developed in fifteen days. 

5. The presence or absence of the albuminous coating of the 
egg did not seem to influence the larval formation under dif- 
ferent conditions. 

6. Spontaneous hatching was not noted in any of these tests. 
Very rarely in pipetted samples, or when adjusting a cover 
glass, an ovum would break and liberate a motile larva. 

7. Ova four months old with motile larvse were placed in 
duodenal and ileal contents from three very fresh cadavers 
(within one hour after death) and kept in an incubator, with 
the occasional addition of small amounts of sterile saline to 
replace evaporation. After two weeks, the larvse were still 
motile in the shell but they did not hatch. 

8. In 0.2-per-cent solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium 
hydroxide, four-month-old larvse were left at room temperature 
for one month, during which time they remained alive but did 
not hatch. 

COMMENTS 

It is an admitted fact that the origin of ascaris infections 
is food, drink, fresh fruit or, in case of infants and children, 
whatever object might contain the larvated ascaris ova of human 
fsecal origin. 

In view of the time necessary for full-grown larvse to develop 
(nine to fifteen days), the ingested ova must have full-grown 



254 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

larvse in order to be infectious; otherwise the ova will pass 
out in the stool. According to Ohba ^ — 

The eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides develop the greatest ability to infect 
experimental animals in from 8 to 10 days after the formation of the 
embryo. 

If this be applicable to man it means that the ova-containing 
stool should have been outside the body, on the average, two 
to three weeks before the ova could infect. 

My preliminary tests on the hatching of ascaris eggs gave 
negative results and therefore need further observation. 

Wharton was not able to hatch embryos with any degree of 
regularity and thought his failure to do so was due to faulty 
technic. 

Martin,^ working on the eggs of ascaris from calf, pig, horse, 
and dog, conclusively proved that the embryos of these ascarids 
hatch best in alkaline solutions and that, when developed eggs 
are introduced into the alimentary canal of an animal, they pass 
through the stomach unaffected and only hatch after they have 
been subjected to the action of the alkaline juices in the in- 
testine. He found also that none of the juices of the alimentary- 
canal are able to digest the chitinous layers of the shell, that 
the embryos always emerge through a V-shaped opening which 
appears in the end of the shell, and that the shell passes out, 
undigested, with the faeces. He is of the opinion that the 
hatching is due to stimulation of the embryos by the alkaline 
substances in the intestine and by the increase in temperature, 
and not to any action of the juices on the structure of the shell. 
He found, also, in the cases of the embryos of the calf and of 
the pig ascaris, that it was necessary for the embryos to be 
completely developed before being fed to an animal, or placed 
in artificial juices, at 37° C, as any embryos which were not 
completely developed were killed by the rise in temperature. 
The ascarids of the horse and dog were able to undergo their 
complete development and hatch in artificial pancreatic juice at 
a temperature of 37 "^ C. 

Ohba found — 

spontaneous hatching in the culture and the larvae may live therein. 
Incubated for five or six hours at 38° C. in 0.2% hydrochloric acid, 

'Journ. Med. Assoc, of Formosa (1923) 228, summarized in Tropical 

Diseases Bull. 20, No. 12 (1923). 

'Ann. Sci. Nat. (1913) Nos. 2 and 3. Cited by Wharton in Philip. 

Joum. Sci. § B 10 (1915) 22. 



33,3 Manalang: Development of Ascaris Ova 255 

0.2% Nat CO3, artificial gastric juice or artificial intestinal juice the eggs 
do not hatch, but if left in these solutions for much longer periods hatch- 
ing occurs. The rate of hatching is slow and indefinite when the direct 
mechanical action of the movement of the bowel is eliminated. 

Asada * found hatching when embryo-containing eggs were 
injected into the intestine of experimental animals. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The noted resistance of ascaris ova to drying under ordinary 
temperature and humidity, the relative resistance to direct sun- 
light, the impermeability of the eggshell to high concentrations 
of common food condiments (salt, vinegar, and sugar) the long 
life of the larva in shell aided by favorable climatic conditions, 
poor or careless sewage disposal and probably other conditions 
(mechanical carriage by domestic animals, topography of local- 
ity, etc.), all favor or explain the high incidence of ascaris. The 
role of hog ascaris in human infestation has not yet been 
definitely settled. 

The proper disposal of human waste and the periodic treat- 
ment of cases, particularly in children, seem to be the most 
practical solutions. 

* Summarized in Japan Medical World 2 No. 11 (1922) 323. 



SALTS OF LINOLENIC HEXABROMIDE (CALCIUM, 

MAGNESIUM, STRONTIUM, AND NICKEL) FROM 

PHILIPPINE LUMBANG OIL 

By Pedro R. Almoradie 

Assistant in Cheimstry, University of the Philippines 

and 

Augustus P. West 

Professor of Chemistry, University of the Philippines 

The efficiency of a vegetable drying oil depends principally 
upon the amount of linolenic and linolic glycerides contained 
in the oil. These substances are the particular compounds that 
absorb oxygen from the air and cause the oil to dry.^ Linolenic 
glyceride ^ has a greater capacity for the absorption of oxygen 
than has any of the other compounds contained in drying oils. 
This glyceride and the corresponding free linolenic acid are, 
therefore, substances of considerable importance. Although 
linolenic glyceride and the free linolenic acid are substances 
which oxidize readily, they may be separated from an oil in the 
form of a stable hexabromide.^ 

Br Br Br Br Br Br 

II II II 

CH3CH2CH-CHCH2CH-CHCH2CH-CH (CH2) ,COOH 

Only a very few derivatives of linolenic hexabromide have 
ever been prepared. Erdmann and Bedford * prepared the 
potassium and barium salts of the hexabromide and also the 
methyl and ethyl esters. They did not give the exact experi- 
mental details, nor did they state the melting point or the anal- 
ysis of the salts or give the solubility of these substances in 

* Lewkowitsch, J., Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats, 
and Waxes 2 (1922) 42. 

' West, A. P., and A. I. de Leon, Philip. Journ. Sci. 24 (1924) 123. 

' Lewkowitsch, J., Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats, 
and Waxes 1 (1921) 212. 

*Ber. Deutsche Chem. Gesell. 42 (1909) 1330. 

257 



258 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

various solvents. Imperial and West ^ prepared the barium, 
zinc, and lead salts and determined the melting point and the 
solubility of these salts in various solvents. 

Since very few derivatives of linolenic hexabromide have 
been prepared, it would seem desirable to make a few more 
salts of this substance and determine their solubility in various 
solvents. The data thus obtained may be useful in devising 
new methods for separating mixtures of linolenic hexabromide 
and the linolic tetrabromides. 

In this investigation, four new salts of linolenic hexabromide 
were prepared; namely, calcium, magnesium, strontium, and 
nickel. The melting point and the solubility of each of these 
salts in various solvents were determined. 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 

Linolenic hexabromide. — Philippine lumbang oil was used as 
the material for preparing a supply of linolenic hexabromide. 
Lumbang oil ® is obtained from the seeds of Aleurites moluccana. 
It consists almost entirely of glycerides of the unsaturated acids ; 
namely, linolenic, linolic, and oleic.^ It is a drying oil and is 
used in making paints, varnishes, and similar products.^ The 
lumbang oil was pressed from seeds of good quality and filtered 
first through glass wool and then through filter paper. 

Linolenic hexabromide was prepared from lumbang oil in 
accordance with the procedure adopted by Santiago and West * 
in a recent investigation of lumbang compounds. The lumbang 
oil was saponified with aldehyde-free alcoholic potassium hy- 
droxide.^^ The mixed potassium salts thus obtained were con- 
verted into the mixed acids. The mixed acids were brominated 
in ether solution according to the procedure used by Imperial 
and West ^^ in preparing linolenic hexabromide. The ether solu- 
tion of mixed acids was stirred mechanically by means of a 
hot-air motor and brominated at — 10° C. The insoluble lino- 
lenic hexabromide was removed by filtering. After crystallizing 

"Philip. Journ. Sci. 31 (1926) 441. 

"West. A. P., and W. H. Brown, Bull. P. I, Bur. Forestry 20 (1920) 112. 

'West, A. P., and Z. Montes, Philip. Journ. Sci. 18 (1921) 619. 

'West, A. P., and F. L. Smith, Bull. P. I. Bur. Forestry 24 (1923). 

•Philip. Journ. Sci. 32 (1927) 41. 

"Dunlap, F. L., Journ. Am. Chem. Soc. 28 (1906) 397. 

'^Philip. Journ. Sci. 31 (1926) 441. 



33,3 Almoradie and West: Salts from Ltimbang Oil 259 

from ethyl acetate and benzene the melting point of the hexa- 
bromide was 179.5 to 180.5° C. 

Salts of linolenic hexabromide were prepared by first convert- 
ing the acid into the potassium salt. A normal propyl alcohol 
solution of the potassium salt was then treated with a normal 
propyl alcohol solution of an inorganic salt such as calcium 
bromide. The precipitated salt thus obtained was purified, and 
the melting point and the solubility in various solvents were 
determined. It was necessary to use very dilute solutions in 
preparing these salts, because neither the linolenic hexabromide 
nor the potassium salt of the hexabromide is very soluble in 
the ordinary organic solvents. 

Potassium salt of linolenic hexabromide, — Ten grams of lino- 
lenic hexabromide were dissolved in about 3 liters of hot normal 
propyl alcohol. This solution was filtered and to the clear 
solution was added an excess of the calculated amount of a hot 
ethyl alcohol solution of potassium hydroxide. A white gelat- 
inous precipitate of the potassium salt was formed immediately. 
The mixture was heated (reflux) on a water bath for about 
five hours to complete the reaction and obtain a clear supernatant 
solution. The mixture was then cooled and the precipitate 
separated from the clear supernatant liquid by filtering. The 
potassium salt was washed thoroughly with ethyl alcohol (95 
per cent) , and then washed with ether. It was placed on filter 
paper and dried in a vacuum desiccator. The salt was further 
purified by washing with hot benzene to dissolve any unchanged 
hexabromide that might be present. It was again washed with 
alcohol and ether, placed on filter paper, and dried in a vacuum 
desiccator. 

Calcium salt of linolenic hexabromide, — Five grams of the 
potassium salt were dissolved in about 3 liters of hot normal 
propyl alcohol and filtered to eliminate the slight turbidity. 
A solution of calcium bromide (CaBro) was prepared by treating 
a gram of the salt with 5 cubic centimeters of water and adding 
about 100 cubic centimeters of normal propyl alcohol. This 
solution of calcium bromide was heated and added to the hot 
solution of the potassium salt previously prepared. A white 
precipitate was formed immediately. The mixture was heated 
(reflux) on a water bath for about five hours to complete the 
reaction as indicated by the clear supernatant liquid. The mix- 
ture was cooled, and the salt removed by filtering. The salt 



260 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

was washed with ethyl alcohol (50 per cent) until free of ad- 
hering calcium and potassium bromides as indicated by the 
silver nitrate test of the washings. The salt was then washed 
with alcohol (95 per cent), placed on filter paper, and dried in 
a vacuum desiccator. A second yield was obtained by distilling 
the filtrate to about a fourth of the original volume and allowing 
the solution to crystallize. 

A melting-point determination showed that the salt turned 
brown at 208° C. and decomposed completely at 218° C, giving 
a black mass. 

The formula of the salt was checked by determining the 
calcium as sulphate. A portion of the salt was treated with 
concentrated sulphuric acid and the calcium converted into 
calcium sulphate. 

Analysis : 

Calcium. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C36H68Bri204Ca 2.58 

Found 2.52 

Magnesium salt of Unolenic hexabromide. — The potassium salt 
(5 grams) was dissolved in 3 liters of hot normal propyl alcohol 
and the solution filtered. A hot solution of magnesium bromide 
(MgBrg.eHsO) was prepared by dissolving 1.5 grams of the salt 
in 5 cubic centimeters of water and then adding 100 cubic 
centimeters of normal propyl alcohol. This solution was then 
added to the hot alcohol solution of the potassium salt previously 
prepared. The white magnesium salt was precipitated imme- 
diately. The mixture was heated (reflux) on a water bath for 
about five hours to complete the reaction as indicated by the 
clear supernatant liquid. The magnesium salt was then removed 
by filtering and washed with ethyl alcohol (50 per cent) to dis- 
solve the excess magnesium bromide and also the potassium 
bromide formed in the reaction. The salt was then washed 
with alcohol (95 per cent), placed on filter paper, and dried in 
a vacuum desiccator. A second yield was obtained by concen- 
trating the filtrate to about a fourth of the original volume. 

The determination of the melting point showed that the salt 
began to turn brown at 203° C, and decomposed to a black 
mass at 208° C. 

The salt was analyzed by converting the magnesium into mag- 
nesium oxide. A few drops of concentrated nitric acid were 
added to the impure residue of magnesium oxide contained in a 
crucible in order to hasten the oxidation of the carbon. The 



33,3 Almoradie and West: Salts from Lumbang Oil 261 

residue was then heated until the nitric acid was entirely vol- 
atilized and ignited until white. 
Analysis : 

Magnesium. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C36H68Bri204Mg 1.58 

Found 1.77 

Strontium salt of linolenic hexabromide. — Five grams of the 
potassium salt were dissolved in about 3 liters of hot normal 
propyl alcohol and the solution was filtered. A solution of stron- 
tium chloride (SrCls-BHsO) was prepared by dissolving 1.2 
grams of the salt in 5 cubic centimeters of water and adding 
about 100 cubic centimeters of normal propyl alcohol. This 
strontium chloride solution was heated and added to the hot solu- 
tion of the potassium salt previously prepared. A white precip- 
itate was formed immediately. The mixture was heated 
(reflux) on a water bath until the supernatant liquid was clear, 
showing that the reaction was completed. This required about 
five hours. The mixture was cooled and the precipitated stron- 
tium salt removed by filtering. The salt was washed with ethyl 
alcohol (50 per cent) until free of chlorides. It was then 
washed with ethyl alcohol (95 per cent), placed on filter paper, 
and dried in a vacuum desiccator. A second yield of the stron- 
tium salt was obtained by concentrating the filtrate from the 
first crop and allowing it to crystallize. 

When the melting point was determined the salt began to turn 
brown at 205° C, and it decomposed completely at 219° C. 

The salt was analyzed by determining the strontium as stron- 
tium sulphate. 

Analysis : 

strontium. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C36H58Bri204Sr 5.47 

Found 5.34 

Nickel salt of linolenic hexabromide, — The nickel salt was 
prepared, purified, and analyzed by the same method employed 
in making the other salts. A hot normal propyl alcohol solution 
of the potassium salt (5 grams in 3 liters) was treated with a 
normal propyl alcohol solution of nickel bromide (NiBro) con- 
taining about 1 gram of nickel bromide. A white precipitate 
with a slight greenish tint was formed immediately. The mix- 
ture was heated (reflux) on a water bath for about five hours 
to complete the precipitation. The precipitate was filtered off 
and washed first with ethyl alcohol (50 per cent) and then with 



262 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



ethyl alcohol (95 per cent). The salt was then placed on filter 
paper and dried in a vacuum desiccator. 

When the melting point was determined the salt melted in- 
completely with decomposition at between 209 and 212° C. 

The salt was analyzed by converting the nickel into nickel 
oxide (NiO). 

Analysis : 



Calculated for C38H58Bri204Ni 
Found 



Nickel. 
Per cent. 

3.73 
3.84 



Melting point. — A determination of the melting point of the 
salts that were prepared showed that all of them decomposed 
when heated to a sufficiently high temperature. According to the 
literature ^^ a number of salts of long-chain aliphatic acids do 
not give a sharp melting point. The results of the melting- 
point determinations obtained in this research are quite similar 
to those recorded in the literature. 



Table 1. — Solubility of salts of linolenic hexabromide. 

[I = insoluble ; ss = slightly soluble ; S = soluble.] 



Solvent 



Acetone 

Amyl alcohol 

Benzene 

Carbon tetrachloride.. 

Chloroform 

Ether 

Ethyl acetate 

Ethyl alcohol 

Ethyl benzoate 

Ethyl bromide 

Isopropyl alcohol 

Methyl alcohol 

Petroleum ether 

Propyl alcohol (n) . _ _ 

Toluene 

Xylene 



Potassium 

salt. 



Cold. Hot, 



Calcium 
salt. 



Cold. Hot. 



Strontium 
salt. 



Cold. Hot. 



Magnesium 
salt. 



Cold. Hot. 



Nickel 
salt. 



Cold. Hot. 



"^ Lewkowitsch, J., Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats, and 
Waxes 1 (1921) 156, 157, 160, 163, 172, 175, 191, 192, 200, 204, 207. 

Beilstein's Handbuch der Organischen Chemie, Vierte Auflage, 2 (1920) 
361, 369, 372, 374, 395, 396, 466, 473. 



33,3 Almoradie and West: Salts from Lumbang Oil 263 

Solubility. — Qualitative solubility experiments on the salts 
that were prepared were made at room temperature (about 
30° C. and designated as cold), and also in hot solvents. For 
low-boiling solvents like acetone, the solubility in hot solution was 
determined at the boiling temperature of the solvent. With 
high-boiling solvents, such as ethyl benzoate, the temperature for 
solubility determination was about 90° C. In reporting the 
qualitative solubility data, the term ''insoluble'' or ''slightly sol- 
uble'' is used for solvents that dissolved the salt to the extent 
of about 1 per cent or less. With the exception of the potassium 
salt, all of the salts were either insoluble or only slightly soluble 
in the various solvents used. 

Table 1 shows the solubility of salts of linolenic hexabromide 
in various solvents. 

SUMMARY 

Four new compounds, derivatives of crystallized linolenic 
hexabromide, were prepared from Philippine lumbang oil. 
These new compounds are the calcium, magnesium, strontium, 
and nickel salts of crystallized linolenic hexabromide. 

The potassium salt of linolenic hexabromide was prepared by 
treating a normal propyl alcohol solution of the free acid with 
an alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution. 

The calcium, magnesium, strontium, and nickel salts of lino- 
lenic hexabromide were prepared from the potassium salt. 

The melting point of each of these compounds was determined, 
and the formulas were checked by analysis. 

The solubility of calcium, magnesium, strontium, and nickel 
salts of linolenic hexabromide was determined for a number of 
solvents. 



CHAULMOOGRYL AMINO BENZOIC ACIDS AND 
CHAULMOOGRA ANILIDES 

By SiMEONA Santiago 

Of the Bureau of Science y Manila 

and 

Augustus P. West 

Professor of Chemistry ^ University of the Philippines 

Kelbe's ^ reaction for preparing anilides consists in heating 
an amide, such as acetamide, with an amine base like aniline 
until there is no further evolution of ammonia gas. The reaction 
appears to be a rather general one, since it has given good results 
with various kinds of amine bases, such as aniline, the toluidines, 
and napthylamine. Recently, at the suggestion of West, this 
reaction was carried out with the amide of chaulmoogric acid. 
Chaulmoogranilide and the chaulmoogra toluides ^ were prepared 
with good results. 

In the present investigation two new chaulmoogra anilides 
were prepared by Kelbe's reaction, and also two chaulmoogryl 
amino benzoic acids. Our results seem to indicate that the 
anilides may be prepared rather easily ; but chaulmoogryl deriv- 
atives of amino benzoic acids are much more difficult to prepare, 
because the reaction takes place very slowly, even when small 
quantities of the materials are used. The new compounds pre- 
pared in this research will be tested for their therapeutic value. 
In order to check the formulas of these compounds the nitrogen 
content was determined. A modification of Meulen's ^ catalytic 
method was employed for making the nitrogen analyses. 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 

The chaulmoogra oil used in this investigation was kindly 
presented to us by Dr. G. A. Perkins, of the Philippine Bureau 
of Health, and was shipped directly to us from the Culion Leper 

*Ber. Deutsche Chem. Gesell. 16 (1883) 1199. 
' Herrera-Batteke, P., Philip. Journ. Sci. 32 (1927) 35. 
'Smith, F. L., and A. P. West, Philip. Journ. Sci. 31 (1926) 265. 
228ni — 3 265 



266 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Colony. The oil was prepared from the seeds of the Philippine 
variety of chaulmoogra known as Hydnocarpus alcalae C. de 
CandoUe. This is one of the largest of the Hydnocarpus seeds 
and is obtained from Albay Province, Philippine Islands, where 
it is known locally as dudn dudu, 

Chaulmoogric acid, — The acid was prepared from the oil in 
the following manner: Potassium hydroxide (200 grams) was 
dissolved in a solution consisting of 80 cubic centimeters of water 
and 800 cubic centimeters of aldehyde-free alcohol. Chaulmoo- 
gra oil (600 grams) was added to the alkali solution and the 
mixture heated (reflux) on a water bath for about four hours. 
Most of the alcohol was then eliminated by distilling. The 
residual soaps were then decomposed with dilute sulphuric acid 
(1:4) and the free acids extracted with ether. The ethereal 
solution was dehydrated with anhydrous sodium sulphate and 
the ether removed by distilling. The melted acids were then 
poured into a large crystallizing dish and exposed to the breeze 
of an electric fan in order to evaporate most of the remaining 
ether. The residue was then treated with gasoline, which dis- 
solved the chaulmoogric acid and precipitated the resins that 
are usually present in chaulmoogra oils. A small quantity of 
anhydrous sodium sulphate was added to render the resins less 
colloidal in character. The addition of Fuller's earth and Kie- 
selguhr precipitated some of the coloring matter. The mixture 
was then filtered, and about half the gasoline removed by dis- 
tilling. In order to make the solution distill evenly, broken 
glass was added and a current of carbon dioxide was passed 
through the solution. The solution was then poured into beakers, 
cooled, and allowed to crystallize. The acid was recrystallized 
several times from alcohol (95 per cent). The melting point 
was 68° C. 

Acid chloride and amide of chaulmoogric acid, — Forty grams 
of chaulmoogric acid were placed in a flask which was then 
immersed in hot water until the acid melted. The flask was 
then connected to a reflux condenser and 4.5 cubic centimeters 
of phosphorous trichloride were added slowly from a dropping 
funnel, and the mixture was warmed over a small flame. The 
reaction was finished in about fifteen minutes. Phosphorous 
acid separated at the bottom and side of the flask, while the 
acid chloride remained as a light supernatant liquid. In order 
to eliminate the phosphorous acid and other impurities the acid 
chloride was filtered through glass wool and the clear filtrate 
allowed to drop slowly into cold concentrated ammonia which 



33, 3 Santiago and West: Chaulmoogra Adds and Anilides 267 

was stirred continuously. The amide, which separated as a 
somewhat yellowish white precipitate, was filtered off and washed 
with water until the washings were no longer alkaline. The 
amide was dried on filter paper and dissolved in absolute alcohol, 
and the solution decolorized with bone black. By crystallizing 
twice from ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) and twice from toluene, 
white crystals (melting point, 104 to 105° C.) were obtained. 
The yield was about 80 per cent. 
Analysis : 

Nitrogen. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for CisHaaON 5.02 

Found 5.01 

CHAULMOOGRABUTYLANILIDE 

CH=CH . 

I >CH (CHo),oC0NH(CH.)3CH. 

CH^— CH, -^ 

Chaulmoogramide (10 grams) was placed in a flask which 
was then connected to an air condenser and heated in a crisco 
oil bath until the amide melted. The amide was treated with 
3.9 cubic centimeters of freshly distilled butylamine, which were 
added slowly from a dropping funnel. The mixture was heated 
at a temperature of about 170^ C. until no more ammonia gas 
was evolved; this required about two days. The reaction prod- 
uct was crystallized several times from ethyl alcohol (95 per 
cent) to which a small quantity of bone black was added in 
order to clarify the solution. The melting point was 100 to 
102.5°C., and the yield about 37 per cent of the theoretical yield. 

Analysis : 

Nitrogen. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C22H41ON 4.18 

Found 4.27 

CHAULMOOGRAISOBUTYLANILIDE 

CH =CH V 

I >CH (CH.) iXONHCH^CH (CH.) . 

CH,— CH^^ 

Five grams of chaulmoogramide were melted and treated with 
2 cubic centimeters of freshly distilled isobutylamine. The mix- 
ture was heated (reflux) in a crisco oil bath at a temperature 
of about 170"" C. until no more ammonia gas was given off; 
this required about two days. The reaction product was crys- 
tallized twice from ethyl alcohol and once from methyl alcohol, 
using bone black as a decolorizer. The crystals obtained were 



268 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

somewhat creamy white in color. The melting point was 94.5 
to 99° C, and the yield about 45 per cent of the theoretical yield. 
Analysis : 

Nitrogen. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C22H41ON 4.18 

Found 4.16 

CHAULMOOGRYL P-AMINO BENZOIC ACID 

CH=CH \ 

I )>CH (CH2) .^CONH (P) CeH.COOH 

CH2— ch/ 

Chaulmoogramide (2.5 grams) was melted and treated with 
1.3 grams of ^-amino benzoic acid. The mixture was heated 
at a temperature of about 190° C. for four days, until there 
was no further evolution of ammonia gas. The reaction product 
was crystallized once from each of the following solvents : Ethyl 
alcohol (95 per cent), methyl alcohol, and acetone. In using 
these solvents bone black was used to decolorize the solution. 
The purified product was obtained as white crystals. When 
the melting point was determined, the anilide turned slightly 
brown at 179° C, and melted with decomposition at 188 to 194° 
C. The yield was about 14 per cent. 

Analysis : 

Nitrogen. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C25H3TO8N 3.51 

Found 3.54 

CHAULMOOGRYL 0-AMINO BENZOIC ACID 

CH=CH . 

I >CH (CHJ ,,CONH (O) CeH.COOH 

CH^— CH, / 

Two and a half grams of chaulmoogramide were melted and 
treated with 1.3 grams of o-amino benzoic acid. The mixture 
was heated for four days. The reaction product was dissolved 
in ethyl alcohol (95 per cent) and the solution treated with 
bone black to decolorize it. The solution was then allowed to 
crystallize. After repeating this process several times, creamy 
white crystals were obtained. A melting-point determination 
showed that the crystals melt at from 80 to 100° C. with decom- 
position. The yield was about 33 per cent of the theoretical 
yield. 

Analysis : 

Nitrogen. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C^HsrOsN 3.51 

Found 3.61 



33, 3 Santiago and West: Chaulmoogra Adds and Anilides 269 

SUMMARY 

Four new chaulmoogra compounds were prepared in this in- 
vestigation by Kelbe's reaction ; namely, chaulmoograbutylanilide, 
chaulmoograisobutylanilide, chaulmoogryl p-amino benzoic acid, 
and chaulmoogryl o-amino benzoic acid. 

Chaulmoograbutylanilide was prepared by treating chaulmoo- 
gramide with butyl amine. Chaulmoograisobutylanilide was 
made by the interaction of chaulmoogramide and isobutyl amine. 
By treating chaulmoogramide with p-amino benzoic acid there 
was obtained chaulmoogryl ^j-amino benzoic acid. Chaulmoogryl 
o-amino benzoic acid was prepared by treating chaulmoogramide 
with o-amino benzoic acid. 

Our results indicate that anilides of chaulmoogric acid may 
be prepared rather easily ; but chaulmoogryl derivatives of amino 
benzoic acids are much more difficult to prepare, because the 
reaction takes place very slowly. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Thanks are due Miss Irene Santos, of the department of 
chemistry, University of the Philippines, for assistance in making 
the analyses. 



HYMENOPTERA FROM LUCBAN, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

By T. D. A. COCKERELL 

Of the University of Colorado, Boulder 

The following bees were collected by Mr. R. C. McGregor at 
Lucban, Tayabas Province, Luzon, in May, 1926: 

COELIOXYS PHILIPPENSIS Bingham. 

One female. 

COELIOXYS GENALIS Cockerell. 

One female. 

MEGACHILE BAKERI Cockerell. 

Three females. These vary in size, from about 12.5 to 15 mil- 
limeters long. The smaller one would therefore run in my key 
to 9 (the scape being pale orange, black on last two segments), 
and run out because the abdomen is not banded. 

MEGACHILE RUFOFULVA Cockerell. 

One female. Previously known from Mindanao. 

ANTHOPHORA KOROTONENSIS Cockerell. 

Four females and one male. 

CROCISA CRUCIFERA Cockerell. 

Five females and two males. Doubtless parasitic on the nests 
of the Arithophora, 

APIS BINGHAMI Cockerell. 

One worker. 

NOMIA LONGITARSIS Cockerell. 

One female. 

NOMIA RECESSA Cockerell. 

One female. Previously known by the unique type. The new 
specimen has a narrow, light yellow tegumentary band at apex 
of second abdominal segment. 

271 



272 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

HALICTUS BANAHAONIS MACERULA Cockerell. 

Eight females. "Many small holes in damp clay bank, side 
of road, Lucban-Mauban. One hole was 8 to 9 centimeters deep." 
The size is uniform. This is the first information about the 
nesting habits. 

XYLOCOPA FULIGINATA Perez. 

One female, and three males. 

HESOTRICHIA BOMBIFORMIS Smith. 

Twenty-three females and a male; also a pair sent together, 
the male being Af. major Maidl. Miss Norma Le Veque, who 
mounted the bees, called my attention to this, and we both won- 
dered why we had not thought of associating these insects before. 
It always seemed strange that the rather common M, major had 
no mate. 

MESOTRICHIA BOMBIFORMIS Smith, variety a. 

One female. A puzzling, small, and much worn female was 
at first taken for a distinct species, but it appears to be only a 
variation of M, bombiformis. The wings appear rather dilute 
fuliginous, semitransparent, and are much worn, but if complete 
would not exceed 20 millimeters in length. The labrum beneath 
is fringed with short coppery red hair, whereas in typical bom- 
biformis it is black. The flagellum is chestnut red beneath ex- 
cept at base, and the tuft of hair at extreme apex of abdomen is 
red. The first three abdominal segments have the apical mar- 
gin narrowly red. I find that true bombiformis varies in re- 
spect to the abdominal characters mentioned. 

In view of the size variation of M. bombiformis, it will be well 
to give a new table to separate the rather similar black Meso- 
trichia females of the Philippine Islands. All have the second 
cubital cell complete, whereby they are distinguishable from 
M, unicolor (Smith). 

With a band of grayish white hair behind eyes; wings very dark, apical 

part green M. amauroptera Perez. 

With only black regular hair behind eyes 1. 

1. Cheeks, behind eyes, closely punctured; wings with golden green lus- 
ter M. bakeriana Cockerell. 

Cheeks, behind eyes, shining and very sparsely punctured. 

M. bombiformis (Smith). 
MESOTRICHIA PHILIPPINENSIS CHLORINA Cockerell. 

One female. 



33.3 Cockerell: Hymenoptera from Lucban 273 

MESOTRICHIA LUCBANENSIS sp. nov. 

Female (type). — Length, about 20 to 22 millimeters, anterior 
wing, 20 to 21 ; almost exactly like M, canaria Cockerell and Le 
Veque, from Samar, but yellow hair on mesopleura more reduced, 
forming a triangular patch on upper part; yellow hair on first 
abdominal segment at first sight appearing absent but close in- 
spection shows some yellow hairs ; wings with strong blue-green 
and purple tints. Grayish white hair is mixed with black on 
the face. 

Male, — What I take to be the male of M, lucbanensis is about 
24 millimeters long; anterior wing, nearly 21; insect covered 
with yellowish green hair, strongly mixed with black on abdomen, 
especially toward the apex ; anterior and middle tarsi with very 
long red hair, hind tarsi with some red, but black behind ex- 
cept at apex. Clypeus black, with median line and lower border 
(broadening at sides) yellow; mandibles with yellow basal spot; 
scape and third antennal joint yellow in front (beneath), fla- 
gellum beyond base clear ferruginous beneath. Intermediate in 
size between M. euchlora Perez and M, major Maidl (bombifor- 
mis Smith). The abdomen appears darker than in either, the 
hind margins of segments 3 to 5 appearing as black bands. The 
wings are distinctly darker and more rosy than in M, major. 
There is a broad median band of black hair on the hind tibiae 
posteriorly ; in M. major and M. euchlora this stripe is bright red. 
The mesosternum is black haired. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, May, 1926 {McGregor) ; 
twelve females and one male. 

It is a matter of opinion whether this is to be considered a 
distinct species or a subspecies of M. canaria; but, as it occurs 
on a different island, and presumably does not intergrade, I 
treat it as a species. 

Mesotrichia bluethgeni (Xylocopa bluethgeni Dusmet), from 
Puerto Bango (Port Banga?), Mindanao, is a closely analogous 
form, but has lemon yellow hair mixed with the black on face 
(M. lucbanensis has sparse yellow hairs on sides of occiput) , and 
the first abdominal segment is yellow haired as in M. ghilianii 
(Gribodo). The latter has the hair of head all black or with a 
very few scattered yellow hairs on cheeks, and is a distinctly 
larger insect. The wings of M. bluethgeni are colored practically 
as in M. lucbanensis. 



274 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

SCOLIID^ 1 

CAMPSOMERIS AUREICOLLIS MCGREGORI subsp. nov. 

Female. — Tufts of long and conspicuous white hair between 
eyes and antennae; hair of cheeks and underside of thorax an- 
teriorly white ; hair of occiput, prothorax, and a little on anterior 
margin of mesothorax bright orange ferruginous ; anterior fem- 
ora with some pale red hair; posterior face of mesothorax 
shining and impunctate, but its dorsal surface punctured sub- 
laterally; fringe of second abdominal segment mainly black, 
but some hairs have the apical half pale, that of third also has 
a very little pale. Mandibles red at tip. 

The type is from Lucban, but McGregor obtained the same 
thing in some numbers at Culasi, Panay, in June. I had 
considered it a form of C thoracica (Fabricius), following Bing- 
ham, but it is probably a distinct species, and differs from the 
typical C aureicollis Lepeletier, from Java, by the white hair of 
head (except occiput). Lepeletier's description also indicates 
a much more hairy abdomen. Smith reported Scolia aureicollis 
from the Philippine Islands, doubtless the same insect. 

The following species, not found at Lucban, was obtained by 
McGregor at Culasi, Panay, in June: 

SCOLIA (SCOLIA) PANAYENSIS sp. nov. 

Male. — Length about 22 millimeters; anterior wing, 20 (a 
smaller specimen has anterior wing 17.2 millimeters) ; closely 
related to S. incerta Rohwer, differing as follows : Antennae about 
13.5 millimeters (about 12 in the smaller specimen) ; median sul- 
cus on front going beyond transverse one, forming a cross ; vertex 
with distinct scattered punctures; spurs ferruginous; legs clear 
ferruginous, with red hair, the anterior tarsi yellowish, and 
their tibiae stained with yellow ; abdomen above strongly suffused 
with purple and lilac, in the larger specimen purple-blue and on 
first three segments with much green, in the smaller the first 
three segments rosy purple to lilac, not green; clypeus entirely 
honey color; mandibles honey color at base; lobes and upper 
margin of pronotum reddish honey color, with red hair; hair of 
head and thorax very bright ferruginous red; sides of thorax 
with pale golden pile ; wings hyaline, strongly stained with orange 
ferruginous, the apex of anterior wings broadly fuliginous (this 
more dilute in smaller specimens) . 

^ The fine large species Scolia scutellaris Gribodo was taken at Manila 
by Mr. McGregor. 



33,3 Cockerell: Hymenoptera from Lucban 275 

In many respects very much like Campsomeris ceylonica W. F. 
Kirby,2 but easily distinguished by having only one recurrent 
nervure and the abdomen v^ithout yellow. 

Panay, Antique Province, Culasi, 1918 (McGregor) . 

CHRYSIDID^ 

HEDYCHNIDIUM TAYABICUM sp. nov. 

This is so like H, wroughtoni du Buysson from the Central 
Provinces of India, that I have hesitated to separate it; but, in 
view of the distant locality, it is probably distinct. It is smaller 
(about 6 millimeters long; wroughtoni, 7.5) ; bright green, with 
very fine purple patches on top of head, forming a transverse 
band across prothorax, on middle of mesothorax and scutellum, 
sublaterally behind scutellum, and extensively covering the ab- 
dominal tergites; the very scanty pubescence is white (reddish 
brown in wroughtoni) ; flagellum black (brownish in wrough- 
toni) ; tarsi black (reddish brown in wroughtoni) ; punctures of 
abdomen rather dense, excessively so on first segment, rather 
sparse along middle line of second. The third segment is shal- 
lowly but very distinctly channelled before the apex. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, May, 1926 (McGregor). 

Easily known from Hedychrum stantoni Ashmead by the 
strongly dusky wings, legs green except the tarsi, and broadly 
rounded third abdominal segment not at all angulate at sides. 
The claws have a single divergent tooth. The front, above the 
antennse, is minutely, very evenly transversely striate, except 
at sides, where it is punctured. The scape is bluish green. The 
metathorax has a dentiform process on each side posteriorly. 

MUTILLID^ 

TROGASPIDIA ITAMBUSA sp. nov. 

Male. — Length 21.5 millimeters, anterior wing, 18; entirely 
black, head and thorax with long and coarse but not dense hair ; 
wings entirely dark fuliginous, with steel blue luster ; head with 
mostly black hair, but long and white on cheeks posteriorly, 
dense and shining white at sides of face next to eyes ; some orange 
hairs on mandibles and in region of mouth ; mandibles bidentate, 
outer margin with a small dentiform projection on basal half; 
clypeus concave, polished and shining, with a median keel, its 

* Turner calls this Scolia (Dielis) lindenii ceylonica (Kirby), based on 
Kirby's male, the female associated with it by Kirby being a variety of 
iS. iris. 



276 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

lower margin truncate, the truncation with salient corners and 
the sides sloping, slightly concave, to the malar region; front 
coarsely and confluently rugose; vertex with very large and 
dense punctures; ocelli moderate, close together; antennae long, 
third joint a little shorter than fourth, apical joint flattened; 
thorax very coarsely confluently punctured; mesothorax with a 
central raised line and very strong parapsidal grooves ; scutellum 
conically elevated, the anterior side of the elevation with a me- 
dian shining sulcus; dorsal face of metathorax coarsely reticu- 
lated, in the middle with a smooth band bounded by a pair 
of longitudinal keels, which abruptly curve outward at the base, 
there inclosing a larger area; sides of metathorax angulate; 
thorax above with coarse black hair, abundant on scutellum; 
beneath with white hair, and a band of short white hair at 
extreme base of metathorax; tegulse large, shining, with a few 
punctures anteriorly; three cubital cells, second and third each 
receiving a recurrent nervure; third cubital pentagonal, or hex- 
agonal if we count the short face between lower apical corner 
and end of second recurrent, which is bent upward from the 
line of lower side at insertion of recurrent; marginal cell more 
than twice as long as wide; basal nervure going a short distance 
basad of nervulus ; legs with erect silvery hair, but black on outer 
side of hind tibise, and partly ferruginous on tarsi; spurs yel- 
lowish white, on middle and hind legs one longer than the other ; 
abdomen subpetiolate, shining ; first segment with a strong den- 
tiform obtuse process beneath, second simple beneath; first 
tergite very coarsely punctured and with a median groove, its 
hind margin briefly and densely white ciliate; remaining seg- 
ments without bands or spots, hind margin shining reddish in 
certain lights ; second segment coarsely punctured subbasally, but 
very finely and sparsely beyond, the remaining segments also 
finely and sparsely punctured; apex obtusely truncate, with no 
salient spines ; abdomen with the rather scanty hair black. The 
scape is bicarinate beneath as in T, bicolor. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, May, 1926 (McGregor) ; 
one specimen. 

A very distinct species, by its large size, black color, elevated 
scutellum, etc. I place it in Ashmead's genus Trogaspidia, 
where it falls according to his key. It is also evidently con- 
generic with T. bicolor and T. minor of Ashmead, described 
from the Philippine Islands, although the type of Trogaspidia 
(medon Smith) is African. Mutilla luzonica Rad. is evidently 
very close indeed to T. minor Ashmead. Andre, in 1904, ob- 



33,3 Cockerell: Hymenoptera from Lucban 277 

jected to the separation of Trogaspidia, because he said the ele- 
vated scutellum occurred in many males of diverse regions and 
relationships. Bradley and Bequaert (1923) treat Trogaspidia 
as a subgenus of Smicromyrme Thomson, enumerating sixteen 
African species before them. The male Smicromyrme differs 
from true Mutilla by its bidentate (instead of tridentate) man- 
dibles, and the nonspinose hind tibise. Trogaspidia is Smicro- 
myrme with conically elevated scutellum. On this definition, the 
insect now described is certainly a Trogaspidia. In Andre's 
key it actually runs to Dolichomutilla Ashmead, except as to the 
second ventral segment, but the strong parapsidal grooves ex- 
clude it from that in Ashmead's key. Dolichomutilla, peculiar 
for the long head, is exclusively African. 

If we follow Andre in sinking Trogaspidia in Mutilla, then 
T. bicolor Ashmead requires a new name, there being already 
a Mutilla bicolor. Comparing Trogaspidia itambusa with Mur- 
tilla europaea Linnaeus, the type of Mutilla, it is seen that both 
marginal and second cubital cells are much longer in the new 
species; the third cubital receives the recurrent near the end, 
instead of about the middle as in M, europaea. 

Mutilla analis Lepeletier (said to equal M. fuscipennis Fa- 
bricius) and M. dimidiata Lepeletier, both recorded from the 
Philippines, have a tuberculate scutellum in the male, and pre- 
sumably fall in Trogaspidia. Mutilla luzonica, already referred 
to, is close to M. analis. According to this view, the Philippine 
Trogaspidia males fall in three groups: 

1. Abdomen all black; very large species itambusa sp. nov. 

2. Abdomen partly red; species 17 to 20 millimeters long., bicolor Ashmead. 

dimidiata Lepeletier. 

They are certainly very much alike, and perhaps the supposed 

Philippine dimidiata (that species being typically Indian) was 

really bicolor. 

S. Abdomen partly red; smallest species, 12 to 13 millimeters long, 

luzonica Rad. 

analis Lepeletier. 

minor Ashmead. 

Mutilla analis is typically Indian, and perhaps the Philippine record 

is based on one of the others. 



NEW PHILIPPINE MUSCOIDEA 

By Charles H. Tyler-Town send 
Of the Instituto de Parasitologia Agricolay Lima, Peru 

This paper presents some of the results of a study of ma- 
terial sent me by Prof. Charles F. Baker. 

Genus UROEUANTHA novum 

Genotype, Uroeuantha longipes sp. nov. 

Differs from Minthomyia as follows: Frontal profile at least 
one and one-third times facial profile; clypeus nearly flush, de- 
pressed next facialia, subequal, length of clypeus nearly 3 times 
width of clypeus; palpi short, stout-cylindric, bowed, not thick- 
ened at tip in male; base of antennae rather below eye middle; 
male vertex hardly over one-eleventh head width, front equilat- 
eral on posterior two-thirds and then widening to one-fifth head 
width at base of antennae; 2 hairlike verticals in male, inner 
verticals convergent; no reclinate frontoorbitals in male; male 
frontalia linelike, visible only on anterior half, parafrontalia 
approximated over frontalia and meeting on posterior half; 
ocellars 3 pairs proclinate, curved, not divaricate; parafacialia 
narrow, nearly equilateral, not quite as wide as facialia reversed ; 
cheeks hardly over one-tenth eye length ; 1 sternopleural, 3 post- 
sutural dorsocentrals, 3 preacrostichals but only the middle one 
strong, no postacrostichals, 2 lateral scutellars, apical scutel- 
lars decussate and shorter than basal lateral scutellars, no discal 
scutellars; 1 bristle at base of fifth radial or third vein; fifth 
radial or apical cell widely open well before wing tip; third 
medial or hind crossvein nearer cubitulus and nearly its length 
therefrom, long; front legs and hind legs extraordinarily long 
in male, very slender, tarsi extremely elongate (middle legs miss- 
ing) ; front metatarsi equaling front tibiae, hind metatarsi equal 
next joint of tarsi; in male fourth apparent or fifth actual ab- 
dominal segment caudate, tail as long as rest of abdominal seg- 
ment; scattered long discal and terminal bristles below and 
on sides and tip of fourth apparent or fifth actual abdominal 

279 



280 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i»27 

segment, but only short bristles above like hairs of rest of ab- 
domen. 

UROEUANTHA LONGIPES sp. nov. 

Length of body, 12 millimeters; length of wing, 11. Kolam- 
bugan, Mindanao ; one male, No. 23236. 

Head silvery ; f rontalia brov^n ; palpi very pale testaceous ; pleu- 
ra silvery; mesoscutum silvery with a faint yellowish tinge; 4 
black thoracic vittse, inner pair linelike before transverse suture 
but lost behind in wide median black area that does not reach 
hind margin of postscutum and narrows some posteriorly; scu- 
tellum blackish brown, silvery on tip; abdomen yellow, extreme 
base above, median vitta above and below, hind edge of second 
apparent or third actual abdominal segment and all of last 2 
abdominal segments except front fourth of third apparent or 
fourth actual abdominal segment bro\vTiish black, basal fourth 
of last 2 abdominal segments silvery ; legs dark brown, coxae sil- 
very ; wings faintly yellowish smoky, costa from stigma to wing 
tip slightly more marked ; squamae translucent, with straw col- 
ored edge. 

Genus URODEXIOMIMA novum 

Genotype, Urodexiomima uramyoides sp. nov. 

Differs from Pseudodexia as follows: Frontal profile rather 
flattened, but little arcuate, 1.5 times facial profile; clypeus near- 
ly flush, narrow, length of clypeus over 2 times width of clypeus ; 
facialia bare, flattened-cordlike ; vibrissal axis some less than 
antennal axis, latter quite three-fourths head height ; palpi long, 
slender, subcylindric, scarcely thickened at tip in male, a little 
thicker on distal third ; base of antennae rather below eye middle ; 
in male third antennal joint 3 times second antennal joint, nar- 
row, rounded at tip; arista short, scarcely longer than third 
antennal joint, thinly long-plumose to tip; in male vertex one- 
fifth head width, front equilateral on hind half and then widen- 
ing to one-third head width at base of antennae; verticals 1 in 
male ; parafacialia bare, strongly narrowed below, as wide above 
as width of clypeus; cheeks probably one-third eye length 
(shrunken) ; 2 postintraalars and postacrostichals, 2 long lateral 
scutellars, long decussate apical scutellars, 1 moderately strong 
discal scutellar; first radial or first vein terminating very far 
beyond sixth radial or small crossvein, with 1 bristle at tip on 
one side; fifth radial or apical cell narrowly open moderately 
before wing tip; third medial or hind crossvein sinuate, three- 



33,3 TyleV'Townsend: New Philippine Mttscoidea 281 

fourths its length from cubitulus ; squamae rather large, strongly- 
widened behind, the subangular inner corners produced inward ; 
1 median marginal on first apparent or second actual abdominal 
segment. 

URODEXIOMIMA URAMYOIDES sp. nov. 

Length of body, 8.5 millimeters; length of wing, 7.5. Los 
Baiios, Luzon; 1 male. 

Head tawny silvery; frontalia and antennae reddish fulvous, 
third antennal joint largely brown; palpi fulvous; pleura and 
mesoscutum grayish silvery; 4 thoracic vittae, outer pair very 
broad and interrupted at transverse suture, inner pair narrow 
before transverse suture, all four subconfluent behind transverse 
suture in a large rich brown subrectangular marking showing 
some golden pollen; scutellum brown on base, pollinose on tip 
and hind margin; abdomen fulvous yellow; median vitta, first 
actual abdominal segment, posterior third of first apparent or 
second actual abdominal segment, posterior two-fifths of second 
apparent or third actual abdominal segment, posterior half of 
third apparent or fourth actual abdominal segment and angular 
tip of fourth apparent or fifth actual abdominal segment brown ; 
bases intermediate segments narrowly silvery, nearly basal three- 
fourths of fourth apparent or fifth actual abdominal segment sil- 
very; coxae and femora fulvous, tibiae little darker, tarsi black- 
ish ; wings nearly clear ; squamae glassy whitish. 

Genus SISYROPODODEXIA novum 

Genotype, Sisyropododexia luteicornis sp. nov. 

Differs from Spathidexia as follows : Palpi length of haustel- 
lum, bowed, wide throughout; in male third antennal joint 3 
times second antennal joint, narrow, equilateral, rounded at tip; 
arista longer than antennae, short-plumose halfway; eyes very 
large and long, not oblique, reaching far below oral margin level ; 
in male vertex one-fifth head width, front only faintly widening 
to less than one-third head width at base of antennae; frontals 
stopping at base of antennae, 4 or 5 in number; verticals 2 in 
male ; proclinate f rontoorbitals 3 in male, set in middle of width 
and on posterior half of length of paraf rontalia ; reclinate f ron- 
toorbitals 1 in male, set inside and in advance of hind proclinate 
f rontoorbitals ; cheeks hardly over one-fifteenth eye length or 
less; 2 postintraalars and preacrostichals ; no costal spine; fifth 
radial or third vein bristled one-third to one-half way to sixth 

228111 4 



282 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

radial or small crossvein; fifth radial or apical cell open a little 
before wing tip ; third medial or hind crossvein sinuate, not its 
length from cubitulus ; all metatarsi exceeding following joints. 

8ISYROPODODEXIA LUTEICORNIS sp. nov. 

Length of body, 10 to 11 millimeters; length of wing, 9. Su- 
rigao and Dapitan, Mindanao, and Sibuyan; 3 males. 

Yellowish ground color; head silvery white; vertex and para- 
f rontalia on inner edge and above golden ; f rontalia dark brown ; 
antennae bright yellow; palpi pale straw color; pleura silvery; 
mesoscutum golden ; 4 blackish thoracic vittse, inner pair narrow ; 
scutellum pale yellowish or fulvous, light golden pollinose; ab- 
domen fulvous yellow, basal depression, median vitta, and hind 
borders of last 2 abdominal segments blackish, narrow base of 
first 2 abdominal segments and basal half of fourth apparent or 
fifth actual abdominal segment silvery; legs yellow, tarsi and 
hind tibiae black; wings yellowish on costa and veins; squama 
yellowish. 

Genus PHILIPPOFORMOSIA novum 

Genotype, Philippoformosia splendida sp. nov. 

Differs from Rutilodexia as follows: Facial carina not cana- 
liculate on median line; arista micropubescent ; parafacialia 
hairy ; cheeks fully three-fourths eye length ; fifth radial or apical 
cell widely open considerably before wing tip ; hind tibiae short- 
ciliate; fourth apparent or fifth actual abdominal segment with 
marginal row hairlike and longer than marginal row of third 
apparent or fourth actual abdominal segment. 

PHILIPPOFORMOSIA SPLENDIDA sp. nov. 

Length of body, 13 millimeters; length of wing, 14. Imugan, 
Nueva Vizcaya Province, Luzon; 1 female. 

Head metallic bluish green; f rontalia dark brown; antennae, 
clypeus, epistoma, facialia, palpi, and cheek grooves brownish 
testaceous; pleura blackish green; mesoscutum bright green, 
with golden reflections; 4 violet cupreous thoracic vittae, inner 
pair black and narrow before transverse suture, all violaceous 
and subconfluent behind transverse suture; scutellum cupreous 
violet, narrow margin blackish green; abdomen golden green 
with some bright cupreous reflections, first apparent or second 
actual abdominal segment, median line, and posterior half of 
intermediate segments dark chocolate brown, venter showing 
green on front portions of first apparent or second actual ab- 
dominal segment; legs blackish; wings lightly tinged with yel- 



33,3 Tyler-Townsend: New Philippine Muscoidea 283 

lowish smoky, darker on veins, blackish on basal cells and first 
subcostal or humeral crossvein; squamse pale smoky brownish. 

Genus EPSEUDOCYPTERA novum 

Genotype, Epseudocyptera epalpata sp. nov. 

Differs from Brauer and Bergenstamm's description of Pseu- 
docyptera as follows: Palpi absent; in female vertex one-fourth 
head width, front widening to fully two-fifths head width at base 
of antennae; wings nearly clear; abdomen very long-oval, the 
wider end forward. There are 2 sternopleurals, being the an- 
terior, the hind absent; 3 postsutural dorsocentrals, 2 postin- 
traalars, 3 very short preacrostichals ; 3 postacrostichals, the 
2 front ones short; 2 lateral scutellars, strong decussate apical 
scutellars, 1 very small hairlike discal scutellar; cheeks nearly 
one-third eye length; epistoma cut off just above vibrissal level, 
full width, strongly and suddenly warped; frontals 5, stopping 
at front edge of base of antennae. 

EPSEUDOCYPTERA EPALPATA sp. nov. 

Length of body, 10 millimeters; length of wing, 7.5. Da- 
vao, Mindanao; 1 female. 

Head silvery, frontalia brown; first antennal joint and ba- 
sal half of second antennal joint brown, rest of second an- 
tennal joint subrufous, third antennal joint subfulvous; pleura, 
mesoscutum, and scutellum silvery ; 4 black thoracic vittse, inner 
pair narrower; abdomen black, intermediate segments widely 
silvery on base ; legs black, tibiae subfulvous on distal half ; wings 
faintly yellowish on costa, subfulvous on base, faintly blackish 
on tip; squamae watery whitish. 

Genus PALPOCYPTERA novum 

Genotype, Palpocyptera pulchra sp. nov. 

Differs from Ocypteropsis as follows : Frontal profile not over 
two-thirds facial profile, flat, but little sloped; clypeus flush, 
arched on median line, length of clypeus 1.5 times width of 
clypeus; epistoma cut short, full width, well warped; vibrissal 
axis equals antennal axis, latter nearly three-fifths head height; 
proboscis (retracted) apparently short but slender and corneous, 
labella rather small ; female vertex three-thirteenths head width, 
front widening gradually, face in middle little over one-half 
head width; verticals 1, long and strong in female; frontalia 
gently narrowed posteriorly, little over 1.5 times width of para- 
frontal in middle in female; parafacialia bare, narrow, long. 



284 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

nearly equilateral, little wider than widest part of facialia; 3 
preaerostichals ; 4 postacrostichals, the front 2 weaker; 1 discal 
scutellar, shorter than the decussate apical scutellars; fifth ra- 
dial or apical cell petiolate well before wing tip, stalk shorter 
than sixth radial or small crossvein; third medial or hind cross- 
vein strongly sinuate, two-thirds its length from cubitulus ; mar- 
ginal row on third apparent or fourth actual abdominal segment. 

PALPOCYPTERA PULCHRA sp. nov. 

Length of body, 16.5 millimeters; length of wing, 13. Su- 
rigao, Mindanao; 1 female. 

Shining black ; head light golden pollinose, changing in oblique 
view to rust brown; frontalia velvety dark brown; parafron- 
talia shining dark brown on over hind half; palpi dark brown, 
tips paler ; occiput gray, beard pale brassy ; pleura, mesoscutum, 
and scutellum thinly silvery; 4 black thoracic vittse, inner pair 
linelike; basal third of second apparent or third actual abdomi- 
nal segment and nearly basal half of third apparent or fourth 
actual abdominal segment deep golden pollinose; coxae and 
femora pale golden pollinose on outside ; tibiae rufous except base ; 
wings well suffused with yellow, veins darker; squamae nearly 
concolorous, more or less glassy. 

Genus OPSOCYPTERA novum 

Genotype, Opsocyptera optima sp. nov. 

Differs from Ocypterula as follows: Clypeus flush, narrow, 
long, equilateral, length of clypeus fully 2.5 times width of cly- 
peus; epistoma full width, nearly half as long as wide, strongly 
warped; vibrissal axis exceeding antennal axis, latter nearly 
head height; eyes bare, oblique, long, reaching rather below 
oral margin level and well below vibrissal level; female vertex 
scarcely one-third head width, front widening gently to over 
one-third head width at base of antenna ; f rontals 5 or 6, small, 
stopping even with frontalia and closely approximated to same ; 
2 proclinate frontoorbitals in female, hind one very short and 
weak like f rontals; 1 weak reclinate frontoorbital in female; 
ocellars 1, weak, proclinate, and 1 weak divaricate behind ocel- 
li, also occipitocentrals behind latter; parafacialia bare, equi- 
lateral, width of parafacial a little less than width of clypeus; 
cheeks one-fourth eye length; 2 sternopleurals ; 2 lateral scu- 
tellars, both long and equal; strong decussate apical scutel- 
lars, shorter than lateral scutellars; first medial or apical 
crossvein strongly sinuate; short stump of vein at cubitulus; 



33,3 TyleV'Townsend: Neiv Philippine Muscoidea 285 

female abdomen long and narrow, equilateral, over 2 times tho- 
rax in length, showing 5 abdominal segments from above but 
first very short; fourth apparent or fifth actual abdominal seg- 
ment with marginal row of 6 but the median marginal pair 
set so far forward as to appear discal. 

OPSOCYPTERA OPTIMA sp. nov. 

Length of head, 8 to 9 millimeters; length of wing, 6 to 6.75. 
Dapitan and Kolambugan, Mindanao; 2 females. No. 23258. 

Head silvery, parafrontalia faintly brassy; frontalia dark 
brown, antennae blackish; pleura silvery between leg grooves; 
mesoscutum thinly silvery, with very faint brassy tinge ; 4 tho- 
racic vittse, dark, outer pair heavy, inner pair very delicate 
linelike ; scutellum thinly silvery ; abdomen rufous, extreme base, 
median vitta on base, hypopygium, fourth apparent or fifth 
actual abdominal segment and irregular posterior half of third 
apparent or fourth actual abdominal segment black; second ap- 
parent or third actual abdominal segment narrowly silvery on 
base, third apparent or fourth actual abdominal segment sil- 
very more or less over basal two-thirds; legs black; wings 
yellow on broad costobasal portion, blackish on rest of vein 
region but with light areas in fifth radial or apical cell and 
discal cell, wide irregular inner border nearly clear; squamae 
whitish, with narrow tawny edge. 

Genus ZAMBESOIDES novum 

Genotype, Zambesoides samarensis sp. nov. 

Differs from Zambesa as follows : Head wider than high, ver- 
tex well depressed below top level of eyes; vibrissal axis equal 
to antennal axis, latter three-fourths head height; second an- 
tennal joint elongate, third antennal joint in female hardly 3 
times second antennal joint; eyes bare, oblique, reaching nearly 
to vibrissal level; female vertex hardly over one-seventh head 
width, front widening very gradually to scarcely one-fourth 
head width at base of antennae, face in middle little over one- 
third head width ; verticals 1 in female, decussate ; 1 strong pro- 
clinate frontoorbital in female; frontalia in female gently 
narrowed posteriorly, equal to width of parafrontal in middle; 
no preacrostichals, 1 weak postacrostichal ; apical scutellars de- 
cussate, equal to basal lateral scutellars; sixth radial or small 
crossvein normal, first radial or apical crossvein terminating 
opposite same ; fifth radial or apical cell open 2 times its mouth 
width before wing tip, its tip elongate and narrow; cubitulus 



286 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

rounded obtuse angled, one third-width of wing from hind mar- 
gin of wing; first medial or apical crossvein arcuate inward; 
no median discals on any abdominal segments. 

ZAMBESOIDES SAMARENSIS sp. nov. 

Length of body, 11 millimeters; length of wing, 9. Borongan, 
Samar; 1 female. 

Head silvery, parafrontalia more leaden silvery; frontalia 
dark brown; antennae black, third antennal joint dark brown 
shading to subrufous on inner proximal half; palpi blackish; 
pleura silvery, mesoscutum more leaden silvery; 4 blackish 
thoracic vittse, inner pair delicately linelike; scutellum black, 
faintly silvery; abdomen black, bases intermediate segments 
and all of fourth apparent or fifth actual abdominal segment 
silvery, ventral triangles silvery on first apparent or second 
actual abdominal segment and second apparent or third actual 
abdominal segment, whole venter of third apparent or fourth 
actual abdominal segment and short basal or first actual ab- 
dominal segment silvery; legs blackish, proximal three-fourths 
of femora largely pale fulvous; wings faintly smoky, slightly 
darker on costa from stigma to wing tip; squamse glassy, 
narrow edges opaque straw color. 

Genus ANDROCYPTERA novum 

Genotype, Androcyptera anorbitalis sp. nov. 

Differs from Ichneumonops as follows: Clypeus flush, length 
of clypeus 2 times width of clypeus; vibrissse long, decussate, 
removed from oral margin at least laterally; third antennal 
joint 1.5 times second antennal joint, narrow, rounded at tip; 
vertex in male and female over one-fourth head width, front 
widening gently in female to one-third and in male to over one- 
third head width at base of antennae ; no proclinate f rontoorbitals 
nor reclinate f rontoorbitals in male or female; cheeks scarcely 
one-fourth eye length ; 1 lateral scutellar ; apical scutellars strong, 
decussate, not as long as lateral scutellar; fifth radial or apical 
cell long-petiolate far before wing tip, stalk over 2 times sixth ra- 
dial or small crossvein and strongly bent up ; cubitulus rounded 
right angled to faintly obtuse angled, one-third width of wing 
from hind margin of wing ; first medial or apical crossvein bent 
in at tip to form a V with stalk of fifth radial or apical cell, in 
middle faintly bent in; no wrinkle at cubitulus; abdomen bot- 
tlelike, petiolate, 2 times length of thorax in male, not 2 times 



33,3 Tyler-Townsend: New Philippine Muscoidea 287 

of thorax in female; first apparent or second actual abdominal 
segment strongly widened posteriorly; 1 median marginal on 
first apparent or second actual abdominal segment and second 
apparent or third actual abdominal segment, marginal row of 
6 to 8 on third apparent or fourth actual abdominal segment and 
fourth apparent or fifth actual abdominal segment. 

ANDROCYPTERA ANORBITALIS sp. nov. 

Length of body, 6 to 7 millimeters; length of wing, 4.5 to 
6. Baguio, Benguet; Luzon, 2 females. No. 5037. Tangkulan, 
Bukidnon, Mindanao; 2 males, No. 23240. 

Head silvery, parafrontalia faintly golden in male; frontalia 
and antennse brown, base of third antennal joint lighter in fe- 
male; pleura and mesoscutum silvery, 2 very broad subconfluent 
black thoracic vittse; scutellum and abdomen brownish black, 
bases of last 3 abdominal segments silvery ; legs blackish, femora 
and coxa3 silvery; wings lightly smoky in male, more dilute 
in female; squamae nearly white, faintly yellowish in female at 
times. 

Genus ALOPHOROPHASIA novum 

Genotype, Alophorophasia alata sp. nov. 

Differs from Xanthosyntomogaster as follows : Epistoma long, 
wide, widened some below, not one-half length of clypeus nor 
as long as upper width, well sprung, width of epistoma fully 

2 times width of facialia plus width of parafacial; vibrissse 
strong, well differentiated; palpi stout-cylindric, length of an- 
tennse, scarcely thickened at tip in male; second antennal joint 
elongate; third antennal joint in male nearly 2 times second 
antennal joint, rather narrow, rounded at tip; eyes bare, very 
large, not oblique, excavated behind on lower half, reaching 
below oral margin level but not completely hiding cheeks ; f ron- 
tals 11 to 12, close to frontalia, stopping at base of antennae; 
parafacialia narrow, equilateral, one-third width of clypeus and 
same width as facialia; cheeks one-twelfth eye length in male; 

3 sternopleurals, no preacrostichals, 1 lateral scutellar; cubit- 
ulus strongly rounded obtuse angled, one-seventh width of wing 
from hind margin of wing; third medial or hind crossvein 
sinuate, not its length from cubitulus; no median discals on any 
abdominal segments, macrochsetse extremely short and barely 
differentiated, median marginals, middle legs and lateral discals 
on first apparent or second actual abdominal segment. 



288 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

ALOPHOROPHASIA ALATA sp. nov. 

Length of body, 10 millimeters ; length of wing, 8.75. Mount 
Banahao, Luzon; 1 male. No. 5026. 

Head golden; frontalia, antennse and palpi blackish; occiput 
and cheeks silvery, head whitish; pleura, 2 spots on front 
edge of prescutum, humeri, hind margin of prescutum and hind 
and lateral margins of postscutum silvery; rest of mesoscutum 
black, thoracic vittse not apparent; scutellum brown to black- 
ish; abdomen fulvous yellow, shading dusky above and below 
on median line and hind half; legs deep brown, trochanters 
and coxae subfulvous; wings lightly yellowish smoky; squamae 
translucent, faintly smoky, squamulae more opaque and whitish. 

Genus OCHROPHASIA novum 

Genotype, Ochrophasia atripennis sp. nov. 

Differs from Clytiomya as follows: Epistoma one-half 
length of clypeus, gently warped, width of epistoma one-half 
width of facialia plus width of parafacial; facialia very wide, 
flattened, bare, slightly oblique to clypeal plane, as wide below 
as parafacialia, width of facialia two-thirds width of clypeus; 
no differentiated vibrissse, only short bristles of even length; 
palpi equal third antennal joint, stout-clavate, bowed; female 
vertex not one-fifth head width, front widening very rapidly 
to two-fifths head width at base of antennse; frontalia female 
short, broad, nearly equilateral, fully equaling width of parafron- 
tal in middle, anterior points spread, length of frontalia on 
median line from lunula to ocellar triangle little over 2 times 
width; parafacialia as wide above as clypeus; apical scutellars 
parallel, short ; fifth radial or apical cell open nearly in wing tip ; 
cubitulus rounded widely obtuse angled, scarcely one-fourth 
width of wing from hind margin of wing; hypopygium in female 
small, ventrocaudal aspect, telescoped, normal, egg-depositing. 

OCHROPHASIA ATRIPENNIS sp. nov. 

Length of body, 11 millimeters; length of wing, 9.5. Suri- 
gao, Mindanao; 1 female. 

Head golden, more brightly so on paraf rontalia ; frontalia 
and antennse brown; palpi pale fulvous; upper half of occiput 
blackish; beard brassy whitish; pleura golden; mesoscutum 
blackish, margins fulvo-rufous and golden pollinose; scutellum 
and abdomen orange-ocherous, venter paler yellow; legs orange 
yellow, tibise and tarsi blackish; wings smoky black through- 
out, scarcely lighter on inner edge, squamse golden yellow. 



33,3 Tyler-Townsend: New Philippine Muscoidea 289 

Genus OXYDEXIOPS novum 

Genotype, Oxydexiops uramyoides sp. nov. 

Differs from Meigenia as follows: Frontal profile long, flat- 
tened in female and faintly arcuate in male, strongly sloped, 
scarcely longer than facial profile to end of epistoma; clypeus 
well depressed, narrowing gently upward, length of clypeus 2.5 
times width of clypeus; epistoma long, full width, in clypeal 
plane in male and gently warped in female, fully one-half as 
long as wide; vibrissse strong, decussate, far above oral mar- 
gin level; proboscis very short and stout, haustellum equal to 
length of labella and not one-fourth head height, labella very 
large; palpi stout, bowed, length of haustellum, widened and 
flattened, especially in female; base of antennae on eye middle; 
arista longer than whole antennse, thickened one-sixth to one- 
seventh way, micropubescent on a little more than thickened 
part; vertex, male and female, one-eleventh head width, front 
equilateral on over posterior half in female and on nearly pos- 
terior half in male, then widening to one-fifth head width at base 
of antennse in male and somewhat less in female (but head 
shrunken in female) ; 2 strong proclinate frontoorbitals, male 
and female, close to frontals; frontalia one-half width of para- 
frontal in middle in male, over one-half in female; cheeks one- 
sixth eye length in male, one-seventh in female ; 2 sternopleurals, 
no discal scutellars; fifth radial or apical cell open well before 
wing tip ; cubitulus rounded right angled to slightly obtuse angled, 
one-sixth width of wing from hind margin of wing ; first medial 
or apical crossvein well arcuate inward; squamse rather long, 
well widened behind, subangular on inner corner, especially in 
male; legs long, in male middle legs longer than others; hind 
tibiae short-ciliate or cilia on basal half or so, male and female, 
with a slightly stouter bristle near middle; in female metatarsi 
equal to following joints, middle metatarsi in female longer 
than following joints; in male metatarsi not equal to following 
joints, middle metatarsi and tarsi in male very long. 

OXYDEXIOPS URAMYOIDES sp. nov. 

Length of body, 11 to 16 millimeters; length of wing, 9 to 
10.5. Butuan, Mindanao; 2 males. Davao, Mindanao, and 
Mount Banahao, Luzon; 2 females. No. 23233. 

Head silvery, parafrontalia in male brassy on posterior half; 
frontalia and antennse blackish brown, second antennal joint 
and base of third antennal joint more or less rufous; palpi ful- 
vous; pleura silvery; mesoscutum silvery, faintly brassy; 4 



290 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

blackish brown thoracic vittee, inner pair narrower, outer pair 
semicolonlike and confluent with inner pair behind transverse 
suture in rectangular brown marking pronged behind on each 
side; scutelluni dark brown on base, silvery on apical half; ab- 
domen pale rufo-fulvous, female with first apparent or second 
actual abdominal segment, hind borders of last 3 abdominal 
segments and broken median vitta dark brown; male with de- 
pression of first apparent or second actual abdominal segment, 
narrow median vitta, broad hind borders of intermediate seg- 
ments and all of fourth apparent or fifth actual abdominal 
segment except extreme base brown; light parts of abdomen 
thinly silvery pollinose and fourth apparent or fifth actual ab- 
dominal segment in male same; legs brown, femora fulvous ex- 
cept tips of middle femora and hind femora; wings in female 
clear, in male faintly yellowish smoky along veins; squamse 
glassy whitish, faintly tawny yellowish in male. 



NEW OR LITTLE-KNOWN TIPULID^ FROM THE 
PHILIPPINES (DIPTERA), PART IV' 

By Charles P. Alexander 

Of Amherst, Massachusetts 

TWO PLATES 

Through the great kindness of Mr. Richard C. McGregor and 
Dr. C. F. Baker, I have had for study a considerable amount of 
additional material in the Tipulidae, some of which is discussed 
in the present report. Through the kindness of the collectors, 
I have been permitted to retain the types of the novelties dis- 
cussed here. Our knowledge of the crane flies of the Philippines, 
although still very incomplete, has received its greatest impetus 
through the kind interest of Mr. McGregor and Professor Baker. 

A recent, very important paper on the Tipulidse collected 
by the late G. Boettcher has added greatly to our knowledge 
of the subject. F. W. Edwards ^ has listed all of the papers 
hitherto published that concern the Tipulidae of the Islands 
and has listed the species of the family hitherto recorded from 
the Philippines (about 56), to which are added 17 species from 
the Boettcher material, making a total of about 73 species. The 
exact number is uncertain, because of a question of correct 
determination of some of the species recorded and the possibility 
of their being identical with earlier recorded forms. Edwards 
has accomplished a splendid piece of work in preparing this re- 
port and thus summarizing the earlier work. Doctor Baker 
has called my attention to the fact that several of the localities 
mentioned therein are misspelled and should be corrected; the 
mistakes presumably were caused by poorly written labels. 

A list of these follows : 

Nos. 5 and 17. Leite = Island of Leyte. 

Kalambugan ~ Kolambugan, in northwestern Mindanao. 
No. 7. Bagnio = Baguio, Benguet Subprovince, Luzon. 
Nos. 19, 28, and 30. Port Bauge = Port Banga, southwestern Minda- 



^ Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College. 

' Philippine Nematocerous Diptera. I. Tipulidae, Notulae Entomologicae 
6 (1926) 33-44. 

291 



292 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

No. 32. Heightpool (?) = Haight's Place, at 8,000 feet, in the moun- 
tains above Baguio, Benguet. This is the type locality for this 
species (Pselliophora pumila Alex.). 

No. 33. Calopan = Calapan, Mindoro. 

No. 38. Antimonan = Atimonan, on the east coast of Luzon. 

Keys to the larger and more involved genera (Eriocera and 
Pselliophora) are given. Bezzi ^ had earlier supplied keys to 
Libnotes, Eriocera, and Pselliophora, In the present report, 
keys to the Philippine species of Scamboneura and Trentepohlia 
are supplied. 

TIPULIN^ 

TIPULA RIVERAI sp. nov. Plate 1, figs. 1 and 2. 

General coloration dark fulvous; tibial spurs lacking; wings 
subhyaline, the stigma dark brov^n; cell M^ sessile; cell 2d A 
very narrow. 

Male. — Length about 13.5 millimeters; wing, 15; fore leg, 
femur, 9.5; tibia, 11.6; basitarsus, 16.8. Frontal prolongation 
of head relatively short and stout, brownish yellow ; nasus stout, 
concolorous; frontal prolongation meeting remainder of frons 
at an acute angle (when viewed laterally) ; palpi pale. Antennse 
with the scapal segments yellowish brown; flagellum dark 
brown ; all flagellar segments cylindrical with stout black setse 
distributed along the outer face only, remainder of each segment 
with microscopic setulse ; terminal segment abruptly smaller and 
only half the length of the penultimate. Head dark fulvous 
brown, without a vertical tubercle; vertex relatively broad. 

Mesonotal prsescutum dark fulvous with three, very ill- 
defined, slightly more olive green stripes that are very narrowly 
margined with a reddish brown line, the median stripe further 
split by a capillary vitta ; remainder of mesonotum fulvous, scu- 
tellum slightly darker. Pleura dark fulvous brown, indistinctly 
variegated with darker. Halteres relatively long, the knobs 
darker brown. Legs with coxae and trochanters reddish brown ; 
femora yellowish brown, the tips faintly darkened ; tibise brown, 
the tips very narrowly blackened; tibial spurs lacking; tarsi 
brown, passing into brownish black; legs long, especially the 
tarsi, as shown by the measurements given above. Wings (fig. 
1) subhyaline, the stigma and cell Sc dark brown; wing base 
and cell C more yellowish ; wing apex vaguely more darkened ; 
prearcular veins brown, the remaining veins black. Venation : 
Rs of moderate length, arcuated; Rg + 3 in alignment with the 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. § D 12 (1917) 108-117 



33,3 Alexander: Philippine Tipulidse, IV 293 

longer R3; cell R2 relatively small; cell M^ broadly sessile; m-cu 
at or immediately beyond the fork of M 3 _^ ^ ; CU2 extending 
almost to wing margin; vein 2d A relatively short, cell 2d A 
being very narrow. 

Abdominal tergites dark brown, sternites obscure yellow; 
fifth to eighth segments darkened to form a subterminal ring; 
hypopygium brown. Male hypopygium relatively small, the 
component sclerites of ninth segment fused into a continuous 
ring. Region of ninth tergite (fig. 2) terminating in two 
slender points that are directed caudad, separated from one 
another by a broad U-shaped notch which bears a small obtuse 
median lobule at its base; the lateral lobes are blackened and 
microscopically roughened on their distal half. Basistyle sep- 
arated from ninth sternite only by a curved ventral suture. 
Ninth sternite extensive, membranous medially and here pro- 
duced into a small, bilobed, fleshy structure. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, March, 1926 (Francisco 
Rivera) ; a male. Named in honor of the collector, Mr. Fran- 
cisco Rivera. 

Tipida riverai is very distinct from any of the species of the 
genus known to me. The lack of tibial spurs, the peculiar 
arrangement of setse on the antennae, and the sessile cell M, 
are characters that may be held as being sufficient to warrant 
a new generic group for this fly. 

Genus SCAMBONEURA Osten Sacken 

Scmnbojieura Osten Sacken; Berlin. Entomol. Zeitschr., 26, Heft 
1 (1882) 95. 

The genus Scamboneitra was proposed by Osten Sacken for 
the single species then known to him, S, dotata Osten Sacken, 
from the Philippines. Since that date additional species have 
been described in and referred to this genus until now five 
species are recognized, to which number two more are added in 
the present paper. The great majority of the known forms are 
from Luzon. 

Key to the Philippine species of Scamboneura Osten Sacken. 

1. Antennal flagellum bicolorous, the bases of the individual segments 

black, the apices yellow 2. 

Antennal flagellum uniformly dark brown or black 3. 

2. Mesonotal prsescutum with three brown stripes, the margins of these 

opaque, their centers shiny and with a slight metaUic luster; legs 
pale tawny, the tips of the femora and tibiae darkened. 

S. dotata Osten Sacken. 



294 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Mesonotal praescutum and scutum uniformly dark gray, without stripes; 
legs obscure yellow, the tips of the femora and tibise not darkened. 

S. psarophanes sp. nov. 

3. General coloration of the head and thorax fulvous yellow to yellow, 

without stripes; pleura pale yellow S. unicolor Bezzi. 

Thoracic dorsum either plumbeous, without markings, or else yellow 
with three black or dark brown stripes 4. 

4. General coloration of the thoracic dorsum and pleura grayish plumbeous. 

S. plumbea Alexander. 

General coloration of the thoracic dorsum yellow with three shiny black 

stripes, the pleura uniformly light yellow S. faceta sp. nov. 

Besides the Philippine species, the only described species are 

5. vittifrons (Walker) of Amboina, and S. quadrata de Meijere 
of Java. Scamboneura plumbea Alexander was omitted from 
Edwards's tabulation of the Philippine species. 

SCAMBONEURA PSAROPHANES sp. nov. 

General coloration of head yellow, posterior portion gray with 
a median velvety black prolongation; praescutum and scutum 
dark gray, without stripes; postnotal mediotergite whitish 
yellow with a l-shaped darker marking; pleura whitish gray, 
variegated with darker; abdominal segments obscure yellow, 
the lateral margins of the tergites broadly blackened. 

Fanale, — Length, 15.5 millimeters; wing, 11. Frontal pro- 
longation of head light yellow, a trifle darker beneath; palpi 
with the basal segments yellow, the elongate terminal segment 
infuscated, except at base. Antennae with the scapal segments 
yellow, the basal half of first segment blackened, the frons sur- 
rounding antennal fossa likewise blackened; flagellar segments 
elongate, bicolorous, the basal two-thirds or more black, the 
distal portion yellow, the latter decreasing in amount and in- 
tensity distally, the terminal four or five segments being 
uniformly darkened; flagellar segments with delicate, erect 
pubescence and short, basal verticils. Anterior vertex whitish 
yellow, the posterior orbits bright yellow; occipital region with 
a gray triangle, the anterior point extended cephalad into a 
linear, velvety black line. 

Pronotum dark, obscure yellow medially. Dorsum of the 
mesonotal praescutum and scutum almost uniformly dark gray, 
with only the humeral triangles very slightly reddened and the 
anteromedian portion of scutum yellowish; scutellum grayish 
brown; postnotal mediotergite obscure whitish yellow with the 
posterior fourth dark gray, sending a median brown vitta 
cephalad to the cephalic margin of sclerite. Pleura whitish gray. 



33, s Alexander: Philippine Tipvlidse, IV 295 

variegated with dark gray on anepisternum, sternopleurite, 
meron, and the postnotal pleuro-tergite ; dorsopleural membrane 
light yellow. Halteres of moderate length only, pale brown, 
the knobs dark brown. Legs with the coxae pale, the outer 
face of the fore coxa largely darkened, that of the posterior 
coxa a little darkened basally; trochanters, femora, and tibise 
obscure yellow, the tarsi passing into darker. Wings sub- 
hyaline, base and cell Sc brownish yellow; stigma small, darker 
brown ; wing veins black except the basal and costal veins which 
are bright brown. Venation: Tips of veins R, and R. both 
atrophied; Rs preserved but pale; all forks of medial veins 
deep; m-cu on M^ at about one-third its length beyond fork 
of M. 

Abdomen obscure yellow, the tergites broadly and conspic- 
uously margined laterally with black. Ovipositor with the 
valves relatively short and straight, reddish horn colored, the 
tips of the tergal valves obtusely rounded. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling (Baker) ; holo- 
type, female; paratype, female. 

SCAMBONEURA FACETA sp. nov. 

General coloration of head obscure orange, the occipital 
triangle darker; antennal flagellum black throughout; meso- 
notal prsescutum obscure yellow with three conspicuous black 
stripes; pleura light yellow; legs largely brownish black; ab- 
dominal tergites obscure yellow, trivittate with brownish black, 
the median stripe very broad, interrupted at the caudal 
margins of segments. 

Male, length, about 12 millimeters; wing, 12. Female, 
length, about 15 millimeters; wing, 13. Frontal prolongation 
of head yellow, nasus black; palpi pale, the outer segment 
passing into dark browH. Antennae of male elongate, if bent 
backward extending to about opposite base of second abdominal 
segment; scape obscure brownish fulvous; flagellar segments 
black. In the female, the antennae are much shorter. Head 
obscure dark orange, with a darker occipital triangle. 

Pronotum narrow, obscure yellow, in the female, light orange 
medially. Mesonotal praescutum obscure yellow with three 
conspicuous black stripes, the lateral stripes straight, the in- 
terspaces very narrow; scutum obscure yellow, the lobes very 
extensively blackened; scutellum shiny black, a little paler 
caudally; postnotal mediotergite shiny brownish black, a little 
paler on the lateral margins. Pleura light yellow, unmarked. 



296 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Halteres brownish black, only the extreme base of stem a 
little paler. Legs with the coxse and trochanters yellow; fem- 
ora brown, narrowly paler at base, the outer half or more 
of the segments darker brown ; tibiae and tarsi brownish black. 
Wings subhyaline, stigma and subcostal cell brown; veins dark 
brown to black. Venation: Rs as in the genus, short and sim- 
ulating a crossvein; distal sections of veins R^ and Ro atrophied; 
m-cu on M4 at about one-half its length beyond the fork of M. 

Abdominal tergites obscure yellow, trivittate with brownish 
black, the caudal margins of segments 2 to 7 narrowly and 
indistinctly obscure yellow; median stripe very broad, the sub- 
lateral stripes much less distinct; lateral margins of segments 
pale; sternites light yellow, the outer segments darker; hypo- 
pygium small, dark brown. In the female the tergites are 
brownish black, margined caudally with fulvous or brownish 
orange, the lateral margins broadly of the same color; basal 
sternites yellow, the outer segments duller in color; ovipositor 
with the valves horn colored, the long tergal valves subacute 
at tips. 

In the paratype female the thoracic stripes are dark reddish 
brown instead of black. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Alabat Island, September 18 to 30, 
1926 {Francisco Rivera)-, holotype, male; allotype, female; 
paratype, female. 

Scamboneura faceta is most closely allied to the Javanese 
S. qtcadrata de Meijere, from which it differs especially in the 
details of coloration, notably of thorax, abdomen, and legs. The 
general appearance of the species is very much like certain 
species of Nephrotoma, and it is highly probable that the true 
affinities of the genus lie with the Tipularia rather than with 
the Dolichopezaria, despite the venation of the medial field of 
the wing. 

NESOPEZA CINCTITARSIS sp. nov. Plate 1, figs. 3 and 4. 

General coloration light cinnamon brown, antennal flagellum 
black; legs dark brown, the tibial bases narrowly whitened; 
tarsi white, the fore and middle basitarsi with the central half 
blackened or strongly infuscated; wings with a dusky tinge, 
the small stigma darker brown ; cell 2d A narrow ; male hypo- 
pygium large, ninth tergite conspicuously developed. 

Male, length, about 11 millimeters; wing, 10 to 10.5. Female, 
length, about 11 millimeters; wing, 9. Frontal prolongation 
of head very short, light yellow ; palpi * yellow, passing into 



33,8 Alexa7ider: Philippine Tipnlidse, IV 297 

brown. Antennse of male of moderate length only, if bent back- 
ward scarcely attaining base of abdomen; first scapal segment 
pale brown; second segment yellow; flagellum black; antennse 
of female shorter, not attaining the wing root. Head light 
cinnamon, frons passing into light yellow. 

Mesonotal praescutum and scutum cinnamon brown with the 
interspaces a little darker; scutellum darker brown; postnotal 
mediotergite darker brown, paler laterally. Pleura obscure 
yellow to brownish yellow, anepisternum and ventral portions 
of sternopleurite and meron a little darker. Halteres elongate, 
brownish black, the extreme base of stem a little paler. Legs 
with coxse and trochanters pale yellow; femora dark brown, 
paler basally; tibiae dark brown, narrowly whitened basally; 
tarsi snowy white with about the central half of basitarsi in- 
fuscated; middle tarsi with the basal whitened portion more 
obscured; terminal tarsal segments passing into light yellow 
or whitish yellow. Wings (fig. 3) with a dusky tinge, the 
small stigma oval, dark brown; veins brownish black. Vena- 
tion: Rs longer than the penultimate section of Ri but usually 
a little shorter than ^2-\-z^ gently arcuated at origin; all medial 
cells deep; m-cu close to fork of M; cell 2d A narrow. 

Abdominal tergites dark brown with a transverse obscure 
orange ring just beyond base of tergites 3 to 5; subterminal 
segments more uniformly blackened; male hypopygium con- 
spicuously enlarged, basistyle brightened, tergite and dististyles 
dark brown. Male hypopygium (fig. 4) of very unusual form, 
the ninth tergite {t) greatly produced caudad and dorsad into 
an elevated flattened plate that is deeply divided medially by 
a narrow split; lateral lobes relatively narrow, each shallowly 
bifid on outer face near apex; ventral surface of the mesal 
margin of each of these lobes at near midlength bearing a 
slender chitinized rod that is directed cephalad and slightly 
laterad. Outer dististyle (o) an elongate, cylindrical lobe that 
is provided with long erect setae. Inner dististyle (i) a small 
flattened blade, the apex suddenly narrowed into a slender 
point. Ovipositor with the valves chitinized, the tergal valves 
gently upcurved at tips. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban; at medium altitude on 
Mount Banahao, May, 1926 ; in dry forest, at base of tree, far 
from water {McGregor)) holotype, male; allotype, female; 
paratypes, both sexes. 

Nesopeza cinctitarsis is well distinguished by the remarkable 
male hypopygium. It is placed in the genus in the broad usage 

228111 5 



298 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

of the name. The genus Nesopeza Alexander was proposed 
for a group of Dolichopezaria that includes gracilis de Meijere, 
costalis Brunetti, and geniculata Alexander, all species with the 
radial sector very long, rectangularly bent, and spurred near 
origin. To the genus a larger number of other species have 
been referred in which the sector is about as in the present 
species, such forms being retained in Nesopeza for convenience 
only. 

LIMONIIN^ 

GERANOMYIA FLAVICOSTA Brunetti. Plate 1, fig. 5. 

Geranomyia flavicosta Brunetti, Fauna Brit. India, Dipt. Nemato- 
cera (1912) 389-390, pi. 8, fig. 2 (wing) ; pi. 11, fig. 6 (mesonotum). 

This interesting crane fly was described from a single im- 
perfect female specimen taken from a light aboard a launch on 
the Ganges Delta, India, August, 1909. 

The male has not been described and the present specimen 
is made the allotype. 

Male. — Length (excluding rostrum), about 6.5 millimeters; 
wing, 6.7. Differs from the description of the female in the 
following: Rostrum about as long as the combined head and 
thorax ; black subterminal ring very narrow. Mesonotum shiny 
ferruginous, without a dark pattern as described and figured 
for the female. The wing pattern is very gaudy, in its genera] 
pattern suggesting the pediciine genus Nipponomyia Alexander 
and the hexatomine genus Skiiseomyia Alexander. 

Male hypopygium (fig. 5) with the basistyle (6) relatively 
small, the ventromesal lobe large, with long, conspicuous setse. 
Ventral dististyle {v) very large, fleshy, the rostral prolongation 
very short, sessile, provided with a single conspicuous spikelike 
spine that is acute at tip. Dorsal dististyle (d) relatively short, 
only slightly curved, the tip suddenly narrowed into a slender 
point. Gonapophyses {g) broadly flattened, apex slender, gently 
curved to the acute tip, separated from remainder of blade by an 
oval notch. 

Luzon, Manila, March, 1925 {McGregor) ; allotype, male. 

DICRANOMYIA (THRYPTICOMYIA) APICALIS (Wiedemann). Plate 1, fig. 6; Plate 2, 
fig. 9. 

Limnohia apicalis Wiedemann, Aussereur. zweifl. Insekt. 1 (1828) 
551. 

The crane fly described by Wiedemann as apicalis has long 
remained in doubt. Through the kindness of Dr. Hans Zerny 



33,3 Alexander: Philippine Tipvlidse, IV 299 

I was enabled to examine Wiedemann's type and to settle finally 
the identity of the fly, long suspected but never actually 
proven. The fly belongs to the subgenus Thrypticomyia Skuse. 
There has been an unfortunate confusion regarding the correct 
application of the specific names apicalis Wiedemann, saltens 
Doleschall, and cuneiformis de Meijere. The species deter- 
mined by Brunetti * as saltens is now referred to apicalis by 
Edwards.^ Edwards believes that the name saltens Doleschall 
(saltans of authors) pertains to a species of the subgenus 
Euglochina Alexander rather than to Thrypticomyia Skuse, a 
fact that is borne out by DoleschalFs figure, brief description, 
and measurements. De Meijere considered the name saltens 
to refer to the subgenus Thrypticomyia. If Edwards's con- 
tention is correct, it is very probable that the name cuneiformis 
de Meijere will fall in the synonymy of saltens (in the subgenus 
Euglochina). If de Meijere's original beliefs are well founded, 
saltens will pertain to Thrypticomyia and will very possibly 
be found to be a synonym of the present species. The chief 
fact in the question that would tend to uphold de Meijere's con- 
tention lies in the curious dancing habit that Doleschall dis- 
cussed for his saltens and which has been noted several times 
by other collectors for different species of Thrypticomyia, but 
not, to my knowledge, for species of Euglochina. Until Dole- 
schalFs material (if extant) can be examined, the problem will 
still remain. 

McGregor sent three genera of crane flies that he found about 
cacao trees across the street from his house in Lucban, Tayabas 
Province, Luzon, in May, 1926. His interesting notes on these 
flies are as follows: 

The largest kind [Conosia irrorata Wiedemann] rests on leaves with a 
hind leg extended on each side — mid and fore legs together, extended in 
front — abdomen elevated — no motion. This fly simulates certain spiders 
and looks nothing like a fly. 

The middle-sized kind [Trentepohlia trentepohlii Wiedemann] rests on 
leaves and dances rather slowly. 

The smallest [D, (T.) apicalis Wiedemann and D. (T.) arachnophila sp. 
nov.] rests the ends of the fore tarsi on a spider-web line and dances, three 
or four flies sometimes resting close together on a line. 

The last-mentioned habit has been discussed by earlier 
authors, as Osten Sacken, Jacobson (through de Meijere), 
Scott, Edwards, and others. 

'Fauna Brit. Ind. Diptera, Nematocera 1 (1912) 373-374. 
'Rec. Ind. Mus. 26 (1924) 295. 



300 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

The holotype of Wiedemann's species was redescribed by me 
in 1921 as follows: 

The type has lost the apical half of the abdomen. Wings hyaline, 
the cells beyond the level of the outer end of cell 1st M 2 distinctly infus- 
cated; stigma elongate-oval, dark brown, clearly delimited; veins dark 
brown, very distinct. Venation: 5c 1 ending immediately beyond the ori- 
gin of RSy Sc 2 some distance from its tip, Sc 1 alone being a little shorter 
than nu-cu; distal section of R x preserved, r being a little longer than 
rrir-cu; distal section of R 2 atrophied beyond the distal margin of the stigma; 
inner ends of cells Rz and 1st M z about on a level, lying more basad than 
cell R 5; 7n-cu at near three-fourths the length of cell 1st M 2) M in align- 
ment with M^i^) distal section of Cu 1 only a little longer than rrircu. 
Hind legs with the proximal third of the basitarsi blackened; on middle 
legs the darkening a little less extensive; fore legs lacking. 

From these notes it can be seen that the absolutely critical 
feature, the structure of the male hypopygium, cannot be 
described. 

The Luzon material agrees very closely with the type, except 
that Sci ends shortly before the origin of Rs and m-cu is shorter 
than SCi alone. 

Since there are rather numerous species of Thrypticomyia 
in the Oriental Region, it is deemed advisable to redescribe 
and figure this species. 

General appearance as in the other members of the subgenus. 
Verticils of the male antennse long and conspicuous. Mesonotal 
prsescutum very dark brown, somewhat shiny, the lateral 
margins of prsescutum somewhat paler. Pleura obscure tes- 
taceous yellow, the dorsopleural region darker. Legs black, 
tarsi snowy white, only the three terminal segments slightly 
more yellowish white; basitarsi with about the proximal two- 
fifths darkened. Wings subhyaline, stigma large, oval, dark 
brown. Wing tip strongly infumed, this including all of the 
cells from slightly beyond the cord outwardly. Venation as 
discussed above (fig. 9) : Cug entirely lacking, as in the sub- 
genus but not in Euglochina, Male hypopygium (fig. 6) with 
the ventromesal lobe of basistyle (6) of moderate length and 
stoutness. Dorsal dististyle {d) strongly curved, the long tip 
acutely pointed. Rostrum of the ventral dististyle {v) very 
long and slender, the two spines widely separated from one 
another, the distance between them approximately or nearly as 
long as the length of a single spine; the more basal of these 
spines arises from a short, hemispherical, enlarged base; ros- 



33,3 Alexander: Philippine Tipulidse, IV 301 

trum beyond the last spine from two to three times as long 
as the length of a single spine. 

The species is most closely allied to D, (T.) fumidapicalis 
Alexander, described from North Queensland, and the two may 
be merely geographical races. In the latter species the distal 
spur of R2 is short, usually less than half the length of the 
vertical basal section; m-cu is usually far out toward the distal 
end of cell 1st Mo, though sometimes at about two-thirds the 
length of the cell. The macrotrichise of the veins do not appear 
so long or conspicuous as in apicalis. The male hypopygium 
(Plate 1, fig. 8) has the rostral spines closer together, the more 
basal arising from an elongate subconical base that is about two- 
thirds as long as the spine itself ; the spines are much less than 
their own length apart; apical beak of rostrum just beyond 
spines relatively broad, thence narrowed strongly to tip. 

DICRANOMYIA (THRYPTICOMYIA) ARACHNOPHILA sp. nov. Plate 1, fig. 7; Plate 2, 
figr. 10. 

Male, — Length, about 5 millimeters; wing, 5 to 5.5. 

Generally similar to D. (T.) apicalis (Wiedemann), differing 
in the following: 

Thoracic pleura a little more variegated with brown, es- 
pecially on the stemopleurite. Legs with the white more ex- 
tensive, only the basal third or less of basitarsi being blackened. 
Wings (fig. 10) with tips slightly infumed, darkened back to 
the level of the outer end of cell 1st Mg. Venation: Sc^ ending 
shortly before origin of Rs, Sc^ some distance from its tip; 
Rs angulated and sometimes short-spurred at origin; relatively 
short, about as long as or a little longer than the distal spur 
of R2 and in alignment with it; distal section of R2 equal to or 
a little longer than the basal section, provided with from six 
to seven macrotrichise ; m-cu at or before midlength of cell 1st 
Mo and fully twice its own length from tip of CUi. 

Male hypopygium of the general type of apicalis. Basistyle 
with the ventromesal lobe short and stout. Dorsal dististyle 
sickle-shaped with the apical spine relatively short. Ventral 
dististyle with the rostrum shorter and stouter (fig. 7) with 
the spines relatively short, placed close together, the more basal 
one from an enlarged tubercle that is more than half the length 
of the spine, the more distal spine gently recurved. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, on spider webs, May, 1926 
(McGregor); holotype, male; paratype, male. 



302 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

The habits of this fly have been discussed under the account 
of the preceding species. 

Genus TRENTEPOHLIA Bigot 

The species of the genus in the Philippines may be separated 
by the following key : 

Key to Philippine species of Trentepohliu Bigot. 

1. Cell 1st M2 closed, with three branches of media reaching margin 

(fig. 9). (Subgenus Mongonia Westwood.) 2. 

Cell 1st M2 open by the atrophy of m and the two distal sections of 
Ma; only two branches of media reaching margin (figs. 12 to 15). 
(Subgenus Trentepohlia Bigot.) 4. 

2. Tips of femora abruptly and conspicuously whitened; tibiae white. 

T. (M.) tenera Osten Sacken. 
Femora brown, tips not whitened; tibias more or less infuscated.... 3. 

3. Femora uniformly infuscated, tips of all tibiae white; (tips of midtibiae 

slightly expanded and conspicuously fringed with long white setae). 

T. (M.) pennipes Osten Sacken. 
Femoral tips rather indistinctly darkened; tips of fore tibiae broadly 
darkened; (condition of midtibiae not known). 

T. (M.) luzonensis Edwards. 

4. Femora brown, tips abruptly whitened T. (T.) bakeri sp. nov. 

Tips of femora concolorous with remainder of segment or else darkened 5. 

5. Wings unmarked except for a narrow brown seam on R2; tips of 

femora and tibiae conspicuously blackened.. T. (T.) mcgregori sp. nov. 

Wings with a conspicuous brown pattern; femora not blackened api- 

cally 6. 

6. Abdomen reddish, apex black; wings yellowish subhyaline, apex dark 

brown; cord narrowly seamed with brown but not suffusing cell 

1st Ri T. (T.) trentepohlii (Wiedemann). 

Abdomen entirely black; a dark brown costal area at sector and in 
cell 1st R], in addition to the darkened apex.. T. (T.) pictipennis Bezzi. 

TRENTEPOHLIA (MONGOMA) TENERA Osten Sacken. Plate 2, fig. 11. 

Moyigoma tenera Osten Sacken; Berlin. Entom. Zeitschr. 26, Heft 
1 (1882) 89. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, May, 1926; in small holes 
in the shady bank of a creek; at base of large forest trees, far 
from water {McGregor). 

This common and widely distributed species is more variable 
than are most species of the genus. Osten Sacken's type (from 
the Philippines, collected by Semper) has the inner ends of 
cells 2d Mo and Mo about on a line, but in the present series, 
as well as in the material studied by Brunetti,^ the inner end 

•Fauna Brit. Ind. Diptera, Nematocera (1912) 480-481. 



33,3 Alexander: Philippine Tipvlidse, IV 303 

of cell Mg lies far proximad of that of cell 2d Mo (fig. 11), the 
basal section of vein M. being elongated and arcuated, much 
longer than m. Brunetti places his pallidiventris in the 
synonymy of tenera but, unless his original description is very 
erroneous, the identity of the two must be held in question. 

TRENTEPOHLIA (MONGOMA) PENNIPES Oaten Sacken. 

Mongoma pennipes Osten Sacken ; Berlin. Entom. Zeitschr. 31 
(1887) 204. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, May, 1926 (McGregor) ; 
Alabat Island, October 8, 1926 {Francisco Rivera). 

TRENTEPOHLIA (TRENTEPOHLIA) TRENTEPOHLII (Wiedemann). 

Lwmobia trentepohlii Wiedemann, Aussereur. zweifl. Insekt. 1 (1828) 
551, pi. 6 b, fig. 12. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, in May, 1926 {McGregor) ; 
numerous specimens, as discussed under the account of Dicra- 
nomyia {Thrypticomyia) apicalis (Wiedemann). 

There has been considerable confusion concerning the iden- 
tity of trentepohlii, but I have little doubt that the present 
material is correctly determined. The species has a wide range 
throughout the Orient, extending eastward to northern Queens- 
land, where it v^as described as T, (T.) media Alexander, which 
name must be placed in the synonymy. 

The species considered as being trentepohlii by Brunetti ^ is 
generally similar, but has the wing pattern much paler and 
the venation slightly different. I have material that was sent 
to me by Brunetti. This species I had earlier described as T. 
(T,) doddi, from Melville Island, North Australia. Both of 
these closely allied species appear to have a very extensive 
distribution in the Austro-Malayan Region. 

TRENTEPOHLIA (TRENTEPOHLIA) MCGREGORI sp. nov. Plate 2, fi». 12. 

General coloration light orange yellow; head dark colored, 
pruinose; legs yellow, tips of femora, bases and tips of tibise, 
and the terminal tarsal segments blackened ; wings light yellow ; 
vein R2 narrowly seamed with brown ; vein Ro nearly transverse. 

Female, — Length, 5.5 millimeters; wing, 5. 

Rostrum yellow; palpi pale at base, darker outwardly. An- 
tennae with the scapal segments obscure yellow; flagellum 
broken. Head dark colored, heavily light gray pruinose. 

'Fauna Brit. Ind. Diptera, Nematocera (1912) 482, pi. 9, fig. 13, as 
Mongomioides, 



304 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

General coloration of prothorax and mesothorax bright 
orange yellow, unmarked. Halteres relatively short, yellow, the 
knobs orange. Legs with the coxse and trochanters yellow; 
femora yellow, tips broadly and abruptly blackened ; tibiae yellow, 
bases and apices conspicuously blackened, subequal in amount, 
this about half as extensive as the femoral tips ; basitarsi yellow, 
tips and remainder of tarsi dark brown. Wings (fig. 12) with a 
light yellow suffusion, the costal region more saturated; a 
narrow brown seam along vein R2 ; membrane highly iridescent ; 
veins yellow. Venation Sci rather remote from tip of R^, the 
distance on costa about equal to Rs; Rs shorter than the basal 
section of R4_^5; r on R2_^3 just beyond midlength; R^ nearly 
transverse, straight, relatively short. 

Abdomen yellow. Ovipositor with the tergal valves horn 
colored, strongly upcurved. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, May, 1926 {McGregor) ; 
holotype, female. 

This interesting crane fly is named in honor of Mr. Richard 
C. McGregor, to whom I am vastly indebted for many rare 
Tipulidae from the Philippines. The species resembles T, (T.) 
nigroapicalis Brunetti (India) and T, (T.) septentrionis Alex- 
ander (Japan) in the coloration of the legs. In all other regards 
the present species is very distinct. Trentepohlia nigroapicalis 
(fig. 13) has the wings unusually long and narrow, the cells of 
the radial field being correspondingly modified. Trentepohlia 
septentrionis (fig. 14) has the wing broader, almost as in the 
present species, but with vein R2 long and oblique in position. 
Trentepholia mcgregori (fig. 12) has vein R2 nearly perpendi- 
cular and cell R2 relatively small. 

TRENTEPOHLIA (TRENTEPOHLIA) BAKERI sp. nov. Plate 2, fi^. 15. 

General coloration reddish brown, mesonotum darker brown 
medially; antennae black throughout; femora brown, tips 
narrowly but abruptly whitened; fore tibiae white; wings sub- 
hyaline, the oval stigma slightly darker; abdomen dark brown. 

Female. — Length, about 7 millimeters; wing, 5. 

Rostrum brown, palpi concolorous. Antennae black through- 
out, the flagellar segments elongate-oval. Head dark brown. 

Pronotum dark brown, paler laterally. Mesonotal praescutum 
reddish brown, dark brown medially; remainder of mesonotum 
dark brown, especially scutellum and postnotal mediotergite. 
Pleura testaceous brown. Halteres relatively short, obscure 
yellow, the knobs a little darker. Legs with the coxae and 



33,3 Alexander: Philippine Tipulid^e, IV 305 

trochanters yellowish testaceous; femora brown, bases paler, 
tips narrowly but conspicuously whitened (about 0.5 milli- 
meter) ; the only leg that is still attached is a fore leg; two 
others are detached but mounted with the type; fore tibiae 
white, those of the other legs very slightly more darkened; 
tarsi white, darkened outwardly. Wings (fig. 15) subhyaline, 
the oval stigma slightly darker, poorly delimited; Cu and the 
posterior cord vaguely suffused with dusky; veins pale brown, 
the costal region above stigma a little more yellowish. Venation : 
Sci remote from R^ at margin, Sc. not far from tip of Sc, ; 
Rs relatively short, nearly straight; distal ends of R, and r 
relatively faint; Ro a trifle longer than the second section of 
R2+3' oblique; basal section of ^^j^^ about equal to or a little 
shorter than the fused R^^g and Mj_^2. 

Abdomen dark brown, the genital segment a little paler. 
Ovipositor with the tergal valves very small, acutely pointed, 
the sternal valves large. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling {Baker) ; holo- 
type, female. 

This species is named in honor of the collector. Dr. C. F. 
Baker, who has added very materially to our knowledge of the 
fauna and the flora of the Philippines. The fly is related to T. 
albogeniculata Brunetti (India), from which it is distinguished 
by the diagnostic features listed above. 

CONOSIA IRRORATA (Wiedemann). Plate 2, fig. 16. 

Limnobia irrorata Wiedemann, Aussereur. zweifl. Insekt. 1 (1828) 
574. 

Luzon, Tayabas Province, Lucban, May, 1926 (McGregor). 

The occurrence of this species has been discussed under the 
SLCcount of Dicranomyia (Thrypticomyia) apicalis (Wiedemann). 

The males of irrorata have the wings very greatly dilated, 
as in the genus Clydonodozus Enderlein, the wing being widest 
opposite the second anal vein (fig. 16). In the female, the 
wings are narrower and normal in appearance. 

The commonest representative of Conosia throughout South 
Africa is a small form, with the wings narrow in both sexes. 
I had until now considered this as being irrorata, but the re- 
ceipt of abundant material from several stations in the Orient 
makes it clear that two distinct species have been confused 
under this name. 

The South African species is described at this time. 



306 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

CONOSIA ANGUSTISSIMA sp. noT. Plate 2, fljr. 17. 

The wing is narrow in both sexes and of approximately equal 
width for the entire central half of the length. The irrorate 
pattern is about the same in all three species of the genus, con- 
sisting of about four or five large costal blotches and abundant 
small irrorations at intervals along all the veins. The male 
hypopygium has the outer dististyle flattened, subcultriform, 
broadest shortly before the tip, thence suddenly narrowed into 
an acute apical point, the outer margin of the style with nu- 
merous subappressed spines. The gonapophyses are extremely 
long and slender. 

Holotype, male, Pretoria, Transvaal, January 26, 1919 (H, 
K. Munro). Numerous other specimens from many parts of 
Natal, Transvaal, and in Damaraland. M'fongosi, Zululand, 
March, 1916 (PF. E, Jones), Pietermaritzburg, Natal, January 
5, 1911 (C. Fuller). Waterberg, Damaraland, Southwest Cape 
Colony, February, 1920 (/?. W. Tucker), 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

[Legend: b, basistyle : d, dorsal diatistyle ; g, gonapophysis ; t, inner dististyle ; o, outer 
dististyle ; R, radius ; r, radial crossvein ; Sc, subcosta ; t, ninth tergite ; v, ventral dististyle. 
Venational terminology used, Comstock-Needham-Tillyard. Hypopygial terminology used, 
Crampton.] 

Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Tipula riverai sp. nov., wing. 

2. Tipula riverai sp. nov., ninth tergite, male hypopygium. 

3. Nesopeza cinctitarsis sp. nov., wing. 

4. Nesopeza cinctitarsis sp. nov., male hypopygium. 

5. Geranomyia flavicosta Brunetti; male hypopygium. 

6. Dicranomyia (Thrypticomyia) apicalis (Wiedemann) ; male hy- 

popygium. 

7. Dicranomyia {Thrypticomyia) arachnophila sp. nov.; rostral pro- 

longation of ventral dististyle of male hypopygium. 
8. Dicrayiomyia (Thrypticomyia) fumidapicalis Alexander; rostral 
prolongation of ventral dististyle of male hypopygium. 

Plate 2 

Fig. 9. Dicranomyia (T hrypticom^yia) apicalis (Wiedemann) ; wing. 

10. Dicranomyia (Thrypticomyia) arachnophila sp. nov., wing. 

11. Trentepohlia (Mongoma) tenera Osten Sacken, wing. 

12. Trentepohlia (Trentepohlia) mcgregori sp. nov., wing. 

13. Trentepohlia (Trentepohlia) nigroapicalis Brunetti, wing. 

14. Trentepohlia (Trentepohlia) septentrionis Alexander, wing. 

15. Trentepohlia (Trentepohlia) bakeri sp. nov., wing. 

16. Conosia irrorata (Wiedemann), wing, male. 

17. Conosia angustissima sp. nov., wing, male. 

307 



Alexander: Philippine Tipulid^:, IV. J 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 3. 











PLATE 1. 



Alexander: Philippine Tipulid^e, IV.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 3. 




PLATE 2. 



HYMfiNOPTERES SYCOPHILES RECOLTfiS AUX ILES 
PHILIPPINES PAR C. F. BAKER, I. AGAONINI 

22°^^ CONTRIBUTION A LA CONNAISSANCE DES INSECTES DES FIGUIERS 

Par GuiDO Grandi 

Dvreoteur du Laboratoire d* Entomologie Agraria a V Institut 
Superieur Agraria de Bologruif Italic 

SEPT PLANCHES 

Les materiaux qui ont permis Tetude qui suive ont etes ramas- 
ses et envoyes par les soins de Monsieur C. F. Baker. Je lui 
exprime ici ma vive reconnaissance. Tous les types des especes 
traitees appartiennent a ma collection. 

BLASTOPHAGA CONTUBERNALIS sp. nov. Fi». 1 a 17. 

FEMELLE 
Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.60 

Largeur de la tete 0.60 

Longueur du thorax 1.29 
Longueur du gaster 0.93-1.00 

Longueur de la tariere 0.21 

Longueur des ailes anterieur 2.00 

Largeur des ailes anterieur 0.86 

Longueur des ailes poster ieur 1.21 

Largeur des ailes posterieur 0.25 

Coloration fondamentale, noir bistre; regions sternopleurales 
thoraciques et abdominales, pattes et antennes en grande partie, 
terre d'ombre-bistre. Nervures et soies des ailes, terre d'ombre. 

Tete a peu pres aussi longue que large entre les bords externes 
des yeux et pourvue de plusieurs courts polls; joues aussi longues 
que la moitie du plus grand diametre des orbites. Bord ante- 
rieur de Tepistome faiblement trilobe au milieu. Antennes 10- 
articulees. Scape court, moins de 2 fois aussi long que sa plus 
grande largeur. 3^^ article avec la partie proximale bien tran- 
chee et annulif orme ; ecaille f ranchement depassant Tapex du 4"^^ 
et ornee, au sommet, d'une epine assez longue. 4°^^ article pres- 
que 2 fois aussi long qu'epais et aminci a la base. 5""^ article 

309 



310 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

un peu plus long qu'epais et un peu plus long que le 4"'^-6"'% 
rjuiB^ gme^ qI Qme articles E peu pros d'egale longueur, un peu 
plus longs que le 5""% un peu plus longs qu'epais, et pourvus 
de plusieurs soies assez longues et de 2 series irregulieres d'or- 
gans sensoriels coeloconiques allonges, pas depassants Tapex des 
articles. 10""^ article a peu pres aussi long que V 8°"^ et le 9"'^ 
reunis et divise en 2 parties, chacune ornee de 2 series irregu- 
lieres d'organs sensoriels coeloconiques. Mandibules petites, 
plus longues que larges, faiblement bidentees. Appendice prox- 
imal aussi long que la mandibule et pourvu de 6 carenes trans- 
versales, dont la plus proximale odontoide. Maxilles avec 1 
petite saille distale ornee d'une sole spiniforme. 

Thorax, pronotum orne de polls assez longs en grand nomhre. 
Praescutum du mesonotum nu, ou presque. Scapulae avec 20 
polls a peu pres. Scutellum orne de plusieurs polls localises 
dans sa moitie posterieure et le long des bords laterals. Axillae 
avec 12-20 polls. Parascutella ornes de quelques polls (10 a 
peu pres) anterieurs et externes. Metanotum pourvu de 30-40 
petits polls places, a droite et a gauche, en 2 aires sublaterales. 
Propodeum avec plusieurs soies en grand nombre. Chacune des 
aires du praepectum en possede 15-20. Regions epimerales bien 
tranchees. 

Ailes anterieures un peu plus de 2 fois aussi longues que larges. 
Nervures pas bien individualisees et marquees presque seulement 
par leur couleur foncee. Nervure humerale tres epaisse a sa bas 
et coupee en 2 morceaux, dont le premier atteint le bord alaire 
anterieur (bord costal) le long de ses f proximals et s'amincie 
ensuite; le deuxieme debute fluet et s'elargie jusqu'au bord costal. 
Cellule costale tres courte, 4 ou 5 fois aussi longue que large. 
Cuticule alaire densement setosulee. Pas d'organs sensoriels 
a Tapex de la n. stigmatique. Ailes posterieures 5 fois aussi 
longues que larges, avec 3 hamuli en forme de crochets. 

Pattes anterieures, hanches un peu plus longues qu'un tiers 
des femurs, et un peu plus que les tibias. Tarses un peu plus 
longs qu'une fois et demie les tibias. 1^^ article du tarse aussi 
long que les 2 articles suivants reunis. Pattes intermediaires, 
femurs franchement plus courts que les tibias; ceux-ci un peu 
plus courts que les tarses. Pattes posterieures, hanches aussi 
longues que les femurs ; ceux-ci un peu plus longs que les tibias. 
Tarses un peu plus de 2 fois aussi longs que les tibias. 

Tariere a peu pres egale au quart (ou au cinquieme) de la 
longueur du gaster. 



33,3 Grandi: Hymenopteres Sycophiles 311 

MALE 

Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.48 

Largeur de la tete 0.45 

Longueur du pronotum 0.50 

Largeur du pronotum 0.78 

Longueur du mesonotum 0.35 

Largeur du mesonotum 0.64 

Longueur du metanotum et du propodeum reunis 0.35 

Largeur du metanotum 0.67 

Largeur du propodeum 0.57 

Coloration fondamentale, ambre ferrugineux uniforme. Par- 
ties epaisses du tegument foncees. 

Tete un peu plus longue que large et pourvue de courtes soies 
spiniformes inclinees en arriere. Bord anterieur de Tepistome 
faiblement trilobe, avec le lobe median pointu. L'entaille me- 
diane anterieure du front atteint, en arriere, le niveau d'une 
ligne transverse ideale coupant a moitie les yeux. Ceux-ci bien 
developpes. Antennes courtes. Le scape est sonde avec la 
radicula. 2°^^ article un peu plus long qu'epais et retreci a la 
base. S"^^ article annulif orme ; 4^^ et 5^^ articles presque sondes 
ensemble en massue ; le 4"^^ est plus large que long, le 5"^^ un peu 
plus long que large. Soies et organes sensoriels comme dans la 
fig. 11. Mandibules aussi longues que larges, amincies et biden- 
tees a Tapex. Maxilles e labium subatrophies, en forme de 
bourgeon membraneux et bilobe. 

Thorax, pronotum plus de 2 fois aussi large que long, pourvu 
de quelques petits poils; son bord anterieur saillant au milieu; 
ses angles anterieurs arrondis, les posterieurs tres saillants. 
Epipleures assez larges. Prosternum sonde avec les propleurae 
et a surface ventrale plane. Mesonotum transversal, avec les 
bords laterals arrondis et pourvu de quelques poils. Metanotum 
sonde avec le propodeum. Ce-ci avec le bord posterieur presque 
droit. 

Pattes anterieures, femurs 1 fois et demie aussi longs que 
larges et franchement plus longs que les tibias. Tarses dimeres, 
un peu plus courts qu'une demie fois les tibias. Pattes interme- 
diaires subatrophiees, en forme de bourgeons biarticules. Pattes 
posterieures, hanches a peu pres aussi longues que les femurs 
et un peu plus longues que les tibias. Ceux-ci tres elargies a 
Textremite distale et pourvues a la face interne d'une formation 
etrange, semblable a la valve d'une coquille. Femurs et tibias 
pourvus de plusieurs soies spiniformes. Tarses pentameres, un 



312 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

peu plus courts que les tibias, mais beaucoup moins larges. Me- 
tatarses aussi longs que les 2 articles suivants reunis. 

Gaster, armure genitale pourvue de 2 appendices 3-4 denti- 
cules. 

Provenance. — Cette especes est etablie sur 1,181 specimens 
(539 males et 642 femelles), cotypes et paratypes omotopes, 
recueillis a Los Banos (lies Philippines), dans les figues du 
Ficits megacarpa Merrill. 

Remarque. — Males et femelles bien caracterises entre tous les 
autres du meme genre. 

CERATOSOLEN BAKERI sp. nov. Fig. 18 a 32. 

FEMELLE 
Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.99 

Largeur de la tete 1.01 

Longueur du thorax 1.54 

Longueur du gaster 1.36 

Longueur de la tariere 0.47 

Longueur des ailes anterieur 2.87 

Largeur des ailes anterieur 1.29 

Longueur des ailes poster ieur 1.79 

Largueur des ailes posterieur 0.59 

Coloration fondamentale, chatain-bistre, delave par une nu- 
ance d'ambre. Surface dorsale de la tete, les 3 premiers articles 
des antennes, regions sterno-pleurales thoraciques et abdominales 
et pattes, isabelle. Nervures et soies des ailes, bistre. Articles 
4me_i;[me ^gg antcnncs, terre d'ombre clair. 

Tete un peu plus large entre les bords externes des yeux que 
longue ; ornee de polls clair-semes et tres courts. Joues f ranche- 
ment plus longues que la moitie du plus grand diametre des 
orbites. Bord anterieur de Tepistome avec 2 grands lobes sub- 
medians arrondis et ornes de quelques polls. Antennes a 11 arti- 
cles, avec le scape 2 fois aussi long qu'epais. Ecaille du 3"^^ 
article arrondie a son extremite distale et depassant a peine 
Tapex du 4""®; celuci-ci un peu plus long qu'epais. 5"^^ article 
presque une fois et demie aussi long qu'epais et pourvu en dehors 
de 3 series transversales et irregulieres d'organs sensoriels coelo- 
coniques allonges. 6"^^ article 2 fois aussi long qu'epais, presque 
2 fois aussi long que le 5™^ et pourvu de 3 series transversales, 
tres irregulieres et partialement entremelees d'organes sensoriels 
coeloconiques allonges. Ceux de la serie distale sont un peu 
saillants en dehors de Tapex de Tarticle. 7""^ et 8^^ articles 
d'egale longueur, un peu plus courts que le 6°"% avec 3-4 series 



33,3 Grandi: Hymen opteres SycophUes 313 

irregulieres d'organes sensoriels. 9"^^ article aussi large que V 
8"^% mais un peu plus court et pourvu de 3 series de sensilla. 
10"^^ et ll"'^ articles ensemble soudes en massue. Tous les 7 
derniers articles du flagelle sont ornes de plusieurs soies. Mandi- 
bules un peu plus longues que larges ; appendice proximal aussi 
long que le corps mandibulaire, amplement arrondi, avec 6 care- 
nes. Maxilles avec 1 soie; labium avec 2 soies. 

Thorax, pronotum franchement transversal; ses angles ante- 
rieurs amplement arrondis, son bord anterieur fablement ren- 
trant. II est orne de plusieurs soies assez longues. Scutum et 
scapulae du mesonotum avec un petit nombre de polls. Scutel- 
lum orne d'une 30"^ de petits polls. Propodeum pourvu de 
quelques polls sur la region dorsale comprise entre les stigmates 
et de longues soies en dehors de ceux-ci. 

Ailes anterieures presque 2 fois et | aussi longues que larges 
et densement setosulees. Nervure postmarginale un peu plus 
d'une fois et i aussi longue que la n. stigmatique ; cette-ci un peu 
plus longue que la n. marginale, qui est elargie a Textremite 
distale et pourvue d'une saille a bee d'oiseau, avec 4 petits organes 
sensoriels. Ailes posterieures un peu moins de 4 fois aussi 
longues que larges ; bord anterieur pourvu de 3 hamuli. 

Pattes anterieures, hanches a peu pres 2 fois aussi longues que 
larges. Femurs un peu plus de 2 fois aussi longs que les tibias ; 
ceux-ci presque 2 fois aussi longs que le 1^' article du tarse. 
Pattes intermediaires, femurs un peu plus courts que les tarses, 
dont le 1^' article est aussi long que les trois articles suivants 
reunis. Pattes posterieures, hanches plus courtes que les femurs 
et un peu plus longues que les tibias. Tarses 2 fois et demie 
aussi longs que les tibias, avec le premier article aussi long que les 
3 articles suivants reunis. 

Tariere a peu pres egale au tiers de la longueur du gaster. 

MALE 

Dimensions. 'i^n'^' 

Longueur de la tete 0.94 

Largeur de la tete 0.64 

Longueur du pronotum 0.80 

Largeur du pronotum 0.68 

Longueur du mesonotum 0.57 

Largeur du mesonotum 0.78 

Longueur du metanotum 0.28 

Largeur du metanotum 0.64 

Longueur du propodeum 0.71 

Largeur du propodeum 0.64 

228111 6 



314 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Forme anophthalme, solenogastre et phanerogastre. 

Coloration fondamentale, ambre ferrugineux uniforme; re- 
gion mediane du mesonotum, concavites environnantes les stig- 
mates et parties epaisses du tegument chatain-bistre. 

Tete a peu pres aussi longue qu'une fois et demie sa largeur. 
Saille trilobee anterieure du front avec la dent mediane assez 
aceentuee. Yeux absents. Poches epicraniales des antennes 
amplement ouvertes au-dessus. Antennes a 6 articles (radicula 
exclusa). Scape un peu moins de 2 fois aussi long qu'epais. 
2""^ article a peu pres aussi long que la moitie du 1^' et aminci 
a la base. 3""^ article annuliforme. 4"'*' un peu plus large que 
long. 5°^® franchement plus long que large. 6"^^ article un peu 
plus long que le 5""^ et arrondi a Tapex. Pour les poils et les 
organes sensoriels voir fig. 25. 

Thorax, pronotum un peu plus long que large en arriere. 
Presternum grand, bien distinct entre les propleurae et creux 
a la face ventrale. Mesonotum plus large que long, aplati au- 
dessus. Metanotum plus de 2 fois aussi large que long, bien 
individualise. Propodeum un peu plus long que large, brusque- 
ment retreci en arriere. Les deux tiers de sa surface, a 
droite et a gauche, sont occupes par les concavites, densement 
setosulees, environnantes les stigmates. 

Pattes anterieures, tibias un peu plus courts qu'une demie 
fois les femurs et un peu plus longs que les tarses. Pattes 
intermediaires, hanches presque 2 fois aussi longues que leur 
plus grande largeur et un peu plus courtes que les femurs. 
Ceux-ci a peu pres 3 fois aussi longs que larges et franchement 
plus courts que les tibias. Tibias a peu pres aussi longs que les 
tarses. Pattes posterieures, hanches plus courts que les femurs ; 
ceux-ci a peu pres aussi longs que les tibias. Tarses un peu plus 
longs que les tibias. 

Abdomen, 3°^^ tergite tout a fait caracteristique ; fortement 
creux au milieu, mais avec les bords de la concavite faisants 
saille au-dessus d'elle en forme de lames minces qui se recontrent 
le long de la ligne mediane, en constituant une sorte de toit a 
la concavite. 

Provenance. — Cette espece est etablie sur 556 specimens (455 
males et 101 femelles), cotypes et paratypes omotopes, recueillis 
a Los Bafios (lies Philippines), dans les figues de Ficus pseu- 
dopalma Blanco. 

Remarque. — Espece bien caracterisee par Tensemble de ses 
traits et dediee a M. C. F. Baker. 



33,3 Grandi: Hymenopteres SycophUes 315 

CERATOSOLEN IMBECILLUS sp. nov. Fi^. 33 a 49. 

PEIMELLB 
Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.45 

Largeur de la tete 0.47 

Longueur du thorax 0.70 

Longueur du gaster 0.64 

Longueur de la tariere 0.04 

Longueur des ailes anterieures 1.29 

Largeur des ailes anterieures 0.63 

Longueur des ailes posterieures 0.78 

Largeur des ailes posterieures 0.21 

Coloration fondamentale, chatain-bistre. Regions ventrals 
plus pales. Antennes et pattes, ambre-terre d'ombre. Yeux, 
cramoisi-fonce. 

Tete a peu pres aussi longue que large entre les bords externes 
des yeux; joues un peu plus longues que la moitie du plus grand 
diametre des orbites. Bord anterieur de Tepistome trilobe, avec 
les lobes laterals bien saillants et arrondis. Antennes a 10 
articles. Scape un peu plus d'une fois et demie aussi long que 
large. 3""® article avec la partie proximale aussi longue que 
large ; Tecaille, ne depassant pas Tapex du 4™% est pourvue d'une 
soie spiniforme apicale. 4"'® article d'une grandeur inusitee, a 
peu pres aussi long qu'epais et orne de quelques soies assez 
longues et d'une serie transversale d'organes coeloconiques al- 
longes. 5"'^ article 1 fois et demie aussi long que le 4°^^ ou que 
sa plus grande largeur et pourvu de 2 series transversales d'or- 
ganes sensoriels. 6""^ et 7""® articles a peu pres d'egale longeur, 
un peu moins d'l fois et demie aussi longs que le 5""^ et pourvus 
de 3 series transversales d'organes coeloconiques. 8"''' et 9""® 
articles eux memes a peu pres d'egale longueur, mais un peu plus 
courts que le 6™^ et que le 7""^ ; ils sont egalement ornes de 3 series 
transversales d'organes sensoriels. 10°"® article aminci a Textre- 
mite distale, un peu plus long que le 4"^® et pourvu de plusieurs 
organes coeloconiques trichoides et de soies ; voir fig. 34. Man- 
dibules plus longues que larges et faiblement bidentees a Tapex. 
Appendice proximal un peu plus court que le corps mandibu- 
laire, arrondi en arriere et pourvu de 5 carenes transversales. 
Maxilles amincies en avant; chacune avec 2 soies le long de son 
bord ventral (externe) . 

Thorax, pronotum avec de soies assez longues en grand nom- 
bre. Scutum du mesonotum orne de quelques polls (12 a peu 
pres). Scapulae avec un peu plus d'une douzaine de petites 



316 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

soies. Scutellum pourvu de 24-30 poils externes, posterieurs et 
submedians. Axillae avec 6 petites soies, a peu pres, le long 
de leur bord interne. Metanotum orne de quelques poils places, 
a droite et a gauche, en 2 aires sublaterales. Propodeum pourvu 
de 30-40 soies sublaterales et laterales. Mesosternum avec quel- 
ques soies medianes-posterieures. Mesopleurae presque nues. 

Ailes anterieures, un peu plus de 2 fois aussi longues que 
larges et assez densement setosulees. Nervures marginale, post- 
marginale et stigmatique a peu pres d'egale longueur. N. stig- 
matique elargie a Textremite distale et pourvue de 3 organes 
sensoriels arrondis. Cellule costale un peu plus de 7 fois aussi 
longue que large. Ailes posterieures a peu pres 4 fois aussi 
longues que larges et avec 3 hamuli en forme de crochets. 

Pattes anterieures, hanches un peu plus cortes que les femurs ; 
ceux-ci 2 fois et i aussi longs que les tibias. Tarses 2 fois aussi 
longs que les tibias. 1^' article du tarse un peu plus court que 
les tibias. Pattes intermediaires, hanches a peu pres aussi 
longues que les trochanters et aussi longues que les tarses. 1®^ 
article de ce-ci un peu plus long que du 5"'^ Pattes posterieures, 
hanches aussi longues que les femurs, et un peu plus longues 
que les tibias; ceux-ci aussi longs que les metatarses. Tarses 2 
fois et demie aussi longs que les tibias. 

Gaster normal. Cercoides du 9'"^ uromere avec 3-4 soies. 
Tariere a peine saillante en dehors du gaster. 

MALE 

Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.54 

Largeur de la tete 0.41 

Longueur du pronotum 0.50 

Largeur du pronotum 0.40 

Longueur du mesonotum 0.30 

Largeur du mesonotum 0.47 

Longueur du metanotum 0.20 

Largeur du metanotum 0.38 

Longueur du propodeum 0,22 

Largeur du propodeum 0.37 

Forme phanerogastre. 

Coloration fondamentale, creme-ocrace. Parties epaisses du 
tegument couleur de rouille. Regions membraneuses plus pales. 

Tete un peu moins d'l fois et i aussi longue que large. Saille 
trilobee anterieure du front avec la dent mediane assez large et 
obtuse. Poches epicraniales faiblement ouvertes au-dessus, a 
moyen d'une fente graduellement retrecie en arriere. Yeux 
mediocres et anterieurs. Antennes a 5 articles (radicula ex- 



33,3 Grandi: Hymenopteres Sycophiles 317 

clusa) , dont le 3™^ et le 4"^^ presque ensemble soudes. Scape un 
peu plus court que le 5""® article. 2"'^ article franchement plus 
court que le 1^' et 1 fois et i aussi long qu'epais. 3""^ article 
plus large que long. 4"^^ plus long que large. 5""^ plus long que 
les autres. Organes sensoriels comme dans la fig. 44. Mandi- 
bules a peu pres aussi longues que larges, franchement bidentees 
et avec la dent subapicale pourvue d'une saille odontoide assez 
large au bord oral. 

Thorax, pronotum un peu plus long que large et graduellement 
aminci et arrondi en avant. Mesonotum 1 fois et demie aussi 
large que long, avec les bords laterals saillants et arrondis. 
Metanotum bien individualise et 2 fois aussi large que long. 
Propodeum 1 fois et demie aussi large que long, avec le bord 
posterieur presque droit. 

Pattes anterieures, femurs presque 3 fois aussi longs qu^epais. 
Tibias un peu plus longs qu' 1 tiers de la longueur des femurs 
et un peu plus longs que les tarses. 2"^^ article du tarse plus 
long que le 1^^ Pattes intermediaires, hanches un peu plus 
courtes que les femurs et les trochanters ensemble reunis. 
Femurs 1 fois et demie aussi longs qu'epais. Tibias a peu pres 
aussi longs que les hanches; quelque peu soudainement elargies 
a Textremite distale et pourvues de formations odontoides tres 
voy antes (fig. 48). Tarses aussi longs que les tibias, avec le 
1^^ article a peu pres aussi long que le 5"'^ Pattes posterieures, 
hanches un peu plus courtes que les femurs. Tibias franche- 
ment plus courts que les femurs, a peu pres aussi longs que 
les tarses et 3 fois aussi longs qu'epais. Metatarse aussi long 
que le 5"^^ article. 2"^% 3"^% et 4"^^ articles transversaux. 

Provenance, — Cette espece, tres bien caracterisee, est etablie 
sur 2,056 specimens (1,510 males et 546 femelles), cotypes et 
paratypes omotopes, recueillis a Singapore (Malacca), dans les 
figues du Ficus chartacea Wall. 

CERATOSOLEN PYGMAEUS sp. nov. Fig. 50 a 66. 

FEMELLE 

Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.31 

Largeur de la tete 0.28 

Longueur du thorax 0.44 

Longueur du gaster 0.41 

Longueur de la tariere 0.08 

Longueur des ailes anterieures 1.00 

Largeur des ailes anterieures 0.43 

Longueur des ailes posterieures 0.60 

Largeur des ailes posterieures 0.08 



318 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Coloration fondamentale, ferrugineux; terre d'ombre dans les 
regions a tegument epais. Face ventrale de la tete, du corps et 
pattes, jaune-blanchatre. Antennes, ambre. 

Tete un peu plus large entre les bords externes des yeux que 
longue. Bord anterieur de Tepistome avec 2 grands lobes sub- 
medians arrondis; lobe median assez saillant. Joues un peu 
plus courtes du plus grand diametre des orbites. Bord pos- 
terieur de la tete peu developpe et coupe presque droit en arriere. 
Antennes a 11 articles, dont les 3 derniers reunis ensemble en 
massue. Scape a peu pres 2 fois aussi long qu'epais. Ecaille 
du 3""® article assez depassant Tapex du 4"^^ Celui-ci un peu 
moins d'l fois et i aussi long qu'epais; 5""^ article un peu plus 
long que le 4""% et aussi long que le 7"^^ et le 8™^ Ceux-ci 
sont neanmoins plus epais a Tapex des precedents. Massue (9""% 
10^% et 11"°® articles) plus de 2 fois aussi longue que large et 
sensiblement amincie a Textremite distale, a cause de la tenuite 
du dernier article. Mandibules franchement plus longues que 
larges, avec la face ventrale pourvue d'une dizaine de carenes. 
Dent apicale tres grande, aigue, courbee en croissant et entaillee 
a Tapex dans la mandible gauche. Dent subapicale aigue, mais 
peu saillante. Appendice proximal a peine plus court du corps 
mandibulaire, arrondi et pourvu de 9 carenes transversales. 
Maxilles et labium comme dans la fig. 55. 

Thorax, pronotum orne de quelques polls assez longs. Scutum 
du mesonotum subglabre. Scapulae avec 3-4 poils. Scutellum 
ornes de 8 poils, a peu pres. Metanotum pourvu d'une dizaine 
de petits poils. Propodeum avec un certain nombre de petites 
soies laterales. 

Ailes anterieures un peu plus de 2 fois aussi longues que 
larges, franchement retrecies a la base et densement revetues 
de poils. Cellule costale tres longues et ornee de quelques poils. 
Nervure marginale un peu plus courte que la n. stigmatique; 
cette-ci elargie a Textremite distale et pourvue d'une saille a bee 
d'oiseau et de 4 petits organes sensoriels ronds et alignes. N. 
postmarginale subatrophiee. Soies du bord de Taile remarqua- 
blement longues. Ailes posterieures 8 fois aussi longues que 
larges. 

Pattes anterieures, femurs plus longs que les hanches, 2 fois 
et i aussi longs qu'epais, et 2 fois aussi longs que les tibias. 
Tarses un peu plus courts que les femurs et presque 2 fois aussi 
longs que les tibias. 1^^ article a peu pres aussi long que le 5"'^ 
Pattes intermediaires, tibias franchement plus longs que les 



33,8 Graridi: Hymenopteres Sycophiles 319 

femurs. Tarses a peu pres aussi longs que les tibias. Pattes 
posterieures, hanches a peu pres aussi longues que les femurs; 
ceux-ci plus longs que les tibias. Tarses 2 fois aussi longs que 
les tibias, avec le l^"" article a peu pres aussi long que les 3 sui- 
vants reunis. 

Tariere a peu pres egale au tiers de la longueur du gaster. 

MALE 
Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.33 

Largeur de la tete 0.27 

Longueur du pronotum 0.28 

Largeur du pronotum 0.22 

Longueur du mesonotum 0.12 

Largeur du mesonotum 0.27 

Longueur du metanotum 0.11 

Largeur du metanotum 0.27 

Longueur du propodeum 0.10 

Largeur du propodeum 0.20 

Forme phanerogastre. 

Coloration fondamentale, creme. Mandibules, ferrugineux. 
Gaster jaune paille blanchatre. 

Tete un peu plus large que longue. Saille trilobee anterieure 
du front avec la dent mediane peu saillante. Poches epicra- 
niales des antennes en partie ouvertes au-dessus. Antennes a 
4 articles (radicula exclusa). 2""^ article un peu plus court 
que le scape et a peu pres 1 fois et demie aussi long qu'epais. 
4°"^ a peu pres aussi long qu'epais. 

Thorax, pronotum plus long que large, avec le bord anterieur 
arrondi et les bords laterals divergents en arriere. Angles 
posterieurs faiblement saillants. Mesonotum transversal. Me- 
tanotum presque aussi large que le mesonotum, pareillement 
transversal et pas bien individualise du propodeum. Celui-ci 
plus large que long, franchement moins large que le metano- 
tum, avec les angles posterieurs arrondis et le bord posterieur 
presque coupe droit. 

Pattes anterieures, femurs 1 fois et demie aussi longs que les 
hanches et a peu pres 2 fois aussi longs que les tibias. Pattes 
intermediaires, hanches un peu plus courtes que les femurs et 
3 fois aussi longues que les trochanters. Tibias un peu plus 
longs que les femurs et remarquablement plus longs que les 
tarses. Ceux-ci trimeres, avec les griffes bien developpees. La 
patte est pourvue d'un petit nombre de polls ; pour leur distribu- 
tion voir la fig. 64. Pattes posterieures, hanches a peu pr^s 



320 3^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

aussi longues que les femurs; ceux-ci aussi longs que les tibias^ 
qui sont ornes de formations odontoides, comme dans la fig. 65. 
Tarses trimeres, un peu plus courts que les tibias. Metatarses 
a peu pres aussi longs que le 3"^® article, et plus longs que le 
2"'^ Griffes bien developpees. 

Provenance. — Cette espece est etablie sur 25 specimens (9 
males et 16 femelles), cotypes et paratypes omotopes, recueillis 
au Mt. Maquiling en Luzon (lies Philippines), dans les Agues 
du Ficiis minahxissae Miquel. 

Remarque, — Forme bien caracterisee par sa petitesse et par 
Toligomerie de tarses medians et posterieurs. 

CERATOSOLEN JUCUNDUS sp. nov. Figr. 67 a 83. 

FEMELLB 

Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.53 

Largeur de la tete 0.44 

Longueur du thorax 0.68 

Longueur du gaster 0.71 

Longueur de la tariere 0.08 

Longueur des ailes anterieures 1.56 

Largeur des ailes anterieures 0.76 

Longueur des ailes posterieures 0.96 

Largeur des ailes posterieures 0.17 

Coloration fondamentale du corps, ocrace delave. Tete (et 
d'une maniere particuliere sa surface dorsale posterieure) , man- 
dibules, quelques regions du mesonotum et du metanotum, et 5 
bandes transversales aux urotergites 3-7, terre d'ombre ferru- 
gineux. Antennes, ambre; pattes, ambre-clair; yeux, cramoisi 
fonce. 

Tete plus longue que large, avec les angles posterieurs assez 
saillants. Joues un peu moins longues que le plus grand dia- 
metre des orbites. Bord anterieur de Tepistome avec les 2 lobes 
submedians tres saillants et arrondis; lobe median a peine sail- 
lant. Soies comme les montre la fig. 67. Antennes a 11 articles, 
dont les 2 derniers reunis en massue. Scape un peu moins 
long que 2 fois sa largeur. Ecaille du 3"^^ article pas depassant 
Tapex du 4°'^ 3"^^ article orne de 2 soies spiniformes subpro- 
ximales et de quelques autres soies. 4°^® article un peu plus long 
qu'epais. 5"^^ article franchement plus grand que le 4""% et 
remarquablement plus long qu'epais. 6°^® article plus long que 
le 5™® et a peu pres 1 fois et demie aussi long qu'epais. 7°^% 



33.3 Grandi: Hymenopteres SycophUes 321 

8'^% et 9""^ articles a peu pres d'egale longueur et presque aussi 
longs que le 6"^^ 10"^^ article aussi long que le 9™^ 11°^® aussi 
long que le 10°'^ 5me_iime articles ornes de plusieurs soies et 
d'une serie transversale d'organs sensoriels allonges. Mandi- 
bules plus longues que larges, avec la surface ventrale munie 
de 9-10 carenes. Dent apicale courte et aigue, dent subapicale 
courte et arrondie. Appendice proximal un peu plus court du 
corps de la mandibule et pourvu de 6-7 carenes transversales, 
dont la premiere avec une saille odontoide. Maxilles pourvues 
d'une longue saille bacillaire munie d'une sole, et d'une soie 
subdistale. Labium avec une soie subdistale et ventrale. 

Thorax, pronotum orne d'un certain nombre de soies assez 
longues. Scutum du mesonotum nu. Scapulae avec 4-6 soies 
laterales et posterieures. Scutellum avec une demie douzaine 
de soies assez longues et a peu pre 20 polls subposterieurs. 
Axillae avec quelques petites soies. Metanotum pourvu de 2 
groupes sublaterals de quelques polls (3 dans les specimens 
examines) . Propodeum avec un petit nombre de soies laterales 
et sublaterales. 

Ailes anterieures a peu pres 2 fois aussi longues que larges. 
Cellule costale 10 fois aussi longue que large et ornee de plu- 
sieurs polls. Nervure marginale presque aussi longue que la n. 
stigmatique et plus courte que la n. post-marginale. N. stigma- 
tique elargie a Textremite et pourvue d'une petite saille avec 
3 organs sensoriels. La chaetotaxie est indiquee dans la fig. 71. 
Ailes posterieures a peu pres 5 fois et demie aussi longues que 
larges. Bord anterieur avec 3 hamuli, dont 2 en forme de 
crochets. 

Pattes anterieures, femurs plus longs que les hanches et a 
peu pres 2 fois et demie aussi longs qu'epais. Tibias (dents 
comprises) presque aussi longs que la moitie des femurs et un 
peu plus longs que la moitie des tarses. Ceux-ci avec le l*"" 
article plus long que le 5™^ Pattes intermediaires, trochanters 
presque aussi longs que les hanches. Femurs un peu plus courts 
que les tibias; ceux-ci a peu pres aussi longs que les tarses. 
l^"" article du tarse aussi long que le 2"^^ et le 3"^® ensemble 
reunis. Pattes posterieures, tibias aussi longs que les f des 
femurs et un peu moins que la moitie des tarses. Metatarses 
un peu plus longs que les 3 articles suivants ensemble reunis. 

Tariere a peu pres egale au neuvieme de la longueur du gaster. 



322 ^/^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1921 



MALE 



Dimensions. 



mm. 



Longueur de la tete 0.45-0.47 

Largeur de la tete 0.35-0.40 

Longueur du pronotum 0.57-0.57 

Largeur du pronotum 0.41-0.45 

Longueur du mesonotum 0.33-0.34 

Largeur du mesonotum 0.44-0.45 

Longueur du metanotum 0.24-0.18 

Largeur du metanotum 0.43-0.48 

Longueur du propodeum 0.25-0.28 

Largeur du propodeum 0.31-0.31 

Forme anophthalme et phanerogastre. 

Coloration fondamentale, ocrace blanchatre. Regions epais- 
ses du tegument, terre d'ombre-bistre. Regions membraneuses, 
couleur de creme blanchatre. 

Tete franchement plus longue que large. II y a de specimens 
pourvus d'une tete proportionellement plus large et lourde (voir 
fig. 78). Saille anterieure du front munie de 2 petits coins 
laterals; entre eux le bord anterieur est largement creuse. 
Poches epicraniales des antennes amplement ouvertes au-dessus ; 
de ce-ci decoule que la saille susnommee est tres longue, un peu 
plus de 2 fois et demie aussi longue que large en avant. Anten- 
nes a 5 articles (radicula exclusa). 2"^^ article un peu plus 
long qu'epais et aussi long que la moitie du scape. 3""^ article 
plus court que le 2"^^ et plus court qu'epais. 4"^^ plus long que 
le 2""^ et plus court que le scape. 5^^ article a peu pres aussi 
long que le scape. 

Thorax, pronotum a peu pres 1 fois et demie aussi long que 
large et franchement aminci en avant. Mesonotum plus large 
que long, subtrapezoidal. Metanotum bien individualise, 2 fois 
et demie aussi large que long, avec les bords laterals arrondis et 
le bord posterieur creuse. Propodeum un peu plus large que 
long, avec les bords laterals faiblement convergents en arriere 
et le bord posterieur pareillement creuse. La chaetotaxie est 
indiquee dans la fig. 79. 

Pattes anterieurs, femurs un peu mois de 2 fois aussi longs 
que les hanches et un peu plus de 2 fois aussi longs que les 
tibias (dents comprises). Tarses dimeres, aussi longs que les 
tibias (dents exceptees). Pattes intermediaires, hanches un 
peu plus de 2 fois aussi longues que les trochanters et un peu 
plus longues que les femurs. Tibias un peu plus longs que les 
femurs et a peu pres aussi longs que les tarses. Ceux-ci quel- 
quefois pentameres, quelquefois tetrameres. Dans les derniers 



33,3 Grandi: Hymenopteres Sycophiles 323 

le 1"' article est aussi long que les 2 suivants ensemble reunis, 
et plus court que le 4"'^ Dans les premiers le 1'^'' article est 
aussi long que les 3 suivants ensemble reunis. Pattes poste- 
rieures, hanches a peu pres aussi longues que les femurs ou 
un peu plus courtes que ceux-ci. Tibias plus courts que les 
femurs et pourvus de quelques dents, dont la disposition est 
indiquee par la fig. 83. Tarses un peu plus longs que les tibias, 
pentameres. Metatarses aussi longs que les 3 articles suivants 
ensemble reunis. Femurs de toutes les 3 paires de pattes avec 
le bord dorsal muni d'un petit coin aigu. 

Provenance, — Cette espece est etablie sur 1,413 specimens 
(344 males et 1,069 femelles), cotypes et paratypes omotopes, 
recueillis au Mt. Maquiling en Luzon (lies Philippines), dans 
les figues du Ficus hauili Blanco. 

EUPRISTINA BAKERI sp. nov. Figr. 84 a 100. 

FEMELLE 
Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.43 

Largeur de la tete 0.44 

Longueur du thorax 0.73 

Longueur du gaster 0.80 

Longueur de la tariere 1.14 

Longueur des ailes anterieures 1.49 

Largeur des ailes anterieures 0.63 

Longueur des ailes posterieures 0.84 

Largueur des ailes posterieures 0.25 

Coloration fondamentale de la surface dorsale de la tete, du 
thorax et du gaster, chatain-bistre. Regions ventrales, les 3 
premiers articles des antennes et pattes, ambre-isabelle ; articles 
4-11 des antennes, terre d'ombre clair. Regions membraneuses 
de la tete et de Tabdomen, blanc sale. 

Tete a peu pres aussi longue que large entre les bords externes 
des yeux. Joues un peu plus courtes que le plus grand dia- 
metre des orbites. Bord anterieur de Tepistome avec 2 grands 
lobes submedians arrondis et avec le lobe median bien saillant 
et arrondi a Tapex. Bord posterieur de la tete peu saillant en 
arriere, presque droit dans le milieu et avec les angles arrondis. 
Antennes, scape 2 fois aussi long qu'epais. 4"^® article a peu 
pres aussi long qu'epais. 5^^ et 6™« articles un peu plus longs 
que le 4^« (5°^^ un peu plus court qu'epais, 6™^ un peu plus long 
qu'epais) . 7°^® article a peu pres aussi long que le 5°"® et le 6^* 
ensemble reunis, et franchement plus long qu'epais. 8"^® et 9°^* 



324 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

articles a peu pres aussi longs qu'epais et un peu plus courts 
que le 7""^ 10"^^ article plus court que le 9"^^ et un peu plus 
court qu'epais. 11"^^ presque aussi long que le 7"^% mais franche- 
ment moins large que celui-ci. 5"^^ et 6°^^ articles avec 1 serie 
transversale d'organs sensoriels coeloconiques allonges, un peu, 
ou point, saillants en dehors de Tapex. 7"^^ article avec 3, 8™^- 
10"^^ avec 1-2 series irregulieres et transversales de pareils 
organs, dont la serie distale franchement saillante en dehors, 
ll"'^ article avec 1-2 series des memes organs. Mandibules une 
fois et demie aussi longues que larges, avec la dent apicale 
courte et aigue. Surface ventrale avec 6 carenes transversales. 
Appendice proxima 1 fois et demie aussi long que le corps 
mandibulaire, pourvu de 9 carenes transversales et, le long du 
bord interne, de 5 sailles odontoides, dont la 5"^^ est soudee avec 
la carene correspondents Maxilles et labium comme dans la 
fig. 90. 

Thorax, pronotum orne de polls irregulierement inseres. 
Scutum du mesonotum pourvu, dans les specimens examines, de 
14-16 polls, reunis en 2 groupes sublaterals et subposterieurs. 
Scapulae avec 8-10 petites soies subexternes. Scutellum orne 
d'une 30°^ de polls. Axillae avec 10-12 petites soies. 

Ailes anterieures un peu moins de 2 fois et demie aussi 
longues que larges. Nervure humerale aussi longue que les | 
de la longueur de Taile. Soies comme dans la fig. 91. Ailes 
posterieures 3 fois et demie aussi longues que larges. Bord 
anterieur avec 3 hamuli, dont 1 droit, les autres en forme de 
crochets. 

Pattes anterieures, hanches 2 fois aussi longues que larges. 
Femurs un peu plus de 2 fois aussi longs qu'epais. Tibias un 
peu plus courts que la moitie des femurs. Tarses 1 fois et 
demie aussi longs que les tibias, avec le 1^^ article aussi long 
que les 3 suivants reunis. 5"^^ article un peu plus court que le 
1^'. Pattes intermediaires, femurs plus de 4 fois aussi longs 
qu'epais et 3 fois aussi longs que les trochanters. Tibias un peu 
plus longs que les femurs. Tarses un peu plus courts que les 
tibias, avec le 1"' article un peu plus long que les 2 suivants 
reunis. 5"^^ article un peu plus long que le 2^^ Pattes poste- 
rieures, tibias un peu plus longs que la moitie des femurs. 
Tarses 3 fois aussi longs que les tibias, avec le 1^^ article un peu 
plus long que les tibias et aussi long que les 3 articles suivants 
reunis. 



33,3 Grandi: Hymenopteres Sycophiles 325 

Tariere un peu moin d'une fois et un tiers aussi longue que le 
gaster. 

MALE 

Dimensions. mm. 

Longueur de la tete 0.37 

Largeur de la tete 0.42 

Longueur du pronotum 0.61 

Largeur du pronotum (anterieure) 0.58 

Largeur du pronotum (posterieure) 0.61 
Longueur du mesonotum + metanotum + propodeum 0.57 

Largeur du mesonotum 0.53 

Largeur du propodeum 0.31 

Coloration fondamentale de la tete, du thorax et de pattes, 
ambre-ferrugineux. Parties epaisses du tegument, bistre. 
Gaster, ambre clair, avec la surface dorsale plus epaisse des 
uromeres, ambre-ferrugineux. 

Tete un peu plus large que longue, avec les bords laterals 
tres saillants et arrondis en arriere des yeux. Antennes a 4 
articles. 2"'^ article a peu pres aussi long qu'epais. 3""^ an- 
nuliforme, 2 fois et demie aussi long qu'epais. Mandibules 
comme les montre la fig. 96. 

Thorax, pronotum plus large que long; sa partie anterieure 
pas trop amincie en avant et avec les angles largement arrondis. 
Prosternum et propleurae comme dans V Eupristina grassii 
Grnd. Mesonotum, metanotum et propodeum ensemble sondes. 
Mesonotum aussi large que la longueur totale des 3 segments 
nommes. Propodeum distinctement plus aminci en arriere que 
celui de E. grassii Grnd. 

Pattes anterieures, tibias aussi longs que la moitie des femurs. 
Tarses franchement plus courts que les tibias et avec le l®"" 
article pourvu de 2 dents courbees en croissant. Pattes inter- 
mediaires, femurs a peu pres aussi longs qu'epais. Tibias un 
peu plus courts que les femurs et que les tarses. Ceux-ci a 
peu pres aussi longs que les femurs. 1^^ article plus court que 
les 2 suivants reunis. Pattes posterieures, tibias presque aussi 
longs que la moitie des femurs. Tarses un peu plus longs que 
les tibias. 

Provenance. — Cette espece est etablie sur 312 specimens (62 
males et 250 femelles), cotypes et paratypes omotopes, recueillis 
a Los Bafios (lies Philippines), dans les figues du Ficus forstenii. 

Remarque. — Espece tres voisine de E. grassii Grnd. Elle 
s'en distingue neanmoins par plusieurs traits. 



326 The Philippine Journal of Science 

BLASTOPHAGA BROWNI Ashmead. 

Parmi les especes envoyees par M. Baker, il y a un Bldsto- 
phage rencontre dans les figues du Ficus heterophylla L., qui ne 
possede pas de caracteres sufRsants a ne pas le confondre avec 
Tespece que M. Baker meme a reciieillie, aux Philippines, dans 
les sycones du Ficus ulmifolia. Cette derniere forme avait-ete 
deja ramassee aux Philippines, dans le meme figuier, par F. X. 
Williams, et j'en possede quelques specimens envoyes par M. P. 
H. Timberlake de Honolulu et classes par M. A. B. Gahan Blas- 
tophaga browni Ashmead. 

Je ne sais pas done quelle conclusion tirer a cet egard. Est-ce 
que Ficics heterophylla et F. ulmifolia sont intimement allies 
entre eux? Les naturalistes qui sejournent dans le pays pour- 
ront, peut-etre, resoudre la question. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plan CHE 1 
Figs. 1 a 9. Blastophaga contubernalis sp. nov., femelle. 

1. Tete. 5. Maxille. 

2. Antenne. 6. Ailes. 

3. S'"" et 4'"" articles de 7. Patte anterieure. 

Tantenna. 8. Patte intermediaire. 

4. Mandibule. 9. Patte posterieure. 

10 a 14. Blastophaga contubernalis sp. nov., male. 

10. Tete. 13. Thorax. 

11. Antenne. 14. Region mesosternale avec 

12. Mandibule. une patte subatrophiee. 

Planchb 2 

16 a 17. Blastophaga contubernalis sp. nov., male. 

15. Patte anterieure. 17. Armure genitale; a, peri- 

16. Patte posterieure. phallum; m, membrane 

intersegmental ; p, 

penis. 
18 a 24. Ceratosolen bakeri sp. nov., femelle. 

18. Tete. 22. Ailes. 

19. Antenne. 23. Patte anterieure. 

20. Mandibule. 24. Patte intermediaire. 

21. Maxilles et labium. 

Fig. 25. Ceratosolen bakeri sp. nov., male. Antenne. 

Planche 3 

Fig. 26. Ceratosolen bakeri sp. nov., femelle. Patte posterieure. 
Figs. 27 a 32. Ceratosolen bakeri sp. nov., male. 

27. Tete. 30. Patte anterieure. 

28. Mandibule. 31. Patte intermediaire. 

29. Thorax. 32. Patte posterieure. 

33 a 42. Ceratosolen imbecillus sp. nov., femelle. 

33. Tete. 39. Moitie droite du propo- 

34. Antenne. deum. 

35. Mandibule. 40. Patte anterieure. 

36. Maxilles et labium. 41. Patte intermediaire. 

37. Ailes. 42. Patte posterieure. 

38. Portion, plus grossie, 

de Taile avec les n. 
marginale, p o s t- 
marginale et stig- 
matique. 

327 



328 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Planche 4 
Figs. 43 a 49. Ceratosolen imbecillus sp. nov., male. 

43. Tete. 47. Patte anterieure. 

44. Antenne. 48. Patte intermediaire. 

45. Mandibule. 49. Patte posterieure. 

46. Thorax. 

50 a 60. Ceratosolen pygmaeus sp. nov., femelle. 

50. Tete. 56. Ailes. 

51. Antenne. 57. Portions, plus grossie, de 

52. Articles 4'"^ a 9""^ (le Taile anterieure avec 

dernier coupe) de les n. marginale, post- 

Pantenne, plus marginale et stigma- 

grossis. tique. 

53. Mandibule droite. 58. Patte anterieure. 

54. Mandibule gauche. 59. Patte intermediaire. 

55. Maxilles. 60. Patte posterieure. 

61 a 65. Ceratosolen pygmaeus sp. nov., male. 

61. Tete. 64. Patte intermediaire. 

62. Antenne. 65. Patte posterieure. 

63. Patte anterieure. 

Planche 5 

Fig. 66. Ceratosolen pygmaeus sp. nov., male. Thorax. 
Figs. 67 a 75. Ceratosolen jucundus sp. nov., femelle. 

67. Tete. 72. Portion, plus grossie, de 

68. Antenne. I'aile anterieure avec la 

69. Mandibule. n. stigmatique. 

70. Maxilles et labium. 73. Patte anterieure. 

71. Ailes. 74. Patte intermediaire. 

75. Patte posterieure. 

Fig. 76. Ceratosolen jucundus sp. nov., male. Antenne. 

Planche 6 

Figs. 77 a 83. Ceratosolen jucundus sp. nov., male. 

77. Tete. 81. Patte intermediaire avec 

78. Tete d'un des speci- tarse tetramere. 

mens plus lourdes. 82. Patte intermediaire avec 

79. Thorax. tarse pentamere. 

80. Patte anterieure. 83. Patte posterieure. 

84 et 85. Eupristina bakeri sp. nov., femelle. 

84. Patte posterieure. 85. Patte intermediaire. 



33,3 



Grandi: Hymen opteres Sycophiles 



329 



Planche 7 
Figs. 86 a 93. Eupristina bakeri sp. nov., femelle. 



86. Tete. 

87. Portion, plus grossie, 

du bord anterieur 
de Tepistome. 

88. Antenne. 



89. Mandibule. 

90. Maxilles et labium. 

91. Ailes. 

92. Apex de la n. hum6rale. 
93; Patte anterieure. 



94 a 100. Eupristina bakeri sp. nov., male. 

94. Tete. 98. Patte anterieure. 

95. Antenne. 99. Patte interm^diaire. 

96. Mandibule. 100. Patte posterieure. 

97. Thorax. 

228111 7 



Grandi: Hym^nopteres Sycophiles.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 3 




Grandi: HYM^NOPTi:RES Sycophiles.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 3. 




PLANCHE 2. 



4 ,.xV, 



Grandi: HYMENOPTfeREs Sycophiles.] 

r 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 38, No. 3. 




PLANCHE 3. 



Grandi: Hymenopteres Sycophiles.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 3. 




PLANCHE 4. 



Grandi: Hymenopteres Sycophiles.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 8. 




PLANCHE 5. 



Grandi: Hymenopteres Sycophiles.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 3. 




Grandi: Hymenopteres Sycophiles.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 3. 




PLANCHE 7. 



The Philippine 
Journal of Science 

Vol. 33 AUGUST, 1927 No. 4 

A PLEOMORPHIC AND GAS-FORMING BIPOLAR BACIL- 
LUS ISOLATED FROM THE LYMPH GLANDS OF 
SLAUGHTERED CATTLE 

By Onofre Garcia 

Of the Division of Biology and Serum Laboratory , Bureau 
of Science^ Manila 

TWO PLATES 

INTRODUCTION 

The serum laboratory of the Bureau of Science has been re- 
ceiving from time to time specimens of lymph glands taken 
from domestic hogs and carabaos. As the specimens were re- 
ceived already fixed in preservatives no bacteriological examina- 
tion could be made to decide the etiology of the disease from 
which the animals had suffered. In general, the histopathologic 
picture was that of hsemorrhagic lymphadenitis. Fresh speci- 
mens were therefore requested, and an attempt was made to 
isolate the causative organism. A bipolar bacillus was isolated 
from the first specimen. In order to secure more material for 
study request was made for specimens of supposedly diseased 
lymph glands from recently slaughtered cattle. So far as could 
be ascertained all gave the same bacteriological findings. All 
of the specimens were submitted by the Meisic Station of the 
Philippine Health Service, Manila. The first sample was sub- 
mitted October 27, the second November 4, and the third Novem- 
ber 5, 1925. 

BACTERIOLOGIC STUDY 

Method of isolation. — The superficial portion of the lymph 
gland was carefully dissected and exposed and was then sterilized 
with a hot spatula and opened with a sterile scalpel. A small 

228858 33 j^ 



332 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

part of the internal portion was scraped and transferred to a 
sterile mortar and ground. An emulsion was prepared from the 
ground material in sterile salt solution and 2 cubic centimeters 
of the emulsion were injected subcutaneously into each of several 
rabbits. The usual result was that the animal died within 
eighteen hours after injection, and sometimes earlier. Cultures 
were obtained from the heart blood, liver, spleen, pleural and 
peritoneal exudate, and the site of inoculation. The chocolate 
blood agar was found very serviceable, as growth was remark- 
ably abundant after eighteen hours' incubation. Smears were 
prepared from the lymph glands directly, but only two of three 
samples exhibited a few typical bipolar bacilli in direct smears. 
However, the bacilli were recovered by culture from all animals 
inoculated with the lymph glands. The strains thus ob- 
tained were labeled as strain G-1, strain G~2, and strain 
Gr~3, respectively. 

Lymph glands of cattle, — When fresh the glands were en- 
larged and red, but a few were grayish. 

The histological sections measured from 5 by 7 to 6 by 9 mil- 
limeters. 

The microscopic lesions showed thickening of the capsule, and 
distention and rupture of the blood sinuses, especially noted at 
the cortical portion around the lymph nodes and in the medullar 
portion. There was also marked oedema (see Plate 2, figs. 8 
and 12). 

Morphology, — The isolated bacillus is readily stained with the 
ordinary aniline dyes. It is an aerobe and facultative anaerobe. 
It is gram-negative and bipolar with rounded ends. This is 
well seen in the smears prepared either from the internal organs 
or from the heart blood of the animals (Plate 1, fig. 1). It 
shows Brownian movement, similar to that of recently isolated 
Bacillics dysenteric. When stained, it measures from 1 to 1.64 
microns in length and from 0.54 to 0.65 micron in width. (Ocu- 
lar micrometer No. 3; drawtube = 0; objective j\; Carl Zeiss.) 
The bipolar characteristic is lost in many of the bacteria when 
grown in the culture medium. It grows at room temperature 
(28.5° C.) on chocolate blood agar. 

Broth culture, — The broth becomes uniformly cloudy after 
twenty-four hours, but a pellicle is formed as early as the third 
day. This pellicle starts to form from the walls of the test 
tube and is adherent, becoming ring-shaped, and later may ex- 
tend to the center of the broth medium's surface. It gradually 
falls to the bottom and a viscid sediment is thus produced. The 



33,4 Garcia: Bacillus from Lymph Glands 333 

smears prepared from this sediment may show chain formations 
of varying length, especially noted in some of the bouillon tubes 
directly inoculated with a few drops of heart blood of the 
infected animals (Plate 1, fig. 6). The middle portion of the 
bouillon remains partially clear for a few days. 

Ordinary acid agar. — On slant the growth is similar to that 
of streptococcus; the colonies are discrete, grayish, and raised. 
The three-day-old colonies, especially those that exhibit pleomor- 
phic forms, may have an undulated margin with raised center 
(low power). If subculture is carried repeatedly on acid agar, 
different morphologic forms may be observed, such as un- 
branched, long myceliumlike forms, elongated and rather large 
bacilli, occasional short chains, and thin filaments (see Plate 1, 
figs. 3, 4, and 5). These forms are particularly conspicuous in 
cultures growing on slanted agar to which about 1.5 cubic 
centimeters of saline solution had been added previous to 
sterilization. 

The shake culture in stab agar shows an abundant growth 3 
millimeters below the surface. 

Chocolate blood agar. — The growth on chocolate blood agar is 
abundant and the morphology of the bacilli more uniform than 
on any other medium. The bacilli are short tapering at the 
ends; some are diplococcuslike forms resembling pneumococcus, 
others bipolar, and very few solid rods. The colonies are gray- 
ish, moist, and raised, with a round margin. An isolated colony 
on chocolate medium may have a diameter of 1 to 2 millimeters 
in twenty-four hours. The average size of the bacillus is from 
0.82 to 1 micron, as shown in Plate 1, fig. 2. This photomicro- 
graph was taken from a subculture which was made from the 
acid-agar culture showing long filaments, as shown in Plate 1, 
fig. 3. 

Potato medium. — There is invisible growth on potato medium. 
Smear from it shows even forms of short bacilli and the bipolar 
characteristic is exhibited. The organism dies off in culture 
within a few days. 

Dunham's peptone solution. — The nitroso-indol can be detected 
in Dunham's peptone solution as early as eighteen hours, and it 
is very strongly pronounced on the third day. This reaction 
was controlled by known strains of Bacillus paratyphosus B and 
B. coli. 

Nitrate broth. — There is reduction with nitrate broth. 

Gelatine. — Six tubes were inoculated with gelatine, two of 
each strain. None of them was liquefied. 



334 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Eosin-methylene-blue lactose agar. — No growth was observed 
on seventy-two hours' incubation, using eosin-methylene-blue 
lactose agar. 

Litmus milk. — After a few days the litmus milk culture pro- 
duces slight acidity. The addition of acetic acid causes precipi- 
tation of the caesin. Care must be taken, as the viscid growth 
at the bottom of the broth culture can be mistaken for reduction 
of the indicator. Such mistake can be avoided by lifting the 
viscid growth slowly with a needle; then the reaction can be 
seen to be very slightly acid throughout the culture medium. 

Biochemical reactions. — The gas formation was determined by 
the use of the Smith fermentation tube, containing sugar-free 
bouillon with 1 per cent of the particular carbohydrate. The 
culture medium was adjusted to +0.3 per cent against phenol- 
phthalein. The gas collected in the closed arm was measured in 
centimeters and is so expressed by the figures in Table 1. The 
closed arm is 1.2 by 10 centimeters. It was noted that the gas 
was not produced regularly from the beginning in the sugars 
that were attacked, excepting sorbite, in which case the three 
tubes inoculated with the three respective strains exhibited gas 
within twenty-four hours. Still greater irregularity in gas pro- 
duction was noticed when solid media were used, especially in 
the case of monosaccharides. 

The outcome of the acid titration was strikingly in accord 
with the reactions in the sugars that were affected, as will be 
seen on comparing Tables 1 and 2, which are self-explanatory. 
The titration was made with 5 cubic centimeters of the culture 
fluid against 0.2 N sodium hydroxide. 

Table 2 shows that the two hexoses glucose and galactose and 
their respective alcohols sorbite and dulcitol are easily utilized 
by this organism as food. Maltose is also attacked from the 
beginning of the growth. The irregularity in reactions with 
some sugars may be due to chemical changes, depending on the 
media used and on the duration of sterilization. For this reason 
comparative experiments were carried out, and these are tabu- 
lated in Table 2. 

Acidity and gas production were recorded after forty-eight 
hours on account of the irregularity in the production of gas 
before that time; but it was noticed that glucose, galactose, 
maltose, sorbite, and dulcite were uniformly utilized forty-eight 
hours after inoculation in either of the two kinds of media used 
(see Table 2). 



33,4 



Garcia: Bacillus from Lymph Glands 



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1927 



The peptone-salt-water (Dunham's solution) containing 1 
per cent carbohydrate and 1 per cent Andrade indicator was 
adjusted against 0.1 N sodium hydroxide. The final adjustment 
was made in such a way that it was pink when heated, but it 
became colorless when cool. 

Heat resistance, — Twelve twenty-four-hour broth cultures, 
four for each strain, were exposed to different degrees of heat 
in the water bath. Every fifteen minutes one tube from each 
set was taken out and immediately cooled oflf with tap water. 
By means of a 4-millimeter loop, subcultures were made from 
all tubes and reading was made after forty-eight hours' incu- 
bation. The results are shown in Table 3. 

Table 3. — Showing resistance of the three strains to heat. 



Culture. 


Temperature. 


50OC. 


530 c. 


560 C. 


15 
min. 


30 
min. 


45 
min. 


60 
min. 


15 
min. 


30 
min. 


45 

min. 


60 
min. 


15 
min. 


30 
min. 


45 
min. 


60 
min. 


G-1 

G-2 

G-3 


+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



EXPERIMENTAL STUDY 

The three strains were found to be pathogenic for rabbits, 
guinea pigs, mice, and chickens. Young animals were more 
susceptible to inoculation than were old ones. All, with the ex- 
ception of the chickens, which will be described below, died in 
the acute stage of their illness. 

RABBITS 

Subcutaneous injection. — One cubic centimeter of eighteen- 
hour broth culture proved fatal to rabbits. In general, the ani- 
mals died or were found dead the morning following inoculation. 
At autopsy there was acute cedematous inflammation with little 
effusion of blood or ecchymoses of varying degree at the site of 
inoculation or in the axillary region. This was particularly pro- 
nounced when the strain was passed through experimental ani- 
mals several times. Nothing noteworthy was found in the in- 
ternal organs, with the exception of a small amount of pleural 
and peritoneal exudate which was at times tinged with blood. 

In one of the rabbits that received subcutaneous injection of 
cattle lymph-gland tissue, a swollen and red lymph gland was 



33,4 Garcia: Bacillus from Lymph Glands 339 

found in the axillary region near the haemorrhage. The findings 
in the histological section of the tissue were as follows: The 
lymph gland was surrounded with clot and showed an acute and 
extensive extravasation of blood elements in the medullary and 
in the cortical region below the capsule and around the germinal 
center which is practically free of blood elements. The blood 
sinuses were engorged and the blood elements were infiltrating 
the neighboring tissue. The cellular elements were found loose 
in structures of the tissue. 

Intravenous and intraperitoneal injection. — One cubic centi- 
meter of twenty-four-hour broth culture was used. Either in- 
travenous or intraperitoneal inoculation leads to the death of 
rabbits within five or eighteen hours. The rabbit that received 
intravenous injection became quiet, soon his ears flopped down, 
the muscles trembled, the respiration became accelerated and 
superficial, and the animal died in a sitting position. 

GUINEA PIGS 

Subcutaneous injection. — Five-tenths cubic centimeter of 
twenty-four-hour broth culture was used. The guinea pigs 
were found to be less susceptible than were the rabbits; but, 
as a general rule, if death occurred, it was at about the same 
period after inoculation as in the rabbits. Congestion of the 
suprarenal glands was not infrequently met with. One guinea 
pig, injected with strain Gr-2, died forty-eight hours after 
injection. 

On one occasion a culture was isolated from the liver of an 
inoculated rabbit which died after intraperitoneal injection with 
strain G-1. Two guinea pigs inoculated with the culture iso- 
lated from the rabbit's liver did not die. Upon examining the 
guinea pigs a large, cheesy tumefaction was found under the 
skin in both, at the site of inoculation. However, a rabbit that 
was injected subcutaneously with the same culture as that used 
on the two guinea pigs was found dead the following morning, 
with the usual lesions and an extensive haemorrhage at the 
site of inoculation. 

The guinea pigs showing tumefaction were killed ten days 
after inoculation. Pure culture of the organism in question was 
obtained from the pus withdrawn. A guinea pig and a rabbit 
were injected with this culture; both died the following morn- 
ing, and again the organism was recovered from the organs of 
these animals. 

Toxin. — Ten cubic centimeters of the filtrate of one-week-old 
broth culture inoculated with strain G-1 killed a guinea pig 



340 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

in forty-eight hours. The control animal injected with plain 
broth remained alive. 

MICE 

Subcutaneous injection, — One-fourth of 1 cubic centimeter 
of twenty-four-hour broth culture was inoculated. The mouse 
injected with strain G-1 was found dead the following morning. 
At autopsy there was no characteristic lesion except a little 
effusion of blood at the site of inoculation and signs of acute 
inflammation. The organism was isolated from the internal or- 
gans and from the peritoneal and pleural exudate. 

CHICKENS 

Subcutaneous injection, — One-sixth of a loopful of culture on 
chocolate blood agar was used for injection. 

Two chickens, about 3 months old, were injected with strains 
G-2 and G-3, respectively. The chicken that received strain 
G-3 was very sick the following morning, the neck drawn to the 
body, and remained quiet in a corner but took food and water 
occasionally. The animal passed fluid faeces at this time with 
thin mucus and white specks. On the fourth day the feathers 
around the neck were roughened, the eyes were partially closed, 
and the eyelids were glued with a thick fibrinous exudate. Af- 
ter six days the animal began to walk about and it finally re- 
covered a few days later. The other chicken, inoculated with 
strain G-2, showed similar symptoms but of lesser degree, and 
it recovered in three days. The animals were discarded and no 
further observation was made. 

Intramuscular injection, — One-fifth of a slant culture on choc- 
olate blood agar diluted in salt solution was employed. This 
method gave more uniform results. Three one-month-old chick- 
ens were injected in the pectoral region, each with one of the 
three strains. The chicken injected with strain G~l died in six 
days ; the one with strain G-2 died in eight days ; and the other, 
which received strain G-3, died in five days. 

In general, the animals became indifferent to food, the neck 
was drawn to the body, the feathers around it were roughened, 
the wings flopped down; later the animals lay down with legs 
outstretched and remained in this position until they suddenly 
died. The borders of the eyelids were partially covered with 
thick mucus. DiflSculty of respiration was a common symptom 
in these animals. At autopsy there was no marked change in 
the internal organs, except a slight congestion of the lungs. The 
liver was somewhat friable and pale. 



33,4 Garcia: Bacillus from Lymph Glands 341 

One culture obtained from the secretion of the eye in one of 
the chickens that had been injected with strain G-2 proved 
fatal to a guinea pig on subcutaneous injection. 

The macroscopical changes at the site of intramuscular in- 
jection varied in the three animals. In one of the chickens the 
muscle tissue where inoculum was made had a whitish color, 
as though the bird had been submerged in boiling water for a 
few seconds (boiled meat) . The other two exhibited lesions as 
follows: Below the thin superficial layer of muscle tissue, when 
opened, there appeared a thick parchmentlike substance, which 
was rather easily detachable from the neighboring tissue and 
was granular and yellowish. Around this there was a cavity 
formation, due to the shrinkage of the central tissue and the 
surrounding necrotic area. These showed different degrees of 
necrosis (see Plate 2, fig. 9) . The microscopical pictures showed 
the following: The one with the appearance of boiled meat 
showed fragmentation of the muscle fibers ; the fibrils were swoll- 
en and in some parts the striations were lacking; cellular infil- 
tration, composed of mononuclear cells, was found between the 
muscle fibers ; the sections from the granular parchmentlike tis- 
sue showed marked disintegration of the various elements of 
the muscular tissue. Starting from the surface the following 
changes Vv^ere observed: Homogeneous disintegration of the tis- 
sue followed by marked infiltration of mononuclear cells forming, 
above it, columns which were located between the muscle fibers 
that had undergone various stages of necrosis (see Plate 2, fig. 
11). 

Feeding inoculation, — One chicken was fed with one-tenth of 
a slant on chocolate blood agar of strain G-1. The animal was 
apparently normal up to the thirteenth day. On the fifteenth 
day it appeared to be very sick, showing symptoms as described 
above in inoculated chickens. It commenced to close the right 
eye. Upon examination, the cornea was found blurred and cov- 
ered with a thick mucoid secretion. The symptoms became ag- 
gravated, the animal refused to eat, and on the twentieth day it 
was found dead. At autopsy the chicken was found extremely 
emaciated ; the pectoral muscle was pale and atrophied ; the liver 
was dark with whitish spots (fatty necrosis ?) (see Plate 2, 
fig. 7) ; the heart was pale and mottled at the ventricles; the 
lungs were collapsed, and gray with a greenish tinge. 

Hypostatic congestion was not infrequent in animals that were 
found dead. The organism in question was recovered in pure 



342 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

culture from all of the experimental animals and tested for its 
pathogenicity. 

DISCUSSION 

Woolley and Jobling(8) reported hsemorrhagic septicaemia in 
Philippine cattle. Shortly before they had finished their investi- 
gation, they received the report of the Government bacteriologist 
at Hongkong on the disease which v^as prevalent there and was 
known as cattle plague. A summary of the report on the charac- 
teristics of the organism is given in the footnote of Woolley and 
Jobling's paper, which is here partly quoted, as follows : 

This germ grew readily on the "ordinary culture media." It was a 
bacillus that stained more deeply at the poles, and which did not stain 
by Gram's method and which was nonmotile. Its appearance on culture 
media was similar to that of B, colL All inoculated animlas [sic] died 
after twenty-four to forty-eight hours with symptoms of septicaemia. From 
his facts Hunter concluded that he is dealing with a form of hemorrhagic 
septicaemia. 

However, Woolley and Jobling reported different types of or- 
ganism isolated from their reported cases. 

Washburn (7) reported a number of outbreaks of a disease 
resembling hsemorrhagic septicaemia in all its manifestations 
and anatomical changes. His comment is as follows: 

In a number of outbreaks of a disease resembling hemorrhagic septi- 
caemia in all its manifestations and anatomical changes an organism which 
differs in cultural characteristics from the true B, bipolaris septicus has 
been recovered. This organism proves to be virulent for experimental 
animals (rabbits and guinea pigs), producing in them changes suggestive 
of hemorrhagic septicaemia. In preparations from affected tissue or body 
fluids the organism stains bipolar, and usually occurs singly or occa- 
sionally in pairs. It differs from the true B, bipolaris septicus in that 
it appears slightly larger, possesses sluggish motility, and produces gas 
in sugar media. In its cultural characteristics it corresponds in most 
instances to bacteria of the colon group, although some of the charac- 
teristics possessed by the paratyphoid B-group have been noted. 

Cahill(3) noted on numerous occasions the absence of Fasten- 
rella boviseptica and isolated Bad, paratyphoid from cattle and 
swine that were suffering from what clinically appeared to be 
typical hsemorrhagic septicemia. He claims that his findings 
are in accord with those of Washburn. McGowan and Chung 
Yik Wang (5) described a strain of B. hovisepticus obtained from 
the heart blood of a case with symptoms and post-mortem ap- 
pearances typical of hsemorrhagic septicaemia. In many re- 
spects it resembles members of the B, coli group. It is interest- 
ing to note their experiment on the mutation of B, avisepticus 



33,4 Garcia: Bacillus from Lymph Glands 343 

which became motile and gas producing after a series of intra- 
peritoneal passages in guinea pigs. The original was nonmotile 
and did not produce gas in carbohydrate media. With regard to 
this transformation, they believe that the bipolar and gas-forming 
bacilli were modified hsemorrhagic septicaemia organisms. Their 
belief was strengthened by the fact that these bacilli were ob- 
tained in pure culture. This problem requires thorough study, 
and the outcome of further investigations may throw light on 
the true nature of the gas-forming organisms hitherto described 
as belonging to the hsemorrhagic septicaemia group, or Pasteu- 
rella. The definition given by Buchanan (2) of Pasteurella seems 
to be adequate for the time being, as no other could cover both 
gas and nongas-forming organisms. He defines the organism 
as — 

Short rods, single or rarely in chains, usually showing distinct polar 
staining. Non-motile, Gram-negative. Without spores. Aerobic and fac- 
ultative, usually not producing gas, powers of fermenting slight, often 
pathogenic, not acid-fast, not liquifying gelatine. 

Claims of the wide distribution of bipolar ovoid organisms 
in nature have been upheld by various observers as, being sap- 
rophytic, they may become pathogenic after so many passages 
through susceptible animals. In fact, Forgenson(4) isolated 
thirty-seven strains of Pasteurella boviseptica from the nasal 
chambers of two hundred fifty normal cows. Only nongas-form- 
ing bacteria were identified ; those that gave gas were discarded. 
Attempts to reproduce the disease by feeding have failed in the 
hands of some experimenters and the result obtained by us in a 
single chicken which was fed with strain G-1 is far from being 
conclusive. The chicken presented symptoms similar to those of 
B. pollorum. However, the biological properties are entirely 
different. 

The chain formation seems to be common among members of 
the hsemorrhagic septicaemia group. Brimhall(l) has observed 
that B, bovisepticus was found in chains of three to twelve in- 
dividuals. These forms are also not uncommon in B, pestis, as 
shown by Rowland. (6) The streptococcuslike formation seems 
to be favored by the addition to the bouillon of a little serum or 
blood; it was observed by Rowland in the broth culture of B, 
pestis to which horse serum had been added in the proportion of 
10 per cent. I was able to find long-chain formations in broth 
culture that was directly inoculated with blood taken aseptically 
from experimental animals (Plate 1, fig. 6). They were Gram- 
negative. McGowan and Chung Yik Wang (5) described a long 



344 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

mycelial growth of B, ovisepticus on salt-agar medium the pho- 
tomicrograph of which is similar in many respects to that found 
by Rowland (6) in B. pestis as well as the one described in this 
paper (Plate 1, fig. 3). Investigators remarked that the pleo- 
morphism may link closely the members of heemorrhagic septi- 
caemia with B. pestis. 

From the standpoint of morphology, pathogenicity, and some 
cultural characteristics, the three strains isolated by me which 
are serologically alike (1 X 200) behave like those of the hsemor- 
rhagic septicaemia group. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

Three strains of a bacillus were isolated from lymph glands of 
slaughtered cattle. They are bipolar, aerobic and facultative. 
Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonliquefying gelatine, grow feebly in 
ordinary media, and grow well 3 millimeters below the surface of 
stab agar (shake method) . Generally they attack glucose, galac- 
tose, maltose, sorbite, and dulcite with the production of gas. 
They are pleomorphic and do not grow on eosin-methylene-blue 
agar, in which medium B, coli and the typhoid-dysentery group 
grow. 

All three of the strains were found to be pathogenic for 
rabbits, guinea pigs, mice, and chickens. Death occurs in from 
five to forty-eight hours following inoculation, although rabbits 
die in a much shorter period, as they are more susceptible than 
are guinea pigs. 

In chickens the organism in question produced symptoms sim- 
ilar to those known in chickens infected with B, polloriim. 

The only previous history of the cattle from which the lymph 
glands were taken was that one of the animals came from Min- 
doro Province. 

Whether or not this organism is the same as that described 
by the Government bacteriologist at Hongkong, as cited by 
Woolley and Jobling, is difficult to say. The finding of such an 
organism calls for a general survey in order that its connection 
with native and imported cattle may be studied. 

The isolation of gas-forming and bipolar organisms in typical 
cases of hsemorrhagic septicaemia is beyond doubt. However, 
no definite cultural characteristics were given. The morphology, 
some biological characteristics, and the pathogenicity of the 
organisms isolated by me lead to the conclusion that they belong 
to the hsemorrhagic septicaemia group, or Pasteurella. 



33,4 Garcia: Bacillus from Lymph Glands 345 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I wish to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. Otto Schobl, 
chief of the division, for reading the manuscript of this paper 
and making some corrections, for which I am indebted to him. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Brimhajx, S. D. Hemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle. Am. Vet. Rev. 

(May, 1903). 

2. Buchanan, R. E. Monograph on Systematic Bacteriology. Williams 

and Wilkins Co., Baltimore 1 (1925) 414. 

3. Cahill, Edw. a. Septicaemia hemorrhagica in cattle. Cornell Vete- 

rinarian 13 (1923) 148-155. 

4. FoRGENSON, J. E. Cornell Veterinarian 15 (1925) 295-302. 

5. McGowAN, J. P., and Chung Yik Wang. The occurrence of pleomor- 

phism and mutation among members of the haemorrhagic septicae- 
mia group of organisms, with plates. Journ. Path. & Bact. 20 (1915— 
1916) 21-40. 

6. Rowland, S. The morphology of the plague bacillus, with plates. 

Journ. Hyg. (Plague Supplement) 13 (1914) 418-421. 

7. Washburn, H. J. Hemorrhagic septicaemia. Bull. U. S. Bur. An. 

Ind. 674 (1918). 

8. WooLLEY, p. G., and J. W. Jobling. A report on hemorrhagic septi- 

caemia in animals in the Philippine Islands. Govt. Lab. Publ. (Philip.) 
9 (1903) 1-21. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 1 

Fig. 1. Smear from heart blood of experimental rabbit, stained with 
Wright's. Note the characteristic bipolar organisms. X 520. 

2. Smear from chocolate medium, stained with carbol-fuchsin 1 X 10. 

This is a subculture of that showing long filaments (fig. 3). 
Note the loss of bipolar characteristics on medium, x 520. 

3. Smear showing unbranched mycelia (carbol-fuchsin 1 X 10). From 

ordinary agar to which saline solution was added before steri- 
lization. X 520, 

4. Smear from ordinary agar without saline solution, showing changes 

of morphology. Carbol-fuchsin 1 X 10. X 520. 

5. Smear from ordinary agar with saline solution, showing variety of 

forms and segmentation of filament. Carbol-fuchsin 1 X 10. 
X 520. 

6. Smear showing streptococcuslike formations. This was prepared 

from the viscid growth in a broth culture directly inoculated with 
infected rabbit blood. Gram-negative. X 520. 

Plate 2 

Fig. 7. Chicken's liver, showing whitish spots (fatty necrosis?). The 
liver is from the chicken that was inoculated by mouth. Natural 
size. 

8. Section of lymph gland of a cow showing extension of hemorrhage 

below the capsule, and oedema. 

9. Half of chicken's breast showing the granular parchmentlike tissue 

and the cavity formation around it. Natural size. 

10. Other half of the chicken breast (see fig. 9), which is normal. 

11. Section of parchmentlike tissue (fig. 9), showing different degrees 

of necrosis of the muscle fibers and marked mononuclear infil- 
tration. X 220. 

12. Lymph gland of a cow showing extension of haemorrhage into the 

blood sinuses. X 220. 

228858 2 347 



Garcia : Bacilllus from Lymph Glands.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 




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PLATE 1. 



Garcia: Bacilllus from Lymph Gi,ands.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 




PLATE 2. 



SALTS OF ALPHA LINOLIC TETRABROMIDE (CADMIUM, 
COBALT, COPPER, MAGNESIUM, AND MANGANESE) 
FROM PHILIPPINE LUMBANG OIL 

By Ceferino M. Jovellanos 

Assistant in Chemistry, University of the Philippines 

and 

Augustus P. West 

Professor of Chemistry, Univei^sity of the Philippines 

Philippine lumbang oil is obtained from the seeds of Aleurites 
moluccana.^ It consists almost entirely of glycerides of the un- 
saturated acids, linolenic, linolic, and oleic.^ It is a drying oil 
and is used in making paints, varnishes, and similar products.^ 

A recent investigation * indicated that various linolic glycer- 
ides, corresponding to different linolic acids, can be obtained 
from lumbang oil. Linolenic glyceride and the linolic glycerides 
are the principal substances that absorb oxygen from the air and 
cause the oil to dry.^ Alpha linolic glyceride and the correspond- 
ing alpha acid are therefore substances of considerable impor- 
tance. When exposed to air these substances oxidize readily, 
but they may be separated from an oil in the form of a stable 
tetrabromide.^ Crystallized alpha linolic tetrabromide is an im- 
portant substance in the chemistry of drying oils, since it is a 
stable form of alpha linolic compounds. 

Br Br Br Br 

II II 

CH3 (CH2) .CH-CHCH^CH-CH (CH^) ^COOH 
alpha linolic tetrabromide 

'West, A. P., and W. H. Brown, Bull. P. I. Bur. Forestry 20 (1920) 
121. 

'West, A. P., and Z. Montes, Philip. Journ. Sci. 18 (1921) 619. 
'West, A. P., and F. L. Smith, Bull. P. I. Bur. Forestry 24 (1923). 

* Santiago, S., and A. P. West, Philip. Journ. Sci. 33 (1927) 265. 

* Lewkowitsch, J., Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats, and 
Waxes 2 (1922) 42. 

* Lewkowitsch, J., op. cit. 1 (1921) 202. 

349 



350 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

According to the literature very few derivatives ^ of the alpha 
tetrabromide have been prepared. In view of this fact, it seemed 
desirable to make a few salts of this substance and determine 
their solubility in different organic solvents. The data thus ob- 
tained may be useful in devising new methods for separating 
mixtures of the various linolic tetrabromides. 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 

Preparation of alpha linolic tetrabromide, — Philippine lum- 
bang oil was used as the material for preparing a supply of 
alpha linolic tetrabromide. The lumbang oil was pressed from 
seeds of good quality and filtered, first through glass wool and 
then through filter paper. 

The alpha linolic tetrabromide was prepared from lumbang oil 
in accordance with the procedure adopted by Santiago and 
West ^ in a recent investigation of lumbang compounds. The 
lumbang oil was saponified with aldehyde-free alcoholic potas- 
sium hydroxide.^ The mixed potassium soaps thus obtained 
were converted into the mixed acids. The mixed acids were 
brominated in ether solution according to the procedure used by 
Imperial and West '^ in preparing linolenic hexabromide. The 
ether solution of mixed acids was stirred mechanically by means 
of a hot-air motor and brominated at — 10° C. The insoluble 
linolenic hexabromide was removed by filtering. 

The ethereal filtrate from the hexabromide was treated with 
sodium thiosulphate solution to remove the bromine, dehydrated 
with sodium sulphate, and distilled to eliminate the ether. The 
residue was treated with cold petroleum ether which precipitated 
a mixture of linolic tetrabromides. The crude solid tetrabro- 
mides were separated from the oily (gamma) tetrabromide and 
oily oleic dibromide by filtering. The crude crystalline tetra- 
bromides were washed with petroleum ether, after which they 
were crystallized from ethyl alcohol. Two crops of impure alpha 
linolic tetrabromide (melting point, 110 to 113° C.) were ob- 
tained. The crude alpha tetrabromide was washed again with 
petroleum ether and crystallized once from gasoline and several 
times from ethyl alcohol. After this further purification the 
melting point was 112.3 to 114.3° C. 

' Lewkowitsch, J., op. cit. 1 (1921) 204; Oreta, A. T., and A. P. West, 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 33 (1927) 169. 
'Philip. Journ. Sci. 33 (1927) 265. 
*Dunlap, F. L., Journ. Am. Chem. Soc. 28 (1906) 397. 
"Philip. Journ. Sci. 31 (1926) 441. 



33,4. Jovellanos and West: Salts from Lumbang Oil 351 

Salts of alpha linolic tetrabromide were prepared by first con- 
verting the acid into the potassium salt. An alcoholic solution 
of the potassium salt was then treated with a solution of an 
inorganic salt such as cobalt chloride. The precipitated salt 
thus obtained was purified, and the melting point and the solu- 
bility in various solvents were determined. 

Potassium salt of alpha linolic acid tetrabromide. — Ten grams 
of alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved in 200 cubic centi- 
meters of boiling ethyl alcohol. To this clear alcoholic solution 
there was added from a burette an excess of the half-normal al- 
coholic potassium hydroxide solution prepared with aldehyde- 
free alcohol. The mixture was heated (reflux) on the water 
bath for about five hours. On cooling the potassium salt sep- 
arated out and was removed by filtering. The potassium salt 
was crystallized several times from ethyl alcohol until the filtrate 
was no longer yellow. The salt was then recrystallized once 
from methyl alcohol, filtered by suction, and transferred to a 
watch glass. The salt was then dried in a vacuum desiccator 
for several days. 

Cadmium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide, — Five grams of 
the potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved 
in 150 cubic centimeters of boiling methyl alcohol. The solu- 
tion was filtered immediately into a half-liter round flask and 
placed on a water bath under a reflux condenser. A methyl al- 
cohol solution of cadmium nitrate was prepared by dissolving 
2 grams of cadmium nitrate [Cd(N03)2.4H20] in 50 cubic cen- 
timeters of boiling methyl alcohol and filtering the solution im- 
mediately. This clear solution of cadmium nitrate, containing a 
slight excess of the calculated amount of cadmium nitrate, was 
then added gradually, through the top of the condenser, to the 
hot alcoholic solution of the potassium salt of the tetrabromide. 
A white bulky precipitate was formed immediately. The mix- 
ture was then heated (reflux) on the water bath for about an 
hour until the reaction was complete, as shown by the clear 
supernatant liquid. The supernatant alcoholic solution was then 
poured off from the precipitate. The precipitate was washed 
by decantation several times with hot methyl alcohol to extract 
the potassium nitrate, the excess cadmium nitrate, and all un- 
changed potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide. The pre- 
cipitate was then washed thoroughly with redistilled ether to 
eliminate the methyl alcohol, after which it was placed on filter 
paper and dried in a vacuum desiccator for several days. 



352 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

A melting-point determination showed that the salt melts at 
from 135.7 to 137.8° C. without decomposition. 

The salt was analyzed by treating a weighed quantity with con- 
centrated sulphuric acid which converted the cadmium into cad- 
mium sulphate. The residue was heated until it was white. 

Analysis : 

Cadmium. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C3cH62Br.04Cd 8.58 

Found 8.78 

Cobalt salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide, — Five grams of the 
potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved in 
150 cubic centimeters of hot ethyl alcohol. An alcoholic solution 
of cobalt chloride was prepared by dissolving 1.5 grams of 
cobalt chloride (C0CI2.6H2O) in 35 cubic centimeters of hot 
ethyl alcohol. This solution, containing a slight excess of the 
calculated amount of cobalt chloride, was then added to the alco- 
holic solution of the potassium salt previously prepared. A 
beautiful pink precipitate was formed immediately. The mix- 
ture was heated (reflux) for about one hour on a water bath. 
The supernatant liquid became clear, indicating that the reaction 
was complete. The supernatant liquid was poured off from 
the precipitate, which was washed several times by decantation 
with ethyl alcohol until entirely free of chlorides, as shown by 
the silver nitrate test of the washings. The precipitate was then 
poured on a filter, washed with ether, and dried in a vacuum 
desiccator. 

A melting-point determination showed that at 155.9° C. the 
cobalt salt became slightly lighter in color, and at 156.5° C. it 
melted, forming opaque droplets which did not change, even 
when heated to about 190° C. 

The formula of the salt was checked by converting a portion 
of it into metallic cobalt. A weighed amount of the cobalt 
salt was placed in a platinum crucible and ignited in the air. 
The cobalt was converted mostly into cobalto-cobaltic oxide,^^ 
black oxide of cobalt [CO3O4]. A portion of this oxide was 
transferred to a porcelain boat which was placed in a quartz 
combustion tube. The tube was gradually heated to redness 
and the oxide reduced to metallic cobalt with dry hydrogen gas 
previously purified.^- It required about a half hour to complete 
the reduction. Once the weight is known of black oxide ob- 

'' Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry 2 (1912) 221. 
"Ibid, 719. 



33,4 Jovellanos and West: Salts from Lumbang Oil 353 

tained and the portion used for the reduction, the percentage 
of cobalt is calculated readily. 
Analysis : 

Cobalt. 
Per cent. 
Calculated for C36H62Br804Co 4.70 

Found 5.06 

Copper salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide, — Five grams of the 
potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved in 
150 cubic centimeters of hot methyl alcohol. A methyl alcohol 
solution of cupric chloride was prepared by dissolving 2 grams 
of cupric chloride (CUCI2.2H2O) in 80 cubic centimeters of hot 
methyl alcohol. This copper chloride solution, containing a slight 
excess of the calculated amount of cupric chloride, was then added 
gradually to the hot alcoholic solution of the potassium salt of 
the tetrabromide. A bluish green precipitate was formed im- 
mediately. After the mixture was heated for about one hour 
on a water bath the liquid above the precipitate became clear 
and was decanted from the precipitate. The precipitate was 
washed several times with hot methyl alcohol until the washings 
gave no chloride test with silver nitrate. The precipitate was 
then washed with ether, after which it was placed on filter 
paper, and then dried in a vacuum desiccator for several days. 

A portion of the salt was crystallized from chloroform. A 
melting-point determination showed that at 142.4° C. the salt 
began to melt, and at 145.4° C. it was changed to an opaque 
greenish blue liquid. 

The salt was analyzed by determining the copper as copper 
oxide. The procedure was as follows: About a half -gram 
portion of the salt was decomposed by treating it with an 
alcoholic solution of hydrochloric acid prepared by dissolving 
1 cubic centimeter of concentrated hydrochloric acid in 20 cubic 
centimeters of hot ethyl alcohol. The cupric chloride and alpha 
linolic tetrabromide thus obtained as decomposition products are 
very soluble in hot ethyl alcohol. A slight excess of alcoholic 
potassium hydroxide solution was then added. Black copper 
hydroxide was precipitated and the blue color of the solution 
disappeared. To be sure that an excess of potassium hydroxide 
was present, about 4 cubic centimeters more of the alkali were 
added. The mixture was then heated on a water bath for 
about forty minutes to complete the precipitation. The copper 
hydroxide was then filtered through a Gooch crucible, ignited, 
and weighed as copper oxide. In carrying out this analysis a 
small portion of the precipitated copper hydroxide adhered 



354 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

tenaciously to the side of the vessel in which the hydroxide was 
precipitated and was not easily removed. This residue was 
dissolved in concentrated nitric acid, and the solution transferred 
to a crucible and evaporated to dryness. The copper nitrate thus 
obtained was ignited, and weighed as copper oxide. This weight 
of copper oxide was added to the weight of the copper oxide 
previously obtained. 
Analysis : 

Copper. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C36H62Br804Cu 5.04 

Found 4.88 

Magnesium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide. — Five grams 
of the potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved 
in hot ethyl alcohol. The clear solution was treated with a 
hot alcoholic solution of magnesium chloride containing a slight 
excess of the calculated amount of magnesium chloride 
(MgClg-GHgO). A white precipitate was formed immediately. 
After the mixture was heated for about one hour the supernatant 
liquid became clear and the precipitation was completed. The 
supernatant liquid was poured off, leaving the precipitate, which 
was then washed by decantation with hot ethyl alcohol until 
the washings were found to be free of chlorides. The precipitate 
was then washed with ether, placed on filter paper, and dried 
in a vacuum desiccator. The melting point was from 150.1 to 
151.7° C. 

The salt was analyzed by igniting and converting it into mag- 
nesium oxide. The residue was moistened with concentrated 
nitric acid and again ignited. This process was repeated several 
times in order that all the magnesium salt would be converted 
into magnesium oxide. 

Analysis : 

Magnesium. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C8cHfl2Br804Mg 1.99 

Found 2.10 

Manganese salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide, — Five grams 
of the potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide were dissolved 
in 150 cubic centimeters of methyl alcohol. To this solution was 
added a hot methyl alcohol solution of manganous chloride con- 
taining a slight excess of the calculated quantity of crystallized 
manganese chloride (MnCl2.4H20). A pinkish white flocculent 
precipitate was obtained immediately. The mixture was heated 
for about one hour to complete the precipitation. The clear 



33,4 



Jovellanos and West: Salts from Lumbang OH 355 



supernatant liquid was poured off, leaving the precipitate, which 
was washed by decantation with hot methyl alcohol until free 
of chlorides. The precipitate was then washed with ether, 
placed on filter paper, and dried in a vacuum desiccator. The 
melting point was 144.9 to 147.5° C. 

The salt was analyzed by igniting and converting the manga- 
nese into mangano-manganic oxide ^^ (MUgO^). A weighed por- 
tion of the salt was ignited in a platinum crucible and heated until 
the weight was constant. 

Analysis : 

Manganese. 
Per cent. 

Calculated for C3flH62Br804Mn 4.38 

Found 4.35 

Melting point, — A determination of the melting point of the 
salts that were prepared showed that the cadmium, cobalt, cop- 
per, magnesium, and manganese salts gave fairly constant melt- 
ing points for long-chain compounds. This seems to be rather 
unusual since, according to the literature,^^ several salts of long- 
chain aliphatic acids do not give a sharp melting point. 

Solubility, — Qualitative solubility experiments on the salts that 
were prepared were made at room temperature (about 30° C. 
and designated as cold), and also in hot solvents. For low- 
boiling solvents like acetone, the solubility in hot solution was 
determined at the boiling temperature of the solvent. With 
high-boiling solvents, such as benzyl alcohol, the temperature 
for solubility determination was about 90° C. In reporting the 
qualitative solubility data, the term "soluble" is used for solvents 
that dissolved the salt to the extent of about 1 to 4 per cent. 
For solubility below 1 per cent the terms ''insoluble" or "slightly 
soluble" are used. The term "very soluble" is used when about 
5 per cent or more of the salt is dissolved. 

As shown by the solubility data given in Table 1, the salts 
of alpha linolic tetrabromide that were prepared in this research 
are not very soluble in the ordinary organic solvents. Ex- 
periments showed that 100 cubic centimeters of benzene dissolved 
5.6 grams of the copper salt. One hundred cubic centimeters 
of chloroform dissolved 6.7 grams of cadmium salt and 11.6 

'* Watt's Dictionary of Chemistry 3 (1912) 181. 

" Lewkowitsch, J., Chemical Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats, and 
Waxes 1 (1921) 156, 157, 160, 163, 172, 175, 191, 192, 200, 204, 207; 
Beilstein's Handbuch der Organischen Chemie, Vierte Auflage, 2 (1920) 
361, 369, 372, 374, 395, 396, 466, 473. 



356 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



grams of the copper salt. One hundred cubic centimeters of 
ethyl benzoate dissolved 5.3 grams of the cadmium salt and 
4.1 grams of manganese salt. 

Table 1. — Solubility of salts of alpha linolic tetrabromide. 

[I, insoluble; ss, slightly soluble; S, soluble; VS, very soluble.] 



Solvent. 



Acetone 

Amyl alcohol 

Benzene 

Benzyl alcohol 

Carbon tetrachloride. 

Chicroform 

Ether 

Ethyl alcohol 

Ethyl acetate _ 

Ethyl benzoate 

Ethyl bromide 

Isopropyl alcohol 

Methyl alcohol 

Propyl alcohol _ _ 

Petroleum ether 

Toluene 

Xylene 



Cadmium 

salt. 



Cold. Hot, 



Cobalt 
salt. 



Cold. Hot. 



Copper 
salt. 



Cold. Hot. 



I 
I 

S 
S 
ss 
VS 
I 



Magnesium 
salt. 



Cold. Hot. 



Manganese 
salt. 



Cold. Hot, 

I 
I 
I 



These solubility experiments indicate that chloroform is the 
best solvent for the copper and cadmium salts. Ethyl benzoate 
is the best solvent for the manganese salt, and it is also a good 
solvent for the cadmium salt. The cobalt and magnesium salts 
were found to be only slightly soluble in a few solvents. 

SUMMARY 

Alpha linolic tetrabromide (melting point, 112.3 to 114.3° C.) 
was prepared from lumbang oil. 

The potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide was prepared 
by treating an alcoholic solution of the free acid with an alcoholic 
solution of potassium hydroxide. 

From the potassium salt of alpha linolic tetrabromide the 
cadmium, cobalt, copper, magnesium, and manganese salts were 
prepared. 

The melting point of each of these compounds was determined, 
and the formulas were checked by analysis. 

The solubility of all of these salts was determined for various 
solvents. 



THE BITTER PRINCIPLE OF MAKABUHAY, TINOSPORA 
RUMPHII BOERLAGE ' 

By Joaquin Maranon 

Of the Department of Botany^ University of the Philippines^ and of the 
Bureau of Science, Manila 

Of the plants in the Philippines which contain bitter prin- 
ciples, Tinospora rumphii Boerlage is of considerable interest be- 
cause it is reputed by the Filipinos to possess diversified 
medicinal properties ; hence its Tagalog name makabuhay, mean- 
ing literally "that which brings back life/' The plant is a vine 
and is widely distributed in the Philippines. 

It was first studied chemically by Bacon (i) who reported that 
he had examined a large quantity of the stem and found that 
the bitter aqueous extract of the stem does not contain an al- 
kaloid. However, he detected some substances which, when 
boiled with acids, have reducing power in Fehling's solution. 
Since these substances occur in an amorphous and resinlike con- 
dition, and as they failed to produce any physiological effect on 
guinea pigs, it was not deemed advisable to devote further time 
to this plant. The absence of any physiologically active sub- 
stance in the plant was also shown, according to him, when no 
apparent effect was noted by injecting very concentrated aqueous 
extract prepared from the plant into guinea pigs, both subcu- 
taneously and intraperitoneally. 

More recently, Feliciano(3) reinvestigated the plant, and be 
concluded that it contains berberine, a glucoside, and a bitter 
principle. However, the methods of testing for the presence of 
these constituents were qualitative in nature, so that the findings 
cannot be considered as definite. Of direct concern to the 
problem is the work of Fluckiger(4) on Tinospora cordifolia 
Miers, a closely related species growing in British India and 
which is also reported to possess many different therapeutic 
properties. (2) In this plant Fliickiger found a small quantity 
of alkaloid (traces of berberine) and a bitter principle which, 

^ Previous investigations on this plant were reported under the name 
Tinospora reticulata Miers. 

357 



358 'I'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

when boiled with acids, also reduces Fehling's solution. How- 
ever, neither the bitter principle nor the products derived from 
it could be crystallized. 

As the data so far obtained on the chemical nature and mode 
of action of makabuhay are very meager, and considering that 
this plant is one of the plants indigenous in the Philippines es- 
teemed for their medicinal properties, the need for further study 
becomes imperative. In view of the fact that in all probability 
the medicinal virtue of the plant, if any, is traceable to its bitter 
principle which had never been isolated, attention was first di- 
rected to the chemical study of this particular plant constituent. 
A quantitative chemical analysis of the plant is also under way 
and will be reported separately. 

EXPERIMENTAL 

Methods of extraction. — The material employed for this in- 
vestigation consisted of the stems of wild plants growing in the 
vicinity of Manila. The bitter principle can be extracted from 
the fresh sliced stems, either with 95 per cent ethyl alcohol 
or with water, but water was used because alcohol removes a 
considerable amount of the green coloring matter. To hasten 
the extraction and to prevent the possible autolysis of the bitter 
principle, the material was boiled in distilled water with frequent 
stirring for about half an hour. While hot, the aqueous extract 
was decanted and, when necessary, the material was repeatedly 
treated with boiling water until all the bitter principle was 
extracted. The combined aqueous extracts were then filtered 
and, to effect the isolation of the bitter principle, the general 
scheme outlined for the extraction of bitter principles was ap- 
plied. In several methods tried, the bitter principle could not 
be obtained, in either the crystalline or the amorphous state, 
entirely free of impurities. It was then decided to dialyze the 
aqueous solution in the hope of separating the gums and the 
mucilaginous substances from the bitter principle and the sugars. 
The dialyzate thus obtained was concentrated and then precipi- 
tated by tannic acid. The precipitate was mixed with lead 
carbonate, dried, and exhausted with alcohol. After removal of 
the alcohol there remained a brownish, intensely bitter, sirupy 
residue. To remove the color, the alcoholic residue was dis- 
solved in water, heated to boiling with purified animal charcoal, 
and filtered while hot. The filtrate was still colored but was 
no longer bitter ; hence, the bitter principle must have been ab- 
sorbed by the charcoal. To recover the bitter principle, the 



33,4 Maranon: Makabuhay 359 

charcoal, after drying, was treated with warm 95 per cent al- 
cohol, and the alcoholic solution obtained was evaporated. The 
bitter principle, although still found to occur in a resinous mass, 
was in a fairly purified state, as it was free from sugars and 
coloring matter. In the attempt to crystallize the bitter prin- 
ciple, this mass was treated in aliquot portions with several 
organic solvents, such as ether, carbon disulphide, ethyl acetate, 
acetone, and chloroform, and the solvents were allowed to evap- 
orate spontaneously. It was observed that the bitter principle 
was only slightly soluble in these solvents, and did not appear in 
crystal form even after it was set aside for several days at room 
temperature or in the ice box. Finally, the effect of heating 
the bitter principle previously moistened with some of the sol- 
vents was tried; the portion that had been previously treated 
with chloroform was again moistened with a few cubic centi- 
meters of the same solvent and heated on the water bath. This 
treatment proved rather satisfactory, for the bitter principle 
was converted into the form of white flakes, which can be 
reduced to powder. 

While the experiments herein discussed indicate the possibility 
of isolating the bitter principle in question, the method as ap- 
plied is defective because the separation of the mucilaginous 
substances by dialysis and the further treatment of the dialyzate 
with tannic acid are objectionable because it is necessary to add 
a preservative to the aqueous solution to be dialyzed, so that 
fermentation will be prevented, and also because tannic acid 
does not completely precipitate the bitter principle and is it- 
self slightly soluble in alcohol. Consequently, from the various 
methods tried, a modified method was evolved which consists in 
evaporating the decoction of the fresh, sliced stems on a water 
bath and extracting the brownish mucilaginous residue with 
boiling 95 per cent alcohol until all the bitter principle is re- 
moved. The combined alcoholic solution was freed from alcohol 
by distillation under reduced pressure, and the extract left in 
the flask was treated with a large quantity of warm water and 
filtered through a suction flask ; the deep brown aqueous solution 
was treated with enough lead subacetate to effect the separation 
of the tannin. The precipitate was discarded and sodium car- 
bonate was then added to the filtrate to remove the excess of lead 
salt. After this treatment, the aqueous solution was boiled with 
purified charcoal, and the whole mixture was transferred into 
the suction flask while still hot and the charcoal washed several 
times with boiling water. The charcoal was dried and treated 



360 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

with absolute alcohol. After recovery of the alcohol by dis- 
tillation, the thick, oily, yellowish white residue was moistened 
with a few cubic centimeters of chloroform and evaporated on 
the boiling water bath ; the bitter principle was then obtained in 
white flakes capable of being converted into an amorphous 
powder. The white bitter principle was further heated in a 
vacuum oven at 60° C. The yield represents about 0.17 per 
cent of the fresh sample, corresponding to 0.95 per cent of the 
moisture-free sample. 

Properties. — The bitter principle occurs as a white, apparent- 
ly crystalline powder, the bitter taste of which develops rather 
slowly, but is intense and persistent, and is deliquescent. It is 
freely soluble in alcohol, but very slightly soluble in other organic 
solvents, such as ether and chloroform. It dissolves slowly in 
water, giving an opalescent solution. 

The alcoholic solution of the bitter principle is levorotatory 
and neutral to litmus. The melting point varies from 154 to 
155° C. A colorless solution is produced on testing with con- 
centrated nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, and acetic acid, but it 
becomes brown when tested with concentrated sulphuric acid. 

The bitter principle reduces Fehling's solution only after treat- 
ment with acid, does not respond to the general tests for al- 
kaloids, and is free from nitrogen and halogens. It is therefore 
a glucoside, possibly consisting of molecules of glucose with some 
aromatic groups. This statement is based on the fact that the 
products of the acid hydrolysis of the bitter principle have an 
aromatic odor and give glucosazone on the application of the 
osazone test. 

Results of the elementary analysis show that the bitter prin- 
ciple consists of 41.15 per cent carbon, 11.67 per cent hydrogen, 
and 47.18 per cent oxygen, as shown by the following data : 

I. 0.0563 gram sample gave 0.0588 gram water, and 0.0850 gram 
carbon dioxide. 

C = 41.17 per cent. 
H = 11.68 per cent. 

II. 0.0565 gram sample gave 0.0589 gram water, and 0.0852 gram 
carbon dioxide. 

C = 41.13 per cent. 
H = 11.67 per cent. 

SUMMARY 

1. A proposed method for the isolation of the bitter principle 
of Tinospora rumphii Boerlage is described. This method can 
perhaps be applied to other plants yielding a bitter principle. 



33,4 Maranon: Makabuhay 361 

2. The bitter principle is glucosidal in nature. Its important 
physical and chemical properties have been determined. 

3. The bitter principle consists of 41.15 per cent carbon, 11.67 
per cent hydrogen, and 47.18 per cent oxygen. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

I am indebted to Dr. Leon Ma. Guerrero, botanist of the 
Bureau of Science, for helpful suggestions and advice, and to 
Dr. W. H. Brown, director of the Bureau, for the deep interest 
he has shown during the progress of the work. 

LITERATURE CITED 

1. Bacon, R. F. The physiologically active constituents of certain Phil- 

ippine medicinal plants. Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 1007-1036. 

2. Bentley, R., and H. Tremen. Medicinal Plants 2 (1880) 12. 

3. Feliciano, M. J. '^Macabuhay,'* Tinospora reticulata, Menispermaceae. 

Proc. First Philip. Phar. Convention (1921) 65-71. 

4. Fluckiger, F. a. Watts' Dictionary of the Economic Plants of India 

6*: 64. 



NOTES ON THE ANALYSIS OF PHENOL (CARBOLIC 

ACID) 

By Salvador del Mundo 
Of the Bureau of Science^ Manila 

An aqueous solution of carbolic acid, supposed to be exactly 
5 per cent in strength, was submitted to this laboratory for 
analysis. It appeared that this solution, which was prepared by 
weighing the requisite quantity of Mallinckrodt United States 
Pharmacopoea gilt-label crystals in a precision balance, gave 
abnormal results when used in a certain biological experiment. 
It was, therefore, desired to know whether the content of phenol 
in the solution was, in fact, 5 per cent. The sample was analyzed 
in accordance with the procedure given by Sutton.^ According 
to this author, this procedure is included in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia and is a modification of the standard method of 
Koppeschaar. The results obtained by following Sutton would 
not agree, as can be seen from the following determinations: 

Phenol. 
Per cent. 

I 3.38 

II 2.88 

III 2.67 

It was obvious, from the wide discrepancy in results, that 
some anomaly had to be accounted for. A review of the liter- 
ature was undertaken to ascertain the nature of the error in- 
volved. It was found that so much work had already been done 
on the subject of phenol tests that the field appeared to be 
particularly uninviting for further investigations. H. D. Gibbs,^ 
of the United States Public Health Service Hygienic Laboratory, 
gives a classification of existing phenol tests and a fairly ex- 
tensive bibliography of the subject. 

The prevailing methods for the quantitative estimation of 
simple phenols involved: 

I, Methods based on the formation of bromine derivatives. 
II, Methods based on the formation of iodine derivatives. 
Ill, Methods based on the direct titration with alkalies. 

^ Systematic Handbook of Volumetric Analysis, 11th ed. P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co. Philadelphia (1924) 405. 
'Chemical Reviews III 3: 291. 

8 — 3 363 



364 l'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

In this paper no attempt is made to cover all of the methods 
in the above classification. From the standpoint of time, the 
methods under group I are by far the older, and the first to be 
evolved. The methods under group II find very limited applica- 
tion, since they meet v^ith the serious objection that most phenols, 
when dissolved in alkalies, produce intensely colored solutions, 
and thus make it impossible to use chemical indicators. Re- 
cently, however. Bishop, Kertridge, and Hildebrand ^ demon- 
strated the feasibility of applying electrometric methods in 
determining the end point in the alkalimetric titration of phenol 
in alcoholic solutions. Considerable work has been done on the 
development of methods based on the formation of iodine deriva- 
tives. Analytical procedures have been devised by Messinger 
and Vortmann,* Fahrion,^ Skirrow,^ Inglis,*^ J. M. Wilkie,^ and 
others. Since these methods have been found to be neither quite 
free from defects nor much more accurate than the earlier 
methods under group I, there has been in recent years a gradual 
reversion to the original method of Koppeschaar, which is based 
on the formation of bromine derivatives, and a movement has 
been launched to make the latter method the standard, partic- 
ularly in the assay of nearly pure carbolic acid. I shall take up 
only those methods which are based on the formation of bromine 
derivatives, the method of Koppeschaar in particular. As it 
may prove of interest to the reader, a brief history of the develop- 
ment of the method of Koppeschaar is herewith included. 

In 1871, H. Landolt ^ precipitated carbolic acid quantitatively 
from aqueous solutions by treatment with excess bromine water. 
The bromine derivative formed was found to be well-nigh insolu- 
ble in water, the reaction being indicated in as great a dilution as 
1 part phenol in 43,700 parts water. Landolt dried his precipi- 
tated bromine compound over sulphuric acid and, from the weight 
of precipitate obtained, calculated the percentage of phenol. His 
results indicated the molecular weight of the precipitate to be 
326 to 328, from which he deduced that the compound formed 
was tribromphenol (molecular weight, 331). Koppeschaar^" 

'Journ. Am. Chem. Soc. 44 (1922) 135. 

*Berichte 23 (1890) 2753; Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. 9 (1890) 1070. 

'Zeitschr. angew. Chem. (1901) 1226. 

•Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. (1908) 58. 

'Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. (1908) 315. 

•Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind. 30 (1911) 398. 

'Berichte 4 (1871) 770. 

"Zeitschr. f. Anal. Chem. 25 (1876) 162. 



33,4 Del Mundo: Analysis of Phenol 365 

found Landolt's gravimetric method to be too tiresome ; he char- 
acterized the process of filtering, washing, and drying the floc- 
culent precipitate as ''cumbersome and ceremonious/' Therefore, 
he converted the original gravimetric method into a volumetric 
process by treating the solution of carbolic acid with a known 
volume of standard bromine water solution, the strength of which 
was so adjusted that it more than completely precipitated all 
the carbolic acid as tribromphenol. The excess of bromine in 
solution was then made to displace iodine from potassium iodide, 
and the iodine liberated was finally titrated back with standard 
sodium thiosulphate to the starch end point. The following 
reactions occurred : 

CeH^OH + 3Br, -> CeH^BrgOH + 3HBr 
2KI + Br^ -^ 2KBt + L 

L + 2Na2S,03 -^ Na^S.Oc + 2NaI. 

Considerable quantities of bromine vapor were lost by the use 
of bromine water solution as precipitant. Koppeschaar, there- 
fore, substituted a solution of potassium bromide and potassium 
bromate, from which bromine could be evolved by treatment 
with sulphuric acid as follows: 

5KBr + KBr03 + H^SO, -> SK^SO, + H^O + 3Br, 

Various attempts to simplify this method of Koppeschaar are 
recorded in the literature, but none appears to have prospered. 
It would not be amiss to mention a few instances here. E. 
Waller ^^ titrated a solution of phenol containing saturated alum 
in dilute sulphuric acid with standard bromine water solution 
until the supernatant liquid in the titration vessel remained per- 
manently yellow after agitation. P. Degener ^" ran a titration 
similar to Waller's, but used starch-potassium iodide-paper to 
indicate the end point. Giacosa ^^ added standard bromine water 
to the aqueous solution of phenol until the supernatant liquid 
commenced to turn starch-iodide paper blue. Chandelon ^* add- 
ed dilute phenol solution to potassium hypobromate until the 
liquid no longer acted on starch-iodide paper. Seubert ^^ pre- 
pared a solution of potassium bromide and potassium bromate 

"Chem. News 43: 152. 
^Journ. f. Prak. Chem. 17 (1878) 390. 
^'Zeitschr. f. Phys. Chem. 6: 45. 
^*Bull. Soc. Chem. 38 (1882) 75. 
'''Arch. d. Pharm. (3) 18: 321. 



366 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

of known bromine content. This solution was then treated with 
either hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid, and the phenol solu- 
tion run in until the bromine was all consumed; starch-zinc- 
iodide paper was used as indicator. This method of Seubert 
was adapted by the Pharmacopoeia Germanica, old edition, in the 
determination of acidum carbolicum liquef actum. 0. Schlikum ^" 
made a critical study of the method of Seubert and found that, 
by running the solution of phenol into the beaker holding the 
bromine solution, appreciable amounts of bromine vapor were 
lost through evaporation. The use of glass-stoppered flasks in 
the titration tended to minimize but not to exclude errors from 
this source. Even when the titration was run in the reverse 
order, and potassium bromide-potassium bromate was titrated 
into the acidified carbolic acid solution, the loss of bromine was 
still considerable. In view of these circumstances, Schlikum 
suggested a conversion of Koppe^chaar's bromine method into 
an iodimetric process. 

So much for the history of the development of the method of 
Koppeschaar. Suffice it to say that in recent years there has 
been a movement to make this method a standard one. 

The anomalous results obtained by following Sutton, as men- 
tioned earlier in this paper, are connected with the fact that 
Sutton gives an erroneous quotation of the method as outlined 
in the United States Pharmacopoeia IX^X. In the original pro- 
cedure given there the manipulations involved can be briefly 
summarized as follows: 

In the glass-stoppered flask of 500 mils capacity, the aqueous 
solution of phenol, containing not less than 0.038 gram nor 
more than 0.041 gram of carbolic acid, is treated with a volume 
of standard potassium bromide and potassium bromate solution 
calculated to give bromine in moderate excess over that required 
for the complete precipitation of the phenol. Five mils of con- 
centrated hydrochloric acid are then run in, to liberate the bro- 
mine. The flask is closed and allowed to stand for half an hour, 
with occasional shaking, in order that all of the phenol may be 
acted upon and be converted into the bromine derivative. After 
half an hour, the flask is slowly opened, to prevent loss of bro- 
mine, and 5 mils of a 20 per cent solution of potassium iodide 
introduced. The mixture is shaken for a while, and the flask 
is then opened and its stopper and sides are washed with water. 
One mil of chloroform is then added to dissolve the precipitate 

"Pharm. Zeit. (1884) No. 46. 



33,4 Del Mundo: Analysis of Phenol 367 

and liberate occluded iodine, and the solution titrated to the starch 
end point with standard sodium thiosulphate. In the procedure 
by Sutton, however, it is directed to add potassium iodide im- 
mediately after the addition of hydrochloric acid. By so doing, 
the liberated bromine does not completely precipitate all of the 
phenol, but rather proceeds to displace iodine from the potassium 
iodide which has just been introduced. The amount of iodine 
liberated in this case is therefore greater than it should be, and 
the results obtained are, consequently, too low. The erroneous 
quotation in Sutton's procedure may have been due to an over- 
sight; but, in a book that has gone through eleven revised edi- 
tions, the mistake has no excuse for being and cannot well be over- 
looked. This is all the more so when, by the oversight, serious 
mistakes may be incurred and much time lost to the analyst in 
trying to locate the trouble and rectify matters. On the same 
page of Sutton's book, directions are given for the use of 1 
gram of sample of carbolic acid, when the volume of potassium 
bromide and potassium bromate solution required by the pro- 
cedure will barely furnish enough bromine to cause the pre- 
cipitation of 0.2 gram phenol. 

Koppeschaar's method is usually performed at the room 
temperatures of temperate climates (about 20° C). At this 
temperature, concentrated hydrochloric acid evolves bromine 
from potassium bromide and potassium bromate at a moderate 
rate, but at the room temperature in the Philippines, which 
is about 30° C, the reaction has been noticed to be rather 
too vigorous, resulting in a visible escape of bromine vapors 
from the reacting system. This is particularly the case when 
the potassium bromide and potassium bromate solution has been 
prepared by treating caustic alkali with liquid bromine. From 
such a solution bromine is apparently more readily evolved than 
from one made by dissolving weighed amounts of chemically 
pure potassium bromide and potassium bromate. 

I have found in a series of experiments performed that, when 
12-normal sulphuric acid or sirupy phosphoric acid was used 
instead of concentrated hydrochloric acid, the liberation of bro- 
mine proceeded much more slowly, and consequently the loss of 
bromine vapor was greatly minimized. The use of phosphoric 
acid is of further advantage in that it does not liberate iodine 
from potassium iodide as much as does concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid. The latter acid, when placed in contact with potas- 
sium iodide for five minutes, which is about the time required to 
run a titration, liberates sufficient iodine to give the blue iodo- 



368 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

starch coloration.^' It was found convenient to run the titra- 
tions in flasks especially designed for the determination of the 
iodine number. These flasks are provided with widely flared-out 
lips, which can hold about 5 cubic centimeters of potassium 
iodide, so that, when the stopper is pulled out, any escaping 
bromine fumes are trapped by the inflow of potassium iodide. 
The following tabulated results show the effect of using dif- 
ferent acids in liberating bromine from the bromide-bromate 
solution : 

EXPERIMENT I 

Acid used. Phenol. 

Per cent. 

Concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl), 12 N 4.94 

Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), 12 N 4.97 

Phosphoric acid (H3PO4), sirupy (Squibb) 4.97 
Theoretical percentage of phenol (assuming 

the phenol used to be 100 per cent pure) 5.00 

EXPERIMENT II 

Acid used. Quantity of phenol. 

Concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl), 12 N 0.0396 

Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), 12 N 0.0398 

Phosphoric acid (H3PO4), sirupy (Squibb) 0.0398 

Theoretical amount of phenol 0.0399 

These results indicate that, by the use of sirupy phosphoric 
acid or 12-normal sulphuric acid, values closer to the theoretical 
are obtained. However, phosphoric acid is preferable, as the 
heat produced by its solution is less than in the case of sulphu- 
ric acid. When glacial acetic acid was used, no visible evolution 
of bromine from the bromide-bromate solution was noticed for 
a day or so, but at the end of forty-eight hours the white pre- 
cipitate of tribromphenol was formed, which showed that gla- 
cial acetic acid also evolved bromine from the bromide-bromate 
solution, but at too slow a rate to be of much use in the volumetric 
determination. 

The assumption of Landolt and Koppeschaar, that the precipi- 
tate formed by the action of bromine on carbolic acid is tri- 
bromphenol, has been questioned on good grounds. Benedikt ^^ 
stated that the precipitate obtained was tribromphenolbromide 
(CsHgBrgOBr) and not tribromphenol (CeHgBrgOH), as given 
by Landolt. Weinreb and Bondi ^^ analyzed the precipitate ob- 
tained by the action of excess bromine on carbolic acid and 

''Compare with Diehl, Dingler's Polytech. Journ. 246 (1882) 196. 
^'Wien. Ak. Ber. 2 (May, 1879). 
" Monatshefte f . Chem. 6 : 506. 



33,4 Del Mundo: Analysis of Phenol 369 

found its composition to conform with that calculated for tri- 
bromphenolbromide. It would seem from these results that the 
method of Koppeschaar, which assumes that the compound 
formed is tribromphenol and not tribromphenolbromide, was 
built on false premises. However, it was shown by Weinreb 
and Bondi that, even had tribromphenolbromide been formed 
along with tribromphenol proper, this was of no consequence, for 
tribromphenolbromide acted on potassium iodide with the lib- 
eration of two atoms of iodine ; so that, as Beckursts ^^ points 
out, the original assumption of Koppeschaar, that 6 atoms of 
bromide entered into combination with 1 mole proper of phenol 
is, in practice, still correct. Landolt, in his gravimetric estima- 
tion of phenol, assumed the precipitate to be exclusively tri- 
bromphenol. If tribromphenolbromide is also formed, how came 
Landolt by his results? Some authors have criticized and dis- 
credited his experiments. 

Some gravimetric determinations were run in the laboratory 
of the Bureau of Science and it was found that, with the present- 
day facilities of the modern laboratory, the gravimetric process 
is not so tedious as it was once thought to be. The amount of 
time and attention required for running a gravimetric deter- 
mination is not much more (if anything, it is less) than that 
required by the volumetric method of Koppeschaar. While it is 
true that the precipitate of the bromine derivative is voluminous 
it, nevertheless, has the property of coagulating into flocks which 
are readily filtered through a Gooch crucible. Washing the 
precipitate is made easy by the use of suction, which has the 
further advantage of eliminating any excess of bromine vapor 
by the free passage of sucked air. The filtered precipitate dries 
to constant weight when left in a vacuum desiccator over sul- 
phuric acid for from three to four hours, at most overnight. 
The following gravimetric determinations were performed : 

An aliquot portion of a solution, which was made exactly 5 
per cent in carbolic acid by weighing pure phenol crystals, was 
treated with saturated bromine water solution, with constant 
shaking, until a permanent yellow coloration, due to moderate 
excess of bromine, became visible on the supernatant liquid of 
the precipitation vessel. The precipitate was then filtered 
through a weighed Gooch crucible, washed with the aid of suc- 
tion, and then dried to constant weight over sulphuric acid in 
a vacuum desiccator. 

'•Arch. d. Pharm. Ill 24 (1886) 561. 



370 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

RESULTS 

The percentage of phenol obtained by assuming the precipitate 
to be only tribromphenol was : 

Per cent. 

First trial 5.19 

Second trial 5.26 

The same results, recalculated on the assumption that tri- 
bromphenolbromide and not tribromphenol had been formed, 
showed : 

Per cent. 

First trial 4.19 

Second trial 4.24 

Percentage of phenol by Koppeschaar's method 4.97 
Theoretical percentage of phenol (assuming the phenol 

used to be 100 per cent pure) 5.00 

These results show that, if the gravimetric precipitate is as- 
sumed to be only tribromphenol, the values obtained are slightly 
higher than they should be theoretically whereas, if assumed to 
be tribromphenolbromide alone, the values obtained are far 
too low. It would seem from these results that the precipitate 
was mostly tribromphenol with an admixture of tribromphe- 
nolbromide. 

The experiment was repeated, using a much lower excess of 
saturated bromine water as precipitant, with a view of prevent- 
ing as much as possible the formation of tribromphenolbromide 
from taking place. The results in this case were as follows : 

The percentage of phenol obtained by assuming complete pre- 
cipitation as tribromphenol only was: 

Per cent. 

First trial 4.74 

Second trial 4.72 

These results differ from the result obtained by the volumetric 
method (4.97 per cent) by being lower by 0.2 per cent., It seems 
highly probable that in this case practically no tribromphe- 
nolbromide had been formed, but, in trying to use too small an 
excess of bromine water, some phenol may have been lost 
through incomplete precipitation. Beckursts ^^ has already 
shown that the formation of either tribromphenol or tribrom- 
phenolbromide depends in a large measure on the manner of 
adding the precipitant, as well as on the conditions of precipi- 
tation. The addition of a large excess of bromine in the cold 
and without agitation, according to Beckursts, favors the for- 
mation of tribromphenolbromide. 

^ Loc. cit. 



33,4 Del Mundo: Analysis of Phenol 371 

With a view of trying to form tribromphenolbromide exclu- 
sively, the following experiment was performed. To an ali- 
quot portion of the 5 per cent phenol solution employed in 
previous determinations, saturated bromine water was added 
in large excess. The precipitation was carried in the cold, and 
with no agitation. The solution was then left to stand over- 
night before filtering. The precipitate was washed several 
times with the mother liquor, then with dilute bromine water, 
and finally with small quantities of water. Results were as 
follows : 

The percentage of phenol calculated on the assumption of 
complete precipitation as tribromphenolbromide exclusively was : 

Per cent. 

First trial 4.30 

Second trial 4.28 

Recalculation on the assumption of the formation of tribrom- 
phenol alone showed: 

Per cent. 

First trial 5.33 

Second trial 5.30 

In this experiment, by far the greater portion of the precip- 
itate is tribromphenolbromide, but tribromphenol is probably 
likewise present and in quantity sufficient to vitiate results. In 
this connection the attention of the reader is called to some 
experiments by Autenrieth and Beuttel.^^ These authors de- 
scribed the properties of tribromphenolbromide. They found 
the compound to be reduced to tribromphenol by the action of 
such reducing agents as hydroiodic acid, sulphurous acid, nas- 
cent hydrogen, etc. In a series of gravimetric determinations 
of a purified sample of carbolic acid, they precipitated the bro- 
mine derivative and computed the percentage of phenol on the 
basis of complete transformation into tribromphenolbromide. 
In some of their experiments, results ranging from 96.28 to 
97.57 per cent were obtained. These results are from 1 to 2 
per cent too low. The precipitate of tribromphenolbromide in 
these experiments was probably contaminated with tribrom- 
phenol formed by the decomposition of tribromphenolbromide. 
In spite of the low results, Autenrieth and Beuttel concluded 
that the method could be used for the analysis of phenol in cases 
where a high degree of accuracy is not requisite. 

^'^'Arch. d. Pharm. 248 (1910) 117. 



372 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

In another series of experiments performed in the laboratory 
of the Bureau of Science a carbolic acid solution was prepared 
by weighing exactly 3.99 grams of Mallinckrodt gilt-label crys- 
tals in a precision balance and dissolving the weighed portion 
in distilled water to make a liter of solution. Ten cubic centi- 
meters of this solution were treated with 50 cubic centimeters 
potassium bromide-potassium bromate solution of a strength 
more than sufficient to liberate bromine in excess of that re- 
quired for the complete precipitation of all the carbolic acid. 
Five cubic centimeters of sirupy phosphoric acid were then 
added and the mixture was shaken until the bromine derivative 
was completely precipitated and the liquid in the precipitation 
vessel was permanently yellow. The precipitate was then 
filtered, washed, dried, and weighed. The color of the dried 
precipitate was distinctly white, which seemed to indicate, in 
a qualitative manner at least, that by far the greater part of the 
precipitate was tribromphenol. (Tribromphenolbromide is lem- 
on yellow in color.) Sirupy phosphoric acid was used to 
liberate bromine from potassium bromide-potassium bromate. 
Results were as follows: 

Quantity of 
phenol computed 
from tribrom- 
phenol. 

Experiment : g. 

I 0.0327 

II 0.0352 

When concentrated hydrochloric acid was used instead of 
sirupy phosphoric acid to liberate bromine the results were : 

Experiment: g, 

III 0.0346 

IV 0.0342 
Volumetric (Koppeschaar) 0.0398 
Theoretical weight of phenol (assuming the phe- 
nol used to be 100 per cent pure) 0.0399 

The experiments were repeated but in this instance the pre- 
cipitate formed was washed with an acidified solution of potas- 
sium iodide, in order to decompose tribromphenolbromide should 
this compound have been formed along with the tribromphenol. 
The following results were obtained : 

Weight of phenol. 

Experiment : g, 

I 0.0336 

II 0.0337 

III 0.0339 

IV 0.0343 



33,4 Del Mundo: Analysis of Phenol 373 

The results of the above determinations check nicely, but the 
values obtained are far below the theoretical values.. There is 
much probability that in these experiments tribromphenolbro- 
mide had not been formed. The filtrates in all of the above 
determinations were tested for unprecipitated carbolic acid with 
negative results. To what, then, may the low results be attrib- 
uted? If the acid used to liberate bromine from the bromide- 
bromate solution is of no effect on the precipitated tribrom- 
phenol, then the next possibility points to the probable formation 
of compounds of lower molecular weight than that of tribrom- 
phenol, a conjecture which needs verification. 

The observation noted in this paper can now be summarized 
as follows: 

1. In working with aqueous solutions of nearly pure carbolic 
acid, the volumetric method of Koppeschaar is fairly accurate, 
but the process should be modified to suit local conditions. The 
use of sirupy phosphoric acid instead of concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid to liberate bromine from potassium bromide-potas- 
sium bromate minimizes the possibility of error and gives 
results which are closer to the theoretical. 

2. While the gravimetric determination is as easily performed 
as is the volumetric process, still the results obtained are not 
so accurate (too low). The main trouble in gravimetric de- 
terminations lies in the difficulty of precipitating either tribrom- 
phenol or tribromphenolbromide to the exclusion of the other. 

3. Attention is called to some errors on page 405 of the elev- 
enth revised edition of Sutton's A Systematic Handbook of 
Volumetric Analysis (1924). 

4. A brief history of the development of the method of Kop- 
peschaar is given. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

These notes are published at the suggestion of Dr. T. Dar 
Juan, of the Bureau of Science, to whom I am indebted for 
valuable suggestions and kindly criticisms. 



NOTES ON CEBU COALS 

By Leopoldo A. Faustino 
Assistant Chiefs Division of Geology and Mines, Bureau of Science 

Several papers have appeared in the Philippine Journal of 
Science and in the Mineral Resources of the Philippine Islands 
regarding the peculiar characteristics of Philippine coals. As 
the samples used were from the outcropping or upper beds, it 
is generally held that Philippine coals will improve with depth. 
Cox 1 stated : 

in time it is expected that a much better quality of coal will be developed 
from the lower beds, as is indicated by the drill sample analyses. 

He also pointed out ^ that the Philippine coals used were from 
the upper or outcropping beds, 

in which naturally the percentage of ash and especially of moisture, due 
to climatic conditions, is higher than the average. 

It is not known how the coal samples used for analysis were 
obtained, although the results for the lower seams on Batan 
Islands, Albay Province, were from drill samples. 

These notes present the results of analyses made on coal 
samples, obtained according to the generally accepted directions, 
in order that the true nature and quality of native coal under 
actual mining conditions can be shown. The samples used in 
this report were collected by Mr. Frank A. Dalburg, formerly 
of the division of geology and mines. Bureau of Science, when 
he was mining engineer and geologist for the National Coal 
Company, and by me when I was detailed as mining engineer 
and geologist for the Cebu Portland Cement Company. The 
samples were collected after the manner prescribed in Tech- 
nical Paper No. 1, United States Bureau of Mines. 

The samples in Table 1 were collected from different parts 
of the National Coal Company mines at Mount Licos, Cebu, 
and represent Philippine coal in this particular district under 
actual mining conditions. It will be remembered that four 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 886. 
' Op. cit. 900. 

375 



376 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



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3X4. Faustino: Cebit Coals 377 

seams were recognized here; namely, the Carmen, the Es- 
peranza, the Abella, and the Enriqueta. These are named from 
west to east; that is, from lowest to highest. All the seams 
strike in the same general direction, north 23° east, and dip 
about 40° to the southeast. 

It will be noted by referring to Table 1 that, while sample 
8 is an outcrop sample, its heating value is higher than that 
of sample 2 from Tunnel No. 6, sample 4 from Tunnel No. 7, 
and samples 5 and 6 from the Enrique Abella seam in Tunnel 
No. 7, although the difference is slight. The heating value 
varies from 5,395 calories for sample 4 to 6,982 for sample 1, 
with the outcrop sample giving 6,574 calories. 

It will be noted also that the moisture content of the outcrop 
sample is lower than that of all of the other samples except 
4; the difference in moisture between the outcrop sample and 
No. 4 is 0.64 per cent. From these results it is safe to con- 
clude that the percentage of moisture is not lower in the deeper 
beds. 

The fuel ratio, or the quotient of the fixed carbon divided by 
the volatile matter, in the outcrop sample is greater than in 
sample 1 from the Enriqueta seam in Tunnel No. 6 and in 
samples 5 and 6 from the Enrique Abella seam in Tunnel No. 
7, but is less than in sample 2 from the Enriqueta seam in 
Tunnel No. 6, samples 3 and 4 from the Enriqueta seam in 
Tunnel No. 7, and sample 7 from the Esperanza seam in Tunnel 
No. 7. 

The ash content is fairly low. While inert matter in a coal 
is detrimental to the total number of heat units, the ash in 
Philippine coals has given but little trouble. At any rate, the 
ash content in the outcrop sample is lower than in sample 4 
from the Enriqueta seam and in samples 5 and 6 from the En- 
rique Abella seam and, even if sample 4, which has 18.66 per 
cent ash, is not taken into account, is still much lower than 
the average. 

The samples in Table 2 were collected from the mines at 
Mount Uling, Cebu, and the results are indicative of the nature 
and the quality of the coal in the district under actual mining 
conditions. Disregarding the coking seams, which cannot be 
used for purposes of comparison, it is seen that the moisture 
content of the outcrop sample is less that that of sample 96 
of the Margarita seam and that it exceeds that of sample 55 
from the same seam by 0.11 per cent. The moisture content 



378 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 






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33,4 Fmtstino: Cebu Coals 379 

of the outcrop sample is much less than that of the sample 
taken from a tunnel near Sugimoto's workings, although it is 
greater by 1.94 per cent than that of the sample taken from 
Bernardo's tunnel. 

The samples from the Margarita seam show a greater per- 
centage of ash content, while the samples from the tunnel near 
Sugimoto and Bernardo's have less. 

The total heating value of the outcrop sample, 5,248 calories, 
places it upon a sort of middle ground between the samples from 
the comparatively low Margarita seam and those from the other 
two localities. 

The results of the analyses made from these samples can 
be considered representative of the Cebu coals; those in Table 
1 are from the Danao-Compostela field and those in Table 2 
are from the Mount Uling field. The samples were collected 
after the manner prescribed in Technical Paper No. 1 of the 
United States Bureau of Mines, and the methods used were 
exactly the same. The results obtained not only give the 
nature of the Cebu coals (which are practically all subbitu- 
minous) under actual mining conditions, but also confirm the 
findings of Cox ^ regarding the uniformity in the composition 
of most Philippine coals, barring diluents, water, ash, and 
sulphur. 

The results of the analyses given in Tables 1 and 2 are 
further summarized as follows: 

1. Philippine coals, as typified by Cebu coals, do not improve 
with depth. 

2. The percentages of ash and moisture, which it has been 
claimed would improve as the beds extend deeper underground, 
are not lower than the average. 

3. The analysis of a properly collected sample on the outcrop 
would show the nature and the general quality of the seam 
at the depths at which it would be mined. 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 7 (1912) 1. 

228858 4 



COMPARATIVE STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF THE PRIN- 
CIPAL PHILIPPINE COMMERCIAL WOODS ' 

By Jose C. Espinosa 
Of the Bureau of Science^ Manila 

ONE PLATE 

INTRODUCTION 

Wood has been one of the primary materials of engineering 
construction since earliest times; no efforts have been spared in 
civilized countries in studying its strength properties. On ac- 
count of its nonhomogeneous character, it is far more difficult 
to determine the proper and most economical wood to use in 
certain construction than it is to decide upon other building ma- 
terials, such as iron and steel, masonry, or concrete. It is not 
unusual to find that certain valuable species of wood are em- 
ployed unnecessarily, because even a crude knowledge of their 
strength is not available. 

Despite the fact that many kinds of wood are found in Phil- 
ippine forests, only a very few are at present of commercial im- 
portance. It has been estimated that there are close to three 
thousand species of trees that reach a diameter of 30 centimeters 
or more. Luis J. Reyes, wood technologist of the Philippine 
Bureau of Forestry, estimated that more than six hundred dis- 
tinct species are cut for timber, but only about two hundred 
have been observed in the markets at one time or another. In 
general, from forty to fifty species are available in the larger mar- 
kets, but in practice less-known timbers are included and sold 
as well-known species or as ^'miscellaneous," which practice re- 
duces the number of commercial timbers to from fifteen to 
twenty. 

The increasing scarcity of some of the more durable and 
stronger species makes it imperative to find others which, by 
virtue of their strength, durability, and other properties, can 
be used in place of some of the more valuable species. Hence 

^ This work was undertaken in cooperation with the Bureau of Forestry 
and was made possible through the generosity of the local lumber com- 
panies, who furnished the greater part of the lumber used in the tests. 

381 



382 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



a knowledge of the strength characteristics of Philippine woods 
is of the utmost importance from the standpoint of economy and 
proper utilization of the timber resources. 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

The specimens tested represent typical material obtained from 
the principal lumber regions in the Archipelago. The majority 
were identified from botanical material obtained from the tree; 
a few of the better-known species were purchased from the local 
lumber dealers, but were critically compared with authentic 
specimens in the working collection of the Bureau of Forestry. 
It is to be regretted that it was not possible to have a complete 

Table 1. — List of the timbers tested. 



Common name. 



Akle.-.. 

Aimon 

Amamanit __. 

Amugis 

Apitong 

Aranga 

Bagtikan... __ 

Bansalagin 

Banuyo . 

Batete 

Benguet pine. _ 

Dao 

Dungon 

Guijo 

IpiL... - 

Kalamansanai. 

Lamog 

Lumbayao 

Malugay 

Manggachapui 
Manggasinoro 

May apis 

Molave.. 

Narig 

Narra 

Nato 

Pagatpat 

Pahutan 

Palosapis 

Pototan 

Red lauan 

Supa 

Tangile 

Tindalo 

White lauan... 
Yakal 



Scientific name. 



Albizzia acle Merr 

Shorea eximia Scheff 

Eucalyptus deglupta Bl 

Koordersiodendron pinnatum Merr. . 

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Blco 

Homalium luzoniense F. Vill 

Parashorea plicata Brand 

Mimusops parvifolia R. B 

Wallaceodendron celebicum Koord — 
Kingiodendron alternsefdium Merr. . 

Pinus insularis Endl 

Dracontomelum dao Merr. and Rolfe 

Tarrietia sylvatica Merr — 

Shorea guiso Bl 

Intsia bijuga O. Ktze 

Neonauclea calydna Merr.-. _. _ __ 

Planchonia speciabilis Merr 

Tarrietia javanica Bl 

Pometia pinnata Forst 

Hopea acuminata Merr 

Shorea sp . 

Shorea palosapis Merr 

Vitex par vi flora Juss 

Vatica mangachapoi Blco 

Ptzrocarpus indicus Willd 

Palaquium luzoniense Vid 

Sonneratia caseolaris Engl 

Mangifera altissima Blco 

Anisoptera thurijera Bl 

Bruguiera sp _. 

Shorea negrosensis Foxw 

Sindora supa Merr 

Shorea polysperma Merr 

Pahudia rhomboidea Prain 

Pentacme cantor ta Merr. and Rolfe.. 
Hopea basilanica Foxw 



Family. 



Leguminosse. 

Dipterocarpaceae. 

Myrtaceae. 

Anacardiaceae. 

Dipterocarpaceae. 

Flacourtiaceae. 

Dipterocarpaceae. 

Sapotaceae. 

Leguminosae. 

Do. 
Pinacese. 
Anacardiaceae. 
Sterculiaceae. 
Dipterocarpaceae. 
Leguminosae. 
Rubiacese. 
Lecythidaceae. 
Sterculiaceae. 
Sapindacea}. 
Dipterocarpaceae. 

Do. 

Do. 
Verbenaceae. 
Dipterocarpaceae. 
Leguminosae. 
Sapotaceae. 
Sonneratiaceae. 
Anacardiaceae. 
Dipterocarpaceaj. 
Rhizophoraceae. 
Dipterocarpaceae. 
Leguminosae. 
Dipterocarpaceae . 
Leguminosae. 
Dipterocarpaceae. 

Do. 



33,4 



Espinosa: Strength of Philippine Woods 



383 



Table 2. — Adaptability numbers; strengths of timbers in terms of strengths 
of red lauan, or ^'Philippine mahogany,'' air-dry. 

[This table has been prepared from results of tests on structural sizes ranging from 2 in- 
ches by 4 inches by 6 feet to 8 inches by 8 inches by 12 feet. "Adaptability as a strut," "Shear 
parallel to grain," and "Hardness" are from small, clear specimens. The values for Douglas fir 
and white ash were taken from Bulletin 556 of the United States Forest Service.] 



Common name. 



Red lauan 

Almon 

Apitong 

Aranga 

Bagtikan 

Guijo 

Lumbayao 

Manggasinoro 

Nato 

Pahutan 

Palosapis 

Supa 

Tangile 

White lauan.. 

Yakal 

Douglas fir 

White ash. . 



Density. 


Strength 
as a 
beam. 


100 


100 


90 


100 


120 


110 


155 


130 


105 


105 


150 


150 


100 


ICO 


85 


75 


115 


75 


100 


70 


105 


95 


130 


135 


100 


100 


95 


95 


170 


170 


80 


130 


115 


240 



Stiffness 
as a 
beam. 


Tough- 
ness C.S 

a beam. 


Adapta- 
bility as 
a strut. 


Shear 
parallel 
to grain. 


Hard- 
ness. 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


80 


110 


100 


110 


110 


90 


105 


110 


135 


120 


130 


160 


155 


310 


95 


100 


110 


110 


125 


90 


125 


140 


140 


200 


95 


100 


100 


110 


120 


70 


55 


85 


95 


110 


85 


65 


85 


110 


140 


90 


45 


115 


130 


190 


90 


85 


90 


105 


125 


110 


105 
100 






105 


100 


95 


95 


95 


95 


100 


100 


120 


150 


160 


150 


155 


305 


80 


175 


125 


95 


110 


120 


460 


200 


220 


300 



description of the trees, as regards habitat, manner of growth, 
and position of specimens in the original trunk. 

No attempt is made in this paper to place certain species 
above others in importance and it should be borne in mind that 
comparisons are strictly of strength values. Strength data are 
not sufficient to permit determination of species to be used in 
certain instances, because other properties, such as resistance 
to attack of "anay" (termites) and fungi, ability to take a good 
finish, staining qualities, ease of working, etc., must be taken 
into account. It is thus advisable to be cautious in the use of 
results reported in this article. 

Tables 2 and 3 show comparisons of the different spe- 
cies of timber of structural sizes in terms of red lauan, or Phil- 
ippine mahogany, which comprises about 90 per cent of our tim- 
ber exports. It is well known that, even in simple bending, so 
many factors are involved in the determination of strength that 
no high degree of accuracy should be expected from these tab- 
ulated ratios. In the actual computations 5 per cent was 
chosen as the limit of accuracy, because for all practical pur- 
poses greater precision is not required. 



384 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



Table 3. — Adaptability numbers; strengths) of timbers in terms of strengths 
of red lauan, or ^'Philippine mahogany," green. 

[This table has been prepared from results on structural sizes ranging from 2 inches by 
4 inches by 6 feet to 8 inches by 8 inches by 12 feet. "Adaptability as a strut," "Shear parallel 
to grain," and "Hardness" are from small, clear specimens. The values for Douglas fir 
and white ash were taken from Bulletin 556 of the United States Forest Service.] 



Common name. 



Red lauan 

Akie 

Amamanit 

Amugis 

Apitong 

Aranga 

Bansalagin 

Banuyo 

Batete 

Benguet pine 

Dao 

Dungon 

Guijo 

Ipil 

Kalamansanai. 

Lamog 

Lumbayao 

Malugay 

Manggachapui 
Manggasinoro. 

Mayapis 

Molave 

Narig 

Narra 

Pagatpat 

Palosapis 

Supa 

Tangile _ 

Tindalo 

Yakal 

Douglas fir. _ 
White ash 



Mois- 
ture. 



Per cent 
48 
98 
52 
46 
40 
31 
40 
61 
52 
26 
42 
47 
38 
49 
43 
46 
35 
51 
38 
36 
34 
45 
49 
71 
53 
61 
34 
37 
50 
36 
38 
40 



Strength 

as a 

beam. 



100 
105 
130 
170 
120 
130 
180 
140 
140 
95 
145 
140 
190 
200 
165 
145 
120 
135 
200 
80 
80 
195 
200 
130 
150 
125 
120 
130 
180 
210 
100 
165 



Stiff- 
ness 



beam. 



100 
80 
130 
120 
120 
130 
130 
135 
130 
105 
120 
110 
165 
165 
145 
85 
110 
105 
170 
85 
90 
150 
170 
100 
90 
115 
110 
125 
120 
170 
85 
115 



Tough- 



beam. 



100 

160 

70 

135 

125 

115 

150 

160 

85 

90 

95 

125 

215 

320 

130 

155 

115 

165 

210 

40 

35 

295 

160 

165 

165 

150 

125 

165 

210 

260 

65 

130 



Adapt- 
ability 



100 
115 



185 
120 



185 
145 



130 
190 
245 
180 
120 
120 
125 
245 



85 
210 
210 
160 
160 
120 
120 
110 
175 
220 

85 
130 



Shear 
parallel 
to grain. 



100 
255 



340 
250 



365 

285 



325 
330 
375 
350 
320 
230 
265 
340 



145 
320 
375 
285 
295 
240 
300 
225 
375 
405 
200 
355 



Hard- 
ness. 



100 
215 



270 
165 



365 
200 



125 



360 
270 
320 
305 
320 
135 
205 
260 



85 
270 
340 
230 
245 
145 
225 
140 
335 
380 

85 
215 



IJp to a certain limit the strength of timbers varies in a fairly- 
uniform manner with the moisture content; that is, the greater 
the moisture content, the less the strength. Beyond this limit 
the strength practically remains the same, however much the 
moisture is increased. At present no data are available for the 
determination of the limiting point in the case of Philippine 
timbers, and in this article a rough classification is made be- 
tween '*air dry" timbers (those containing from 8 to 22 per cent 
moisture) and "green'* timbers (those containing above 30 per 



33,4 



Espinosa: Strength of Philippine Woods 



385 






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386 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



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33,4 



Espinosa: Strength of Philippine Woods 



387 



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388 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

cent moisture), except in the case of the Benguet pine which, 
although green, contains only 26 per cent. Those falling be- 
tween 22 and 30 per cent moisture content are in the buffer class 
but, as the tables show, timbers that come within this class 
are an exception. It is very difficult to draw a sharp line be- 
tween "air dry'' and ''green'' timbers, so-called. 

EXPLANATION OF TABLES 

The following paragraphs explain the headings in Tables 2 
and 3. 

Density in terms of red laimn. — This is a comparison of the 
relative weights of the different species as found in the market, 
when air dry and when green. 

Strength as a beam. — Here it is assumed that the fiber stress 
at elastic limit and modulus of rupture (these terms are defined 
at the end of this paper, play an equal part in the selection of two 
pieces of timber as regards strength as a beam. The assump- 
tion may not be quite accurate, but it is not an easy matter to 
say just what actually happens in a beam so unhomogeneous in 
character when subjected to bending. This is about the best 
measure available for purposes of comparison. 

Stiffness as a beam. — This value is the modulus of elasticity 
and shows how much stress for each species is required to 
produce a unit strain. 

Toughness as a beam, — Here the values for work to elastic 
limit have been made the basis of comparison. The greater the 
amount of work to bend to the elastic limit, the tougher the 
material under test. This again may not be quite an accurate 
assumption, but toughness is a term very difficult to define, and 
these values approximate it best. 

Adaptability as a strut, — The values of compression parallel to 
the grain have been used for this factor. 

Shear parallel to grain, — These figures are found by actually 
shearing the specimen parallel to the grain. 

Hardness, — The values for both end and side hardness were 
used in this comparison. 

Tables 4 and 5 give the mechanical properties of standard 
clear specimens ; the former of air dry, and the latter of green 
pieces. In the preparation of the adaptability numbers the 
figures obtained for bending were not used, because small pieces 
scarcely play an important part in problems of actual construc- 
tion. However, these figures are useful for purposes of com- 



33,4 



Espinosa: Strength of Philippine Woods 



389 



parison between species when the element of defects is reduced 
to a minimum. 

Table 6. — Strength values in bending of air-dry tiyyibers; stnictural sizes 
from 2 inches by 4- inches by 6 feet to 8 inches by 8 inches by 12 
feet,^ 



Common name. 



Almon 

Apitong 

Aranga 

Bagtikan 

Guijo 

Lumbayao 

Manggasinoro.. 

Nato 

Pahutan 

Palosapis 

Red lauan 

Supa 

Tangile 

White lauan. . . 
Yakal 



Num- 
ber of 
tests. 


Mois- 
ture. 


Specific 
gravity. 






Static bending. 




At 
test. 


Oven- 
dry, 
based 

on vol- 
ume 

at test. 


Fiber 
stress 
at elas- 
tic li- 
mit. 


Modu- 
lus of 
rup- 
ture. 


Modu- 
lus of 
elasti- 
city. 


Longi- 
tudi- 
nal 
shear. 


Work 
to elas- 
tic li- 
mit. 


Work to 
maxi- 
mum 
load. 




Per 
cent. 






kg. per 
sq. cm. 


kg. per 
sq. cm. 


1,000 
kg. per 
sq. cm. 


kg. per 
sq. cm. 


kg.-cm. 

per cu. 

cm. 


kg. -cm. 

per cu. 

cm. 


222 


14 


0.55 


0.49 


326 


612 


112 


23.4 


0.059 


0.498 


202 


16 


0.72 


0.62 


364 


647 


127 


25.6 


0.064 


0.501 


45 


16 


0.92 


0.79 


455 


724 


140 


27.9 


0.094 


0.386 


90 


15 


0.62 


0.54 


356 


619 


107 


25.1 


0.074 


0.512 


108 


17 


0.89 


0.76 


470 


925 


103 


35.4 


0.092 


0.742 


35 


18 


0.61 


0.52 


348 


540 


110 


25.1 


0.072 


0.505 


62 


15 


0.51 


0.44 


245 


474 


83 


15.2 


0.041 


0.337 


54 


15 


0.68 


0.59 


269 


447 


97 


16.4 


0.047 


0.234 


40 


12 


0.60 


0.54 


247 


396 


102 


13.7 


0.033 


0.178 


60 


14 


0.63 


0.55 


301 


591 


103 


22.7 


0.063 


0.434 


130 


18 


0.60 


0.51 


353 


582 


115 


24.2 


0.073 


0.427 


24 


14 


0.78 


0.68 


418 


884 


125 


35.5 


0.077 


0.759 


271 


16 


0.60 


0.52 


337 


617 


113 


23.7 


0.071 


0.502 


134 


15 


0.58 


0.50 


328 


545 


107 


22.0 


0.069 


0.427 


78 


20 


1.03 


0.86 


555 


1.010 


171 


41.9 


0.115 


0.724 



* Conversion factors : 

kg. X 2.2046 = lb. 

cm. X 0.3937 = in. 

kg. per sq. cm. X 14.223 = lb. per sq. in. 

kp.-cm. per cu. cm. X 14.223 =: in.-lb. per cu. in. 



Tables 6 and 7 give the actual strength values of structural- 
size specimens. These are greatly affected by the manner of 
growth of the tree, the portion from which the piece comes, 
whether or not they include knots and other defects, and the posi- 
tion of such defects in the specimen. 

These structural pieces are generally what can be secured in 
the markets, and strength values obtained from them have a 
practical importance. An examination of these values and those 
obtained from small specimens show that the latter are lower, 
which is to be expected, and the choice of a proper factor of 
safety for certain uses is discretional with the engineer. 



390 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



Table 7. — Strength values in bending of green timbers; structural sizes 
from^ 2 inches by U inches by 6 feet to 8 inches by 8 inches b^i/ 12 
feet^ 



Common name. 



Akle 

Amamanit- _. 

Amugis 

Apitong 

Aranga 

Bansalagin 

Banuyo 

Batete 

Benguet pine.. 

Dao 

Dungon 

Guijo 

Ipil 

Kalamansanai. 

Lamog 

Lumbayao 

Malugay 

Manggachapui 
Manggasinoro. 

Mayapis 

Molave 

Narig 

Narra 

Pagatpat 

Palosapis 

Red lauan 

Supa 

Tangile 

Tindalo 

White lauan _ _ 
Yakal 



Num- 
ber of 
tests. 



10 

6 

5 

3 

3 

7 

10 

16 

31 

5 

27 

7 

5 

31 



Mois- 
ture. 



Per 

cent. 

79 
52 
46 
40 
31 
40 
61 
52 
35 
42 
47 
38 
49 
43 
46 
35 
51 
38 
36 
34 
45 
49 
71 
53 
61 
58 
34 
37 
50 
45 
36 



Specific 
gravity. 



At 
test. 



1.10 
0.86 
1.03 
0.82 
0.99 
1.03 
0.84 
0.76 
0.65 
0.84 
1.18 
0.92 
1.14 
0.81 
1.04 
0.65 
0.66 
0.73 
0.59 
0.45 
0.92 
1.11 
0.95 
0.89 
0.86 
0.62 
0.92 
0.69 
1.09 
0.65 
1.17 



Oven- 
dry, 

based 

on vol- 
ume 

at test 



0.56 
0.58 
0.71 
0.60 
0.76 
0.77 
0.52 
0.50 
0.49 
0.59 
0.84 
0.67 
0.78 
0.54 
0.71 
0.48 
0.44 
0.53 
0.44 
0.34 
0.63 
0.73 
0.56 
0.57 
0.54 
0.39 
0.69 
0.50 
0.71 
0.41 
0.86 



Static bending. 



Fiber 
stress 
at elas- 
tic 
limit. 



kg. ppf 
SQ, cm. 

294 

332 

447 

338 

372 

480 

384 

371 

258 

375 

347 

536 

595 

438 

385 

326 

367 

579 

187 

190 

559 

568 

345 

396 

319 

265 

314 

351 

486 

241 

563 



Modu- 
lus of 
rup- 
ture. 



kg, per 
sq. cm. 

417 

555 

718 

499 

512 

765 

576 

590 

388 

624 

650 

777 

790 

720 

594 

505 

530 

773 

397 

355 

773 

827 

540 

620 

556 

431 

485 

555 

732 

431 

914 



Modu 
lus of 
elasti- 
city. 



1,000 
kg. per 
sq. cm. 

77 
128 
115 
115 
127 
126 
129 
128 
101 
118 
106 
158 
159 
142 

84 
106 
110 
163 

81 

86 
143 
166 

99 

87 
109 

97 
108 
122 
115 

87 
163 



Longi- 
tudi- 
nal 
shear. 



per 
sq. cm. 

21.1 

20.1 

27.2 

24.4 

17.6 

28.8 

31.8 

19.8 

21.4 

22.5 

28.1 

42.3 

37.9 

30.1 

20.0 

26.9 

29.5 

32.5 

13.9 

13.5 

40.9 

20.1 

30.2 

21.9 

23.9 

23.6 

26.3 

25.3 

30.3 

19.2 

41.8 



Work 
to elas- 
tic 
limit. 



kg. -cm. 

per cu. 

cm. 

0.106 

0.048 

0.091 

0.083 

0.077 

0.102 

. 106 

0.058 

0.060 

0.065 

0.084 

0.145 

0.214 

0.088 

0.104 

0.078 

0.110 

0.139 

0.027 

0.024 

0.198 

0.106 

0.110 

0.110 

0.099 

0.067 

0.083 

0.110 

0.141 

0.049 

0.176 



WorK to 
maxi- 
mum 
load. 



kg.-cm. 

per cu. 

cm. 

0.330 

0.386 

0.620 

0.434 

0.211 

0.513 

0.650 

0.432 

0.432 

0.505 

0.816 

0.706 

0.685 

0.766 

0.552 

0.556 

0.427 

0.466 

0.217 

0.504 

0.736 

0.373 

0.704 

0.585 

0.468 

0.473 

0.256 

0.593 

0.655 

0.484 

0.652 



* Conversion factors : 

kg. X 2.2046 = lb. 

cm. X 0.3937 = in, 

kg. per sq. cm. X 14.223 = lb. per sq. in. 

kg.-cm. per cu. cm. X 14.223 =: in.-lb. per cu. in. 



33,4 



Espinosa: Strength of Philippine Woods 



391 



METHOD OF TEST 

Wherever possible, the standard methods of testing as used 
by the Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, United States 
Department of Agriculture, were follov^ed. 

To facilitate reference a brief outline of the methods is here 
included. 

I. STANDARD CLEAR SPECIMEN 



1. Static bending. 

Size, 2 inches by 2 inches by 

30 inches. 
Span, 28 inches. 
Loading, center. 
Speed, descent of load, 0.225 

inch per minute. 
Plot, load against deflection. 
Calculate : 

Fiber stress at elastic 
limit. 

Modulus of rupture. 

Modulus of elasticity. 

Longitudinal shear. 

Work to elastic limit. 

Work to maximum load. 

2. Compression parallel to grain. 

Size, 2 inches by 2 inches by 

8 inches. 
Distance between collars, 6 in- 
ches. 
Speed, descent of load, 0.042 

inch per minute. 
Plot, load against deflection. 
Calculate : 

Crushing strength at 

elastic limit, 
maximum crushing 

strength. 

3. Compression perpendicular to 

grain. 

Size, 2 inches by 2 inches by 

6 inches. 
Width of iron plate, 2 inches. 
Speed, descent of load, 0.042 

inch per minute. 
Plot, load against deflection. 



Compression perpendicular to 
grain — Continued. 
Calculate, crushing strength at 
elastic limit. 
Shearing parallel to grain. 
Size, 3 inches by 3 inches by 
21 inches. 

Projecting lip, 2 inches by 

3 inches by I inch. 
Shearing surface, 2 inches 
by 3 inches. 
Speed, descent of load, 0.042 

inch per minute. 
Calculate, shearing strength. 
Hardness. 

Size, 3 inches by 3 inches by 

24 inches. 
Diameter of ball, 1.12 centi- 
meters. 
Speed, descent of load, 0.042 
inch per minute. 
Specific gravity and moisture 
content. 
Size: 

For static bending, 2 inches 

by 2 inches by 1 inch. 
For compression parallel, 

2 inches by 2 inches by 
1 inch. 

For compression perpen- 
dicular, 2 inches by 2 
inches by 1 inch. 

For shear parallel to grain 
and hardness, 2 inches by 

3 inches by i inch. 
Calculate : 

Specific gravity at test. 
Specific gravity oven-dry. 
Moisture percentage. 



392 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1927 



Static bending. 

(a) Center loading. 

Size, 2 inches by 4 inches 

by 6 feet to 3 inches 

by 4 inches by 8 feet. 

Span, 60 inches to 90 

inches. 
Speed, descent of load: 
Span less than 60 
i n c h e s , = 0.225 
inch per minute. 
Span more than 60 
inches, — 0.18 
inch per minute. 
(h) Third-point loading. 

Size, 4 inches by 6 

inches by 8 feet and 4 

inches by 8 inches by 

15 feet. 

Span, 9 feet and 12 feet. 

Speed, descent of load, 

0.18 inch per minute. 
Plot, load against deflec- 
tion. 



STRUCTURAL SIZES 

1. static bending — Continued. 

{h) Third-point loading— Ctd. 
Calculate ; 

Fiber stress at 

elastic limit. 
Modulus of rupture. 
Modulus of elas- 
ticity. 
Longitudinal shear. 
Work to elastic 

limit. 
Work to maximum 
load. 
Specific gravity and moisture 
content. 

Size, cross section of speci- 
men, 1 inch thick. 
Calculate : 

Specific gravity at test. 
Specific gravity, oven- 
dry. 
Moisture percentage. 



DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED 

I. Static bending. 

1. Fiber stress at elastic limit. — This is the stress developed in the 

ouside fibers of the beam when loaded to its elastic limit. It 
is the greatest stress the timber can stand without permanent 
deformation. 

2. Modulus of rupture. — This is the stress in the outermost fibers 

of a beam at the instant of breaking, calculated on the assump- 
tion that the ratio of stress to strain is identical beyond as 
well as within the elastic limit. This assumption is theoretic- 
ally erroneous, but may be used for comparison of the strength 
of the various species. 

3. Modulus of elasticity. — This is the ratio of stress to strain at any 

point up to the elastic limit. This is a measure of the stiffness 
of a beam. 

4. Longitudinal shear. — This is defined as the stress which tends to 

keep two adjoining surfaces of a beam from sliding upon each 
other when acted upon by two opposing parallel forces of 
equal magnitude. 

5. Work to elastic limit. — This is the amount of work a beam can 

take up in the course of bending it up to the elastic limit. 
It is a measure of the toughness of the beam. 



33,4 Espinosa: Strength of Philippine Woods 393 

II. Compression parallel to the grain. 

1. Crushing strength at the elastic limit. — This is the greatest load 

per square centimeter that the wood can carry on its end up 
to the elastic limit. 

2. Maximum crushing strength. — This is the greatest load per square 

centimeter that the wood can bear without beginning to break. 

III. Compression perpendicular to the grain. 

Crushing strength at the elastic limAt. — This is the greatest stress 
that the specimen can stand, up to the elastic limit. 

IV. Shear parallel to the grain. 

Shearing strength. — This is the greatest stress required to cause 

one portion of the body of the specimen to slide over the other 

along the grain. 
V. Hardness. 

End hardness. — This is the load required to embed a 1.12-centimeter 

ball one-half of its diameter into an end surface or along the 

grain. 
Side hardness. — This is the load required to embed a 1.12-centimeter 

ball one-half of its diameter into a side surface or perpendicular 

to the grain, either tangential or radial. 

VI. Moisture percentage. 

This is the moisture that the wood contains at the time of test, ex- 
pressed as percentage of the oven-dry weight of the specimen. 

VII. Specific gravity. 

1. Specific gravity at test. — This is the specific gravity of a speci- 

men at the time of test. 

2. Oven-dry specific gravity. — This is the specific gravity of a 

piece of wood computed on the oven-dry weight and the volume 
when tested. 

SUMMARY 

Following the standard methods used by the Forest Products 
Laboratory, Forest Service, United States Department of Agri- 
culture, mechanical tests were made on some Philippine com- 
mercial woods, both in structural sizes varying from 2 inches 
by 4 inches by 5 feet to 8 inches by 8 inches by 15 feet, and in 
smaller specimens free of knots and other defects, 2 inches by 
2 inches by 30 inches. Tables of adaptability numbers were 
prepared giving a comparison of the suitability as regards 
strength of the different species with red lauan, or *Thilippine 
mahogany,'' which is one of the best-known woods of the Is- 
lands. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1906. Roland Gardner. I. Mechanical tests, properties, and uses of 30 
Philippine woods. II. Philippine saw mills, lumber market, and 
prices. Bull. P. I. Bureau of Forestry 4. 



394 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

1915. KiTARO MoROTO. Investigation of the transverse strength in wood. 

Extracts from Bull. Forest Service Experiment Station, Meguro, 
Tokyo, Bureau of Forestry, Tokyo, Japan. 

1916. E. E. Schneider. Commercial woods of the Philippines: their prep- 

aration and uses. Bull. P. I. Bureau of Forestry 14. 

1917. G. A. Julius. The physical characteristics of the hardwoods of 

Western Australia. Published at Perth. By authority: Fred 
Wm. Simpson, Government Printer. 

1918. Robert Peele. Mining Engineers' Handbook 1918. John Wiley and 

Sons, Inc. 

1919. Charles E. Fuller and William A. Johnston. Applied Mechanics, 

Vol. 2, Strength of Materials. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

1920. H. T. Burgess, Kenneth Scott, and Bernice Albright. Manual 

of methods and Procedure in Computing Results of Strength Tests, 
Forest Product Laboratory. U. S. Forest Service. 

1921. F. V. Valencia. Mechanical tests of some commercial Philippine 

timbers. Philip. Journ. Sci. 18. 

1922. J. S. Gamble. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Sampson Low, Mar- 

ston and Company, London. 

1922. Harrison W. Hayward. Materials of Construction; their Man- 

ufacture and Properties. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 

1923. J. A. Newlin and Thomas R. C. Wilson. Mechanical properties 

of woods grown in the United States. Bull. U. S. Forest Service 
556. 
1926. L. N. Seaman and C. R. Ranganathan. Work under Project No. 1 
by the Section of Timber Testing including the results of the 
Mechanical and Physical Tests on certain of the common Indian 
Timbers up to end of 1924. Ind. For. Rec. 12. 



ILLUSTRATION 

Plate 1. Static bending, third-point loading. 



395 




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PHILIPPINE SPAROID AND RUDDER FISHES 

By Albert W. Herre and Heraclio R. Montalban 
Of the Bureau of Science, Manila 

NINE PLATES 

SPARID^ 

Body oblong or more or less elevated and laterally compressed, 
covered with moderately large firm scales which are never truly 
ctenoid, soft dorsal and anal scaleless, sides of head usually 
scaly; head large, bony crests on skull usually well developed, 
bones of head with a rudimentary mucif erous system ; no subor- 
bital stay; mouth small, terminal, low, horizontal; premaxillary 
not protractile; maxillary short, without a supplemental bone, 
slipping under edge of preorbital for most of its length; teeth 
strong, those in front of jaws conical, incisorlike, or molar; 
the lateral teeth may be conical and sharp, but are usually more 
or less blunt and molar, sometimes with several rows of very 
broad flat molars; no teeth on vomer or palatines except in 
Evynnis, a Japanese genus with a group on vomer, and Neole- 
thrimcs, an Australian group with molar teeth on roof of 
mouth ; preopercle entire or serrulate ; no opercular spines ; dor- 
sal fin single, continuous or deeply notched, spines usually 
strong, depressible in a groove or a scaly sheath; spines 10 to 
13, heteracanthous or alternating, the one kind stronger on 
the right side, the other on the left ; anal short, with 3 spines ; 
ventral fins thoracic, 1-5, with a more or less distinct scalelike 
appendage at base; air bladder usually simple; pyloric caeca few; 
gills 4, a large slit behind the last; pseudobranchiae large; gill 
rakers moderate ; gill membranes separate, free from isthmus ; 
vertebrae usually 10 + 14. 

A large group with numerous genera and many species. Car- 
nivorous shore and reef fishes of tropical and temperate waters. 
Many of them are highly valued for food and they form the 
basis for important hand-line fisheries in Japan and Formosa. 
Four genera are known from the Philippines. 

397 



398 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Key to the Philippine genera of Sparidse, 

a\ Cheeks naked; dorsal X-9; anal III-8 Lethrinus. 

a*. Cheeks scaly. 

6\ Molars in a single series in both jaws Monotaxis. 

6^ Molars in two or more series. 

c\ Molar teeth in two rows on each side of upper jaw Pagrus. 

(f. Molar teeth in three, four, or five rows on each side of upper jaw. 

Sparus. 
Genus LETHRINUS Cuvier 

Lethrinus CuviER, Regno Anim., ed. 2 2 (1829) 182. 
Lethrinella Fowler, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (1904) 529. 

The members of this genus are recognized at a glance by their 
naked cheeks, only the opercles being scaled; top of head also 
naked; body oblong, laterally compressed; all the species have 
the dorsal X-9, the anal III-8, and rather large scales, 46 to 
50 in lateral series; anterior part of each jaw with 4 large 
conical canines, with a row of villiform teeth on their inner 
side; laterally each jaw has a single row of large conical or 
molar teeth, the posterior ones often with very flat broad 
crowns, unlike the teeth of most percoid fishes; angle of mouth 
red within ; 2 or 3 short pyloric appendages ; branchiostegals 6 ; 
air bladder generally notched posteriorly and with short lateral 
appendages. 

These fishes feed upon Crustacea, mollusks, coral, and other 
fishes. They reach a length of one-third of a meter to a meter, 
and most of them are valued for food. They are one of the 
principal sources of supply for the dried-fish industry at Sitankai. 
In Japan and Formosa enormous quantities are caught by hand- 
line and long-line fisheries. In the Philippines they are caught 
mainly in nets and bobos, but are not the basis of any special 
fishery. 

Although it superficially resembles Lutiantcs, the genus is a 
very natural and easily recognized one, but most of the species 
are difficult to separate. Many nominal species have been 
named and described, most of them based upon immature and 
isolated specimens. The color, shape of the head, and general 
form often change greatly with age. Some of the species are 
brilliant red in life, and several have a black lateral blotch. In 
alcohol they fade to gray or brown, the black blotch may dis- 
appear, and upon quite diverse species mottled blotches may 
appear, causing them to resemble each other closely. Only 
careful examination of a large series of fresh mature specimens 
will clear up the muddled synonymy. 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 399 

This genus occurs from the east coast of Africa to Japan 
and Polynesia, with one species on the west coast of Africa. 

Key to the Philippine species of Lethrinns. 
a*. Lateral teeth conical. 

6^. With a blackish lateral blotch. 

c\ Blackish blotch below anterior dorsal rays and beyond pectoral. 

L. moensi. 
c^. Blackish blotch more anterior and between lateral line and pec- 
toral. 
cT. Depth of body less than length of head. 

e^. Second dorsal spine highest and filiform L. nematacanthus. 

e^. Second dorsal spine not as above. 

f. Head rather long, 2.4 to 2.6 times in length of body; snout 

very elongate L. miniatus. 

p. Head rather short, 2.7 to 2.8 times in length of body; snout 

moderate L. amboinensis. 

cf . Depth of body equal to or greater than length of head. 

L. richardsoni. 
6'. Without any blackish lateral blotch. 

g^. Body deep and fairly short, depth 2.7 times in length. 

h^. With blackish crossbands on sides L. cutambi. 

/l^ Without any blackish crossbands on sides L. kallopterus. 

g^. Body low and rather elongate, depth 3.1 to 4 times in length. 
i^. Depth of body 3.6 to 4 times in length; with a blackish longi- 
tudinal band in young, and with or without blackish trans- 
verse blotches in adult L. variegatus. 

i^. Depth of body 3.1 times in length; with 2 wide golden or yellowish 

longitudinal bands L. ramak. 

a'. Some of the lateral teeth rounded or with a distinct longitudinal im- 
pression. 
f. With a blackish lateral blotch. 

k^. Blackish blotch between lateral line and middle of pectoral. 

L. atkinsoni. 
/c'. Blackish blotch between lateral line and posterior portion of pec- 
toral L. harak. 

y^ Without a blackish lateral blotch. 
r. Five scales above lateral line. 
w}. Height of soft anal less than its length. 

n\ A blackish spot at base of each scale; anterior profile of head 

steep, straight before eyes L. haematopterus. 

n". Color uniform, with six broad, clear crossbands; anterior pro- 
file very steep, slightly concave before eyes L. mahsena. 

m". Height of soft anal greater than its length L. hypselopterus. 

P. Six scales above lateral line. 

o\ Head longer than deep; third anal spine higher than second. 
p\ Scales on back and middle of sides with pearl white spots. 

L. opercularis. 
p^. Scales on back and middle of sides without pearl white spots. 

L. leutjanus. 



400 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

o*. Head as deep as long; second and third anal spines about equal 
in height. 
q\ Body with five or six reddish or yellowish longitudinal bands. 

L. ornatus. 
q^. Body without bands , L. insulindicus. 

LETHRINUS MOENSI (Bleeker). Plate 1, fisr. 1. 

Lethrinus moensii Bleeker, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind. 9 (1855) 435; 
GiJNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 455; Fische der Sudsee 1 (1873) 
64, pi. 46, fig. A; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 115; 7 (1876) 
297, fig. 3. 

Lethrinus moensi Evermann and Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 26 
(1907) 86; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 31 (1907) 509; Jordan and 
Richardson, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 27 (1907) (1908) 259. 

Lethrinus genivittatus Playpair, Proc. Zool. Soc. (1867) 853; not of 
Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III~8; 47 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 16 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

Body oblong and compressed, with evenly arched profiles, 
upper more elevated, the depth 2.8 to 3.3 times in length ; head 
much longer than deep, its length exceeding depth of body, 2.6 
to 2.8 times in length; interorbital space nearly flat, 3.6 to 4.3 
times in head; diameter of the large, almost circular eye 1.5 
to 2 times in the long pointed snout, which is 1.8 to 2.2 times 
in length of head; maxillary extends posteriorly to below an- 
terior nostril, its length 2.7 to 3 times in head and less than 
greatest width of preorbital, which is 2.1 to 2.4 times in head ; 
four curved canines anteriorly in each jaw, those of upper 
much the larger, and a single row of pointed conical teeth on 
sides; in front of each eye two small nostrils, the anterior a 
fleshy tube which is highest behind, and the other a simple 
rounded opening; the opercle has two flat, blunt spines on its 
posterior border; least depth of caudal peduncle a little less 
than half its length and 8.9 to 9.9 times in length of body. 

Two patches of scales behind eye, one on the uppermost por- 
tion of preopercle and the other on each side of nape ; the dorsal 
spines decrease in height posteriorly from third, the last about 
as high as third anal spine, which is contained from 2.7 to 4.5 
times in head; caudal fin forked, with pointed lobes; pectoral 
fin, which extends to above base of anal spines, shorter than 
head and about twice ventral spine; ventral fin reaches origin 
of anal fin. 

Fresh specimens brownish, washed with pinkish on back and 
yellowish on sides, which passes into whitish along belly; head 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 401 

yellowish brown, iris lemon yellow, inside of mouth bright red ; 
the trunk has on each side transverse blackish blotches which 
are more bandlike along back; spinous dorsal edged with red, 
the colorless membranous portion having diagonal pinkish 
bands ; rays of vertical fins, caudal, pectoral, and ventrals washed 
with pinkish, the membranous portions colorless ; with the excep- 
tion of pectoral, all fins above have series of blackish spots on 
rays. 

Alcoholic specimens yellowish brown ; top of head, snout, and 
cheeks deep violet; the body has irregular blackish blotches on 
sides, arranged in rather indistinct transverse bands; a large 
oblong blackish blotch below anterior half of soft dorsal and 
partly below lateral line; dorsal and anal fins have blackish 
spots at their bases, their rayed portions and caudal fin finely 
barred with the same color. 

Of this species we have examined fifteen examples, varying 
from 28 to 196 millimeters in length, collected at the following 
localities: Legaspi, Albay; Calapan and Bulalacao Bay, Min- 
doro; Tablas Island; Romblon, Romblon Island; Dumaguete, 
Oriental Negros; Balabac Island; and Zamboanga, Mindanao. 
A specimen from Balabac Island measures 190 millimeters in 
length, and is a female nearly ready to spawn. 

Evermann and Seale recorded L. moensi from Bacon, Sor- 
sogon Province, and from Jolo Island; Jordan and Richardson 
recorded it from Calayan, one of the Babuyan Islands. It is 
common in nearly all parts of the tropical Pacific from the Mo- 
luccas to the Low Archipelago and north to the Gilbert and 
Pelew Islands and is found at the Seychelles in the Indian 
Ocean. It is said to reach a meter in length and its flesh is 
very good to eat. 

LETHRINUS NEMATACANTHUS Sleeker. Plate 1, fiff. 2. 

Lethrinus nematacanthus Bleeker, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind. 6 (1854) 
403; Verh. Bat. Gen. 26 (1854) 90, pi. 6; GitNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 
(1859) 456; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 114, pi. 337, fig. 3; 
Meyer, Ann., Soc. Espaiia Hist. Nat. 14 (1885) 18; Evermann and 
Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 26 (1907) 86; Jordan and Thompson, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 41 (1912) 559, fig. 4; Weber, Siboga Exp., 
Fische (1913) 288. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III-8; 46 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 6 between lateral line and ori^n of dorsal, and 14 
between lateral line and origin of anal. 

The oblong compressed body a little elongate, its profiles evenly 
and about equally arched from snout to caudal; depth 3 to 3.2 



402 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

times in length, a little less than length of head, which is much 
greater than its own depth and 2.8 to 3 times in length of body ; 
interorbital space very slightly convex and contained from 3 
to 3.9 times in head; diameter of the rounded eye 1.4 to 1.8 times 
in length of the pointed and slightly elongate snout which is 

2.1 to 2.5 times in head ; maxillary reaches to or nearly to ver- 
tical from anterior rim of orbit, 2.6 to 3 times in head, and 
almost as long as greatest width of preorbital; canines slightly 
curved and moderate in size; lateral teeth conical, becoming 
smaller and pointed anteriorly, more obtuse posteriorly ; the two 
nostrils in front of each eye small, the anterior provided with 
a fleshy rim which is highest posteriorly, and the other a simple 
rounded opening; posterior edge of opercle armed with two flat 
spines, the lower much the stronger; least depth of caudal pe- 
duncle 8.5 to 9.2 times in length of body or 2.9 to 3.3 times in 
that of head. 

Behind each eye two patches of scales, one above preopercle 
and the other on each side of nape ; of the weak, rather flexible 
dorsal spines, the second is the highest and somewhat produced 
into a filament, which is 1.7 to 2.2 times in length of head ; third 
anal spine a little longer than second and 2.9 to 3.5 times in 
head ; caudal fin slightly emarginate ; pectoral fin is rather short, 
1.3 to 1.5 times in head, and extends to above anus; ventral fin 
reaches origin of anal, its spine 1.7 to 1.9 times in pectoral and 

2.2 to 2.5 times in length of head. 

The ground color in alcohol yellowish brown; head and body 
have irregular blackish spots, which are arranged in very in- 
distinct transverse bands ; a blackish blotch between middle por- 
tion of pectoral and lateral line; head almost uniformly violet; 
all fins excepting pectoral spotted with black. 

The twenty specimens above described vary in length from 74 
to 142 millimeters, and were collected at the following places: 
Calapan, Mindoro; Bulan, Sorsogon; Dicuayan Island, Busuan- 
ga; Estancia, Panay Island; Bantayan Island; Siquijor Island; 
Subic Bay; Dipolog and Cagayan de Misamis, Mindanao. 

Dr. A. B. Meyer collected this species at Cebu and Evermann 
and Seale recorded it from Bulan, Sorosogon. 

This species was originally described from southern Japan, 
where it is common; it ranges south through the Philippines 
to Amboina and southeastward to the Louisiade Archipelago. 

LETHRINUS MINIATUS (Forster, MS.). Plate 1, fig. 3. 

Sparus miniatus (Forster) Bloch and Schneider, Syst. Ichth. (1801) 
281. 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 403 

Lethrinus miniatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 
(1830) 235; Gunther, Fische der Sudsee 1 (1873) 63; Bleeker, 
Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 121; Steindachner, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien 115 (1906) Abt. 1, 1385; Seale and Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus. 33 (1907) 244. 

Lethrinella miniata Fowler, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (1904) 529; 
Jordan and Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 25 (1905) (1906) 270. 

Lethrinus rostratus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 
(1830) 220; Gunther, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 454; Day, Fishes of 
India (1875) 134, pi. 33, fig. 1; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 7 (1876) 
pi. 309, fig. 3. 

Lethrinus longirostris Playfair and Gunther, Fishes of Zanzibar 
(1866) 44, pi. 7, fig. 2. 

Dorsal X-9 ; anal III-8 ; 48 scales on lateral line to base of cau- 
dal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 16 between 
lateral line and origin of anal. 

Body compressed and elongate, with the dorsal profile strongly 
elevated and the ventral slightly convex posteriorly, depth 2.8 
to 3.2 times in length and much less than length of head ; head 
rather pointed and compressed, its length 1.3 to 1.4 times its 
depth and 2.4 to 2.6 times in length of body, upper profile straight 
and strongly oblique, lower nearly horizontal ; interorbital space 
slightly arched, its width 4.1 to 4.8 times in head; diameter of 
eye contained from 4.5 to 6.8 times in length of head and from 
1.8 to 4 times in the very characteristic elongate pointed snout, 
which is 1.7 to 2.1 times in head; maxillary does not quite reach 
to below front nostril, its length 2.6 to 3 times in head and 1.4 
to 1.7 times in snout; greatest width of preorbital equal to or 
more than twice that of interorbital space and 2.2 to 2.7 times 
in length of head; the teeth of the lateral series slightly com- 
pressed and pointed, the hindmost ones of upper jaw somewhat 
blunt and molarlike ; the curved canine teeth rather small ; two 
nostrils in front of each eye, the anterior smaller and in a low 
fleshy tube, the posterior a simple rounded opening; opercle 
armed behind with two blunt flat spines; depth of compressed 
caudal peduncle 9.7 to 10 times in total length and 3.9 to 4.2 
times in head. 

Two scaly patches behind eye, one on top of preopercle and 
the other a little more superior; second to fifth dorsal spines 
highest, the last contained 4.8 to 5.2 times in head; pectoral fin 
is 1.5 to 1.8 times in head and extends to above origin of anal 
fin; ventral fin reaches to anus, its spine 1.7 to 1.9 times in 
length of pectoral. 

Fresh specimens were brownish, with lilac wash on sides 
which passed into whitish below; on each side of body there 



404 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

were irregular, rather obscure deep brown transverse blotches; 
a large, rather distinct rounded blotch of the same color was 
present between lateral line and middle of pectoral ; head darker 
than ground color, with deep brown bars running forward from 
eyes ; caudal fin and the membranous portions of ventrals pinkish, 
the latter fin with the rays washed with lilac ; the pectoral rays 
were pinkish, lilac basally; there were diagonal pinkish bands 
distinctly marked on the colorless membranes of dorsal and anal 
fins. 

The ground color in alcohol yellowish brown ; head, body, and 
fins clouded with blackish; a large blackish blotch between pec- 
toral and lateral line; radiating from front edge of eye toward 
upper jaw three fine brown bands; a fourth crosses cheek from 
opercle to angle of mouth, and below this band are several brown 
blotches; vertical fins lightly banded with blackish, the base of 
some of the rays with a blackish spot. 

The foregoing account is from thirteen examples, 74 to 460 
millimeters long, taken at the following localities: Polillo Is- 
land; Manila; Calapan, Mindoro; Tablas Island; Bantayan Is- 
land; Subic Bay; Agutaya Island, Cuyo Islands; Dipolog and 
Zamboanga, Mindanao; and Tandubas Island, Sulu Archipelago. 

This execellent food fish is a bold biter, and is often taken 
with the hook. It reaches a length of at least three-fourths of 
a meter. It occurs from the Red Sea to Samoa in the South 
Pacific. 

LETHRINUS AMBOINENSIS Bleeker. Plate 2, &g. 1. 

Lethrinus amboinensis Bleeker, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind. 6 (1854) 490; 

GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 455; Fische der Sudsee 1 (1875) 63; 

Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 116; 7 (1876) pi. 311, fig. 3; Jordan 

and Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 26 (1907) 24; Weber, Siboga Exp., 

Fische (1913) 288. 
Lethrinus jagorii Peters, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (1868) 257. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III-S; 47 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

The oblong, compressed body a little elongate, upper profile 
a little more elevated than ventral; depth contained 2.8 to 3 
times in length; head longer than depth of body and 2.7 to 2.8 
times in length; interorbital space almost flat, its least width 1.6 
to 2 times in the rather pointed snout which is 2 to 2.5 times in 
head; the rounded eye moderate in size, its diameter 3.2 to 3.9 
times in head and shorter than maxillary, which is contained 2.7 
to 3 times and extends posteriorly to below posterior nostril; 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 405 

the canines in front of each jaw moderate in size, the lateral 
teeth conical and not obtusely rounded ; in front of eye two small 
nostrils, the anterior with a fleshy rim which is highest pos- 
teriorly, and the other a simple rounded opening; opercle has 
two flat bluntish spines at its posterior margin ; depth of caudal 
peduncle 8.1 to 9 times in length of body. 

Two patches of scales behind each eye, one above preopercle 
and the other just above it on side of nape; dorsal spines mod- 
erate and rather feeble, third to fifth spines the highest, tenth 
spine nearly as high as third anal, which is 3 to 3.5 times in 
head ; caudal fin emarginate, with the lobes pointed ; pectoral fin 
reaches to above base of anal spines and is 1.8 to 2 times ventral 
spine, which is contained 2.8 to 3 times in head; the rayed ven- 
tral terminates at about origin of anal fin. 

Alcoholic specimens yellowish brown, head almost uniformly 
violet; a large rounded blackish blotch between lateral line and 
middle of pectoral ; back and sides of trunk largely marbled with 
blackish ; all the fins except pectoral, which is uniformly yellow- 
ish, variegated with blackish. 

We have examined fifteen specimens, ranging in length from 
131 down to less than 27 millimeters, from the following local- 
ities: Orani, Bataan; Tondo, Manila; Calapan, Mindoro; Bacon, 
Sorsogon; Concepcion, Busuanga; and Dipolog, Zamboanga. 
Jagor collected the species at Paracale, Camarines Norte, and Pe- 
ters described it under the name of L. jagorii. Jordan and 
Scale recorded it from Cavite. 

Lethrinus amboinensis is near to L. reticulatus and L. variega- 
tus, but is closest to the first named. 

It seems to be comparatively rare; Bleeker's specimens came 
from Amboina, Flores, and Ceram. In addition to specimens 
from Amboina, Giinther had specimens from the Pelew Islands. 

LETHRINUS RICHARDSONI Gunther. Plate 2, fig. 2. 

Lethrinus richardsoni Gunther, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 456; Jordan 
and EVERMANN, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 25 (1903) 350; Evermann 
and Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 25 (1906) 86. 

Lethrinus haematopterus Richardson, Zool. Sulphur, Ichthy. part 3 
(1845) 144, pi. 64, figs. 1-3, not of Schlegel; Kner, Reise Novara, 
Fische (1865) 80; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 113, note under 
L. haematopterus Schlegel. 

Dorsal X-9 ; anal III-8 ; 46 or 47 scales on lateral line to base 
of caudal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 
or 16 between lateral line and origin of anal. 

Depth of the oblong compressed body contained from 2.4 to 
2.8 times in length, dorsal and ventral profiles evenly and about 



406 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

equally arched; the slightly pointed head longer than deep, 
shorter than depth of body, 2.6 to 3.1 times in length, its upper 
profile nearly straight; the slightly convex interorbital 3.6 to 
4.2 times in head, or a little narrower than eye, which is 3.2 
to 4 times in head; the pointed, rather elongate snout 2 to 2.3 
times in length of head ; maxillary ends posteriorly nearly below 
posterior nostril, its length 2.6 to 2.9 times in head and is slightly 
exceeded by preorbital's greatest width which is 2.2 to 2.6 times 
in head; each jaw has a single lateral row of conical teeth, which 
are rather small and acute anteriorly, moderately high along 
middle, and rather low and obtusely pointed behind ; the curved 
canines at front rather small; anterior nostril in a low fleshy 
tube which is highest behind, and the other nostril is a simple 
rounded opening; the opercle has two flat, rather blunt spines 
at its posterior edge; depth of caudal peduncle 7.7 to 8.7 times 
in length of body. 

Head naked except on opercles which are almost entirely 
scaled and behind each eye where there are two patches of 
scales, one above preopercle and another on each side of nape; 
dorsal spines moderate in height, fourth and fifth highest, the 
last one about as high as third anal spine which is 2.8 to 3.8 
times in head; caudal fin emarginate; pectoral, which extends 
posteriorly to above base of anal spines, a little shorter than 
head and contained 3 to 3.5 times in length of body; ventral fin 
reaches to a little behind anus, its spine 2 to 2.3 times in length 
of pectoral. 

Alcoholic specimens brownish olive, slightly darker on the 
naked portions of head ; sides indistinctly marbled with blackish ; 
a rounded blackish blotch between lateral line and anterior half 
of pectoral fin; pectorals and ventrals yellowish, the other fins 
indistinctly clouded with blackish, this color having faded in some 
specimens; caudal fin shows rather obscure transverse bars of 
blackish. 

In the Bureau of Science collection are fifty-six specimens, 
varying from 32 to 192 millimeters in length. They were taken 
at the following localities : Iba, Zambales ; Manila Bay ; Calapan, 
Mindoro; Bacon, Sorsogon; Concepcion, Busuanga Island; Es- 
tancia, Panay Island; Bantayan Island; Carigara, Leyte; Cani- 
garan, Palawan ; Dumaguete, Oriental Negros ; Surigao, Surigao ; 
Cagayan de Misamis; Balabac Island; Loay, Bohol; Samal Is- 
land, Davao Gulf, Zamboanga, and Caldera Bay, Mindanao. 
There are also in the collection four examples, 62 to 94 milli- 
meters long, obtained in Sandakan, Borneo. 



33, 4 Her7'e and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 407 

This species has been recorded in the Philippines by Kner, 
as Lethrinus haematopterus, from Manila. It differs from 
Lethrinus haematoptems Schlegel in having all the lateral teeth 
in each jaw conical, pointed, and small. Evermann and Seale 
had twenty-five specimens from Bacon, Sorsogon. It has 
been recorded previously only from the China Sea, Hongkong, 
and Formosa. 

LETHRINUS CUTAMBI Seale. 

Lethrinus cutambi Seale, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 514, pi. 10. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III~8; 46 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 5 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

Upper profile of the oblong compressed body more elevated 
than lower, greatest depth at origin of ventrals, 2.7 times in 
length ; head longer than deep, its length less than depth of body 
and 2.9 times in length; interorbital space convex, its least width 
equal to eye, which is 3.7 times in head; the elongate, slightly 
pointed snout 1.9 times in head, its upper outline concave; max- 
illary, which ends posteriorly below posterior nostril, 2.6 times 
in length of head and shorter than preorbitaPs greatest width, 
which is contained 2.2 times in head; 4 small canines in front of 
each jaw, the lateral teeth in each jaw conical, with the posterior 
ones obtusely pointed ; anterior nostril has a marginal flap which 
is highest behind, and the other is a simple oval opening situated 
slightly nearer eye than anterior nostril; opercle armed behind 
with two fiat blunt spines, the upper very small and scarcely 
noticeable; depth of caudal peduncle 8 times in length of body. 

Head naked except on opercle and behind eye where there are 
two patches of scales, one above preopercle and the other on 
each side of nape ; fourth dorsal spine highest, second anal spine 
slightly higher than last dorsal and contained 3.2 times in head ; 
caudal fin deeply emarginate ; pectoral fin shorter than head and 
contained 3.5 times in length of body, its tip above base of anal 
spines; ventral fin reaches anal opening, its spine 2.6 times in 
head or 2.2 times in pectoral. 

Seale gives the color in life as dark greenish, with seven or 
eight irregular darker bars over the back and down the sides, 
and with the vertical fins marked with bars of dark green. 

The color of the fish in alcohol is yellowish brown, with a 
slight shade of greenish; on each side are about eight darker 
greenish crossbars, which are narrower than the interspaces, 
running from the back to the ventral surface; the bars are 



408 ^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

more or less broken at the lateral line but continuous below it; 
the blackish blotch on second bar between lateral line and middle 
of pectoral is hardly perceptible ; the naked portions of head are 
brownish violet ; there is a deep brown line at base of pectoral ; 
dorsal and anal fins are indistinctly clouded with dark brown 
crossbars; pectoral fin is colored similarly to body. 

Here described from the type specimen, No. 4678, now in the 
Bureau of Science collection. It is 159 millimeters in length and 
was collected at Sitankai, Sulu Archipelago, in July, 1908. 

LETHRINUS KALLOPTERUS Bleeker. Plate 2, &g, 3. 

Lethrinus kalloptemis Bleeker, Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Neerl. 1 (1856) 
47; GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 460; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. a 
(1877) 113, pi. 351, fig. 3. 

Dorsal X~9; anal III-8; 48 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

The oblong compressed body rather deep, its greatest depth 
equal to length of head, which is 2.7 times in length of body; 
profiles almost evenly and equally arched from snout to caudal ; 
depth of head about equal to its length, upper profile, which is 
convex, prominently arched in front of and above eyes, giving 
a very slight concave outline to anterior half of snout; width 
of the moderately convex interorbital twice in the pointed snout 
or maxillary which is contained 1.9 times in head; diameter of 
the large rounded eye much less than width of interorbital and 
4.2 times in length of head ; greatest width of preorbital nearly 
twice eye and 2.2 times in head ; posterior extremity of maxillary 
below anterior margin of orbit; in front of each jaw four large, 
slightly curved canines ; on sides are conical teeth, those in front 
unequal and acutely pointed, the posterior teeth rather obtuse 
pointed ; the two nostrils very small, the anterior in a low fleshy 
tube and the other rounded and placed closer to eye than to 
anterior nostril ; two flat, rather blunt spines on posterior border 
of opercle; depth of caudal peduncle 2.9 times in length of head, 
or 7.6 times in that of body. 

Behind each eye two patches of scales, a larger one above 
preopercle and the other higher up on each side of nape; third, 
fourth, and fifth dorsal spines highest, the tenth, which is higher 
than the preceding one, 4 times in head ; third anal spine much 
higher than second and as high as last dorsal spine ; rayed por- 
tion of anal much higher than long; caudal fin slightly emar- 
ginate, the lobes obtuse; pectoral fin extends to above base of 
anal spines, its length much less than that of head and 3.2 times 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 409 

in length of body; ventral fin reaches anus, its spine 2.7 times 
in pectoral. 

The fish when fresh was olive brown, with a pale center to 
each scale; there were golden spots scattered on the middle of 
the sides; the head was deep olive brown, with small, circular, 
golden spots on top and sides; all the fins were orange red; a 
few large golden spots scattered over the vertical fins and ven- 
trals, and on the bases only of the other fins; both dorsal and 
anal vermiculated with bluish. 

In alcohol the ground color olive brown, with a whitish center 
to each scale; head deep olive brown, with small circular pale 
spots on its sides and top; the vertical fins have become almost 
entirely deep violet, with some dark bands and pale spots; pec- 
toral yellowish, ventral olivaceous, and caudal fin olive brown 
at its base and upper and lower portions and yellowish on the 
remaining portions; the red color on fins has almost entirely 
faded out; only traces remain of the golden spots on middle of 
sides. 

This species is here described for the first time from the Phil- 
ippines; our sole specimen is 350 millimeters long and was ob- 
tained at Tablas Island. 

In common with Lethrinus hypselopterus, this species has the 
anal much higher than long, but is distinct in having the caudal 
lobes obtuse, while the coloration is unique in the genus. 

This fine species has been recorded from Celebes, Batjan, and 
New Guinea. 

LETHRINUS VARIEGATUS Ehrenberg. Plate 3, fig. 1. 

Lethrinus variegatus Ehrenberg in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. 

Nat. Poiss. 6 (1830) 213; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 117, pi. 

328, fig. 3; pi. 330, fig. 2; 7 (1876) pi. 317, fig. 1; Evermann and 

Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 26 (1907) 86. 
Lethrinus latifrons Ruppell, Neue Wirbelt., Fische (1840) 118, pi. 

28, fig. 4. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III-8; 46 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 5 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 13 between 
lateral line and origin of anal. 

Dorsal and ventral profiles of the compressed, rather elongate 
body evenly and equally arched from snout to caudal, depth 
3.6 to 4 times, or exceptionally 3.2 times in length and much 
less than length of head; the pointed head much longer than 
deep, its length 1.6 times its depth and 2.7 to 2.9 times in length 
of body; interorbital space almost flat in the young and a little 
concave in the adult, its width 3.6 to 4 times in head, and slightly 



410 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

less than the diameter of the large rounded eye, which is con- 
tained 3 to 3.4 times, or even 4 times in head in large specimens ; 
the long pointed snout 2.4 to 2.7 times in length of head (1.8 
times in a large specimen) , its upper profile very slightly arched ; 
maxillary, v^hich terminates scarcely below anterior rim of eye, 
equal to or slightly less than greatest width of preorbital which 
is contained 2.6 to 2.9 times in head; the curved canines mod- 
erately large, and the lateral teeth conical, some of the latter 
enlarged and slightly curved backward; the two small nostrils 
closer together than the distance from hind one to eye, the 
anterior having a fleshy rim which is highest posteriorly and 
the other a rounded simple opening; opercle armed behind, with 
two flat spines; length of caudal peduncle about twice its least 
depth, which is 9.8 to 10.5 times in length of body. 

A patch of scales above opercle behind eye and another just 
below nape; dorsal spines slender and not prolonged, fourth 
the highest and higher than soft dorsal, the last one about as 
high as third anal spine which is higher than second, 3.6 to 
4 times in head ; caudal fin forked ; pectoral fin does not extend to 
above anus and is 1.6 to 1.9 times ventral spine, which is 2.8 
to 3.1 times in head; ventral fin reaches anus. 

In alcohol the ground color is yellowish brown, much paler 
on the lower parts; in a large specimen the body is crossed by 
rather indistinct bandlike transverse blackish blotches; in 
smaller specimens there is a longitudinal band of the same color 
from eye to upper half of caudal, and a yellowish, rather narrow 
longitudinal stripe following the anterior course of lateral line 
and separating the blackish band from the blackish brown color 
of back ; rays of dorsal, anal, and caudal variegated with blackish 
brown. 

The color pattern of this fish varies with respect to age. The 
young have a dark longitudinal band from each side of head 
to caudal; older specimens have on each side of body dark 
blotches arranged in rather indistinct bands, which disappear 
as the fish grows older. 

The above account is of seven examples, 32 to 207 millimeters 
long, collected at Calapan, Mindoro; Canigao Island, Leyte; and 
Samal Island, Davao Gulf, Mindanao. 

This species which has been recorded by Evermann and Scale 
from San Fabian, Pangasinan, occurs in the East Indian 
Archipelago and westward to the Red Sea and the coasts of 
Zanzibar and Mozambique. 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 411 

LETHRINUS RAMAK (Forsk&l). Plate 9, fiff 2. 

Sciaena ramak ForskAl, Descr. Anim. (1775) 52. 

Lethrinus ramak Ruppell, Neue Wirbelt., Fische (1840) 117, pi. 28, 
fig. 3; GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 459; Fische der Sudsee 1 
(1873) 64, pi. 46, fig. B; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 119; 
Meyer, Ann., Soc. Espana Hist. Nat. 14 (1885) 19; Jordan and 
Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 25 (1905) (1906) 269. 

Lethrinus flavescens Cuyier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 
(1830) 222. 

Lethrinus ehrenbergii Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 
(1830) 233. 

Dorsal X~9; anal 111^8; 48 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 5 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

Body oblong and compressed, dorsal and ventral profiles about 
equally elevated, depth 3.1 times in length and 1.2 times in 
head; the pointed head much longer than deep, its length 2.6 
times in that of body and its upper profile rather prominently 
arched in front and above eyes; interorbital space is slightly 
convex, its least width 3.5 times in head, and greatly exceeds 
eye, which is 4.2 to 4.3 times in head ; the elongate pointed snout 
a little concave above, its length twice width of interorbital, 1.8 
times in head; maxillary is 1.4 to 1.5 times in snout or 2.5 to 
2.7 times in head, and extends posteriorly to below anterior 
nostril; preorbital 2.3 times in length of head at its widest por- 
tion; teeth moderate in size; in front of each jaw four canines, 
the middle ones much the smallest; the lateral teeth conical, 
acute in front and more obtusely pointed behind; two small 
nostrils, the anterior having a fleshy rim which is highest be- 
hind, and the other is a simple rounded opening closer to eye than 
to anterior nostril; opercle armed on its posterior border with 
two flat spines; depth of caudal peduncle 10.2 to 10.4 times in 
length of body and 3.8 to 4 times in that of head. 

Behind each eye two patches of scales, one above opercle 
and the other on each side of nape; third dorsal spine highest, 
nearly equal to ventral spine which is 2.9 to 3.1 times in head; 
third anal spine higher than second and very slightly higher 
than last dorsal which is 4.9 to 5 times in head ; caudal fin emar- 
ginate, with pointed lobes, the upper slightly the longer; pec- 
toral fin is 1.5 to 1.6 times in head and extends to vertical 
from anus; ventral fin reaches anus. 

The ground color of the fresh fish was pale olive brown, the 
sides becoming gray which merged into whitish on breast and 

228858- 



412 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

belly; on each side of body were two broad longitudinal golden 
bands and a rather indistinct golden stripe on each row of 
scales; the trunk was traversed by irregular obscure bands 
of blackish olive; cheeks and snout were olive brown overlaid 
with reddish ; portions of the very protractile premaxillary slip- 
ping under preorbital were bright red as were the tongue and 
the inside of mouth; there was a red bar at base of pectoral; 
the soft dorsal, top of spinous dorsal, and the margins of both 
anal and caudal were suffused with red or brilliant pink; the 
pectoral and ventral were pale pink ; the dorsal had obscure red- 
dish brown markings ; the base of vertical fins had dark mark- 
ings at the articulation of the rays. 

In alcohol the ground color is olive brown, with two broad 
longitudinal yellow bands and narrow yellow stripes on each 
side of body; trunk traversed by irregular, rather indistinct, 
blackish bands, there being no definite lateral rounded or lat- 
eral blotch; the red and pink portions on fins, head, and inside 
mouth have almost faded out; the joints of vertical fin rays 
streaked with blackish; the naked portions of head deep olive 
brown. 

Here described from two specimens from the Philippines, 
255 and 270 millimeters long. They were taken at Tablas Island 
and Bennett Island, Masbate. Dr. A. B. Meyer collected this 
fish at Cebu. 

Lethrinus ramak is rather rare in the Red Sea, where it was 
first collected. It occurs south along the coast of Africa to 
Zanzibar and ranges eastward in the Indian and Pacific Oceans 
to Celebes, the Pelew, Gilbert, Fiji, Samoa, and Tongatabu 
Islands. 

LETHRINUS ATKINSONI Seale. 

Lethrinus atkinsoni Seale, Philip. Journ. Sci. § A 4 (1909) 515, pi. 
11. 

Dorsal X-9; anal 111^8; 47 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 14 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

The oblong, compressed body rather deep, the greatest depth 
at origin of ventrals and contained 2.5 times in length, the 
upper outline more elevated than the lower; length of head 
equal to its greatest depth and less than depth of body, 2.8 
times in length; anterior dorsal profile of head in front of eye 
nearly straight; width of the slightly convex interorbital 3.4 
times in head, the rounded eye rather large, its diameter 1.7 
times in snout, which is contained 1.9 times in head; maxillary 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Spar old and Rudder Fishes 413 

ends posteriorly at the vertical from hind nostril, its length 2.6 
times in length of head, and is exceeded by maxillary's 
greatest width which is contained 2.3 times in head; the four 
anterior canines in each jaw rather large, the lateral series 
composed of conical teeth in front and of large molars behind, 
each molar with a longitudinal groove; behind the canines a 
patch of minute teeth; anterior nostril very small and pro- 
vided with a fleshy rim which is highest posteriorly; the other 
nostril is a simple ovate opening which is closer to anterior 
edge of eye than to front nostril ; two flat, rather blunt spines 
on posterior edge of opercle, the upper very small and hardly 
noticeable; depth of caudal peduncle 3 times in head or 8.2 
times in length of body. 

Head naked except opercle and two patches behind eye, one 
above preopercle and the other on side of nape; dorsal spines 
moderate, third and fourth highest, the last one very slightly 
lower than third anal spine, which is contained 3.6 times in 
head; caudal fin deeply emarginate; pectoral, which is a little 
shorter than head, is 3 times in length of body and terminates 
posteriorly above base of anterior anal rays ; ventral fin reaches 
origin of anal fin, its spine 2.4 times in length of pectoral. 

According to Scale the color in life was yellow, with a slight 
wash of grayish ; the fins colorless, excepting the ventrals which 
had dusky tips and the caudal which was yellow. 

In alcohol it is yellowish brown, with the naked portions of 
head olive brown; middle of each row of scales above lateral 
line darker than ground color, making four or five narrow 
longitudinal lines which follow the curvature of back; a large, 
oblong, blackish blotch between lateral line and middle of pec- 
toral fin; fins yellowish and unmarked, excepting first ray of 
pectoral which is grayish above, and ventrals which are dusky 
on posterior third. 

The above account is that of the type specimen. No. 5080, 
which is now in the Bureau of Science collection. It measures 
177 millimeters in length and was taken at Balabac Island in 
August, 1908. 

This fish differs from Lethrinus harak (Forskal) and Lethrinus 
bonhamensis Giinther in having the blackish lateral blotch 
placed a little more anteriorly. 

LETHRINUS HARAK (Forsk&l). Plate 3, fisr. 2. 

Sciaena karak Forskal, Descr. Anim. (1775) 52. 
Lethrimis harak Ruppell, Neue Wirbelt., Fische (1840) 116, pi. 
29, fig. 3; GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 458; Day, Fishes of India 



414 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

(1875) 137, pi. 33, fig. 3; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 119, pi. 
327, fig. 3; Jordan and Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 25 (1905) (1906) 
270; Steindachner, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 115, Abt. 1 
(1906) 1385; Evermann and Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 26 (1907) 
86; Seale and Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 33 (1907) 244. 
Lethrinus bonhamensis Gunther, Fische der Siidsee 1 (1873) 65, 
pi. 47; Jordan and Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 25 (1905) (1906) 
270; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 28 (1905) 782. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III-8; 47 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 
between lateral line and origin of anal. 

Body oblong and compressed, dorsal and ventral profiles 
evenly and about equally arched, its depth 2.9 to 3 times in 
length; head a little longer than deep and almost as long as 
depth of body, its upper outline slightly swollen in front of 
eye; the slightly convex interorbital space widest anteriorly 
where there is a slight protuberance on each side before upper 
anterior angle of eye, its least width 3.6 to 4.1 times in 
head; the diameter of the rounded, rather large eye 2 to 2.3 
times in head and 1.6 to 1.7 times in the moderately elongate 
and pointed snout, which is contained from 2 to 2.3 times in 
length of head; maxillary reaches to vertical from anterior 
nostril and is equal to or very slightly shorter than greatest 
width of preorbital which is contained 2.3 to 2.6 times in 
head; canines moderate in size, with a band of villiform teeth 
behind them in each jaw; the lateral series of teeth conical to 
obtusely pointed anteriorly, and posteriorly of rounded mod- 
erate to large molars, each with a longitudinal depression on 
its crown ; in front of each eye two small nostrils, the posterior 
a simple oval opening closer to eye than to anterior nostril 
which has a low fleshy rim; posterior edge of opercle has two 
flat, rather weak spines; depth of caudal peduncle contained 
from 8.4 to 8.8 times in length of body. 

Two patches of scales behind each eye, one on uppermost 
angle of preopercle and the other immediately above first; 
dorsal spines rather feeble, third to fifth highest and much lower 
than highest ray; last dorsal spine slightly lower than third 
anal, 3.1 to 3.7 times in head; caudal fin slightly emarginate; 
pectoral, which is shorter than head, is 3 to 3.3 times in length 
of body and extends almost to above base of anterior anal rays ; 
ventral reaches to origin of anal fin. 

The ground color of fresh specimens light greenish brown, 
lighter on the lower portions of body; a large, oblong, blackish 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 415 

blotch on each side of body between lateral line and posterior 
half of pectoral; the membranous portions of dorsal colorless, 
irregularly barred with pinkish, the spines and rays greenish, 
spotted with grayish; caudal fin crossbarred alternately with 
very pale greenish and with pinkish; the membranous portions 
of the other fins colorless and the rays light salmon pink; 
inside of mouth red. 

The ground color yellowish olive in alcohol; snout, cheeks, 
and top of head deep violet; on each side of body an oblong 
blackish blotch below lateral line and opposite posterior half of 
pectoral fin; in the young the sides are clouded with blackish 
brown. 

We have examined the following series of specimens con- 
tained in the Bureau of Science collection, varying from 30 
to 245 millimeters in length: 

Luna, La Union, 5. Cagayan de Misamis, Misamis 

Iba, Zambales, 1. Province, 2. 

Manila Bay, 3. Canigaran, Palawan, 2. 

Puerto Galera, Calapan, and Balabac Island, 9. 

Pinamalayan, Mindoro, 10. Zamboanga, Zamboanga, 2. 

Bacon, Sorsogon, 3. Samal Island and Davao, Davao 

Bantayan Island, 1. Province, 6. 

Cebu, Cebu, 1. Tavdtavid Island, Sulu Archi- 

Canigao Island, Leyte, 1. pelago, 1. 

Dumaguete, Oriental Negros, 3. Subic Bay, 2. 

The collection also contains three fine specimens from Guam. 

Evermann and Seale recorded this species from San Fabian, 
Pangasinan; Bacon, Sorsogon; and Jolo, Sulu Province; Seale 
and Bean had it from Zamboanga. 

Lethrinus harak was first collected in the Red Sea and is 
known eastward to Guam and Samoa. 

We are unable to separate L. bonhamensis from L. harak, 
since our series shows every gradation between typical repre- 
sentatives of each. The specimens from Iba and Canigaran are 
typical of bonhamensis and have the following characters: 

Depth 2.6 to 2.7 times in length, dorsal profile slightly more 
elevated than ventral ; head slightly longer than deep, its length 
nearly equal to depth of body and 2.8 to 2.9 times in length; 
the diameter of the large rounded eye contained from 3.2 to 
3.5 times in length of head ; the moderately elongate and pointed 
snout 2.1 to 2.6 times in head, its upper outline very slightly 
concave; maxillary ends posteriorly below posterior nostril and 
is contained 2.5 to 3 times in head ; greatest width of preorbital 
2.4 to 2.8 times in head ; canines and molars rather small ; third 



416 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

anal spine slightly higher than last dorsal spine, 2.9 to 3 times 
in head ; caudal slightly forked ; ventral fin reaches anal opening, 
its spine 2.4 to 2.6 times in head or 2 to 2.2 times in pectoral. 
The ground color in alcohol varies from yellowish olive to 
brownish olive, with a large round blackish spot between lateral 
line and posterior third of pectoral; the sides of body in the 
young are indistinctly clouded with blackish; the fins colored 
like the body. 

LETHRINUS HAEMATOPTERUS Schlegel. Plate 3, fig. 3. 

Lethrinus haematopterits Schlegel, Fauna Jap., Pisces (1842) 74, 
pi. 38; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 112, pi. 331, fig. 4; Weber, 
Siboga Exp., Fische (1913) 288. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III-8; 47 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 5 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 14 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

The deep, compressed body has the dorsal outline more 
strongly arched than the ventral, its greatest depth 2.4 to 2.5 
times in length; head 2.8 to 2.9 times in length, almost as deep 
as long, upper profile rather steep and straight before eyes, 
the lower nearly horizontal ; eye equal to or a little longer than 
the evenly convex interorbital, which is 3.4 to 3.8 times in 
length of head; the rather elongate and pointed snout 1.9 to 2 
times in head and 1.2 to 1.3 times maxillary, the posterior end 
of which is directly below posterior margin of hind nostril; 
greatest width of preorbital 2.2 to 2.4 times in head and slightly 
greater than length of maxillary; mouth horizontal, lower jaw 
slightly included; canines moderate; anterior teeth of lateral 
series conical, becoming molars posteriorly, the latter with a 
distinct longitudinal impression on crown ; two nostrils in front 
of each eye, the anterior small and tubular, the posterior a 
rather large, simple elongate opening; opercle has two flat blunt- 
ish spines at its hind margin; caudal peduncle deep and com- 
pressed, its least depth 2.8 to 3 times in head, 7.9 to 8.5 times 
in length. 

Two patches of scales behind each eye, one above preopercle 
and the other just below nape; third, fourth, and fifth dorsal 
spines highest, the last one 3.3 to 3.7 times in head ; anal spines 
graduated to the last which is highest, 3 to 3.6 times in head; 
the rayed portion of anal longer than high ; pectoral is elongate 
and extends to above base of anterior anal rays, its length 2.9 
to 3 times in length of body; ventral fin is 1.3 to 1.6 times in 
pectoral and reaches anus, its spine 1.4 to 1.7 times in its longest 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 417 

ray; caudal slightly emarginate, with the lobes pointed, 3.4 to 
3.6 in length, 1.2 to 1.3 times in head. 

Yellowish brown in alcohol, darker above and lighter below, 
with a blackish spot at base of many of the scales; caudal and 
soft portions of dorsal and anal reddish; pectoral and ventral 
reddish, the former having a dark edge on uppermost ray; 
upper jaw dark brown and maxillary reddish. 

Here described from eight specimens, 108 to 265 millimeters 
long, taken at Subic Bay; Calapan, Mindoro; and Bantayan 
Island. This is the second record of this species from the 
Philippines, the previous one being that of Bleeker from Manila. 

The species is known from the East Indies and Japan. 

Our specimens are unquestionably the above species, which 
is distinct from Lethrinus haematopterus of Richardson or 
Lethrinus richardsoni of Giinther, also found in the Philippines. 
The latter species has all the lateral teeth in each jaw conical, 
whereas L. haematopterus Schlegel has posterior molars in each 
jaw, each molar provided with a distinct impression on the 
crown. 

LETHRINUS MAHSENA (Forsk&l). Plate 8. fisr. 1. 

Sciaena mahsena ForskAl, Descr. Anim. (1775) 52. 

Lethirinus mahsena Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 
(1830); RUPPELL, Neue Wirbelt., Fische (1840) 119, pi. 29, fig. 4; 
GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 463; Fische der Siidsee 1 (1873) 
65, pi. 48; Meyer, Ann., Soc. Espaiia Hist. Nat. 14 (1885) 19. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III-8; 46 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 5 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal ; according to Gunther there 
are 47 or 48 scales in the lateral line. 

The upper profile of the markedly deep and compressed body- 
more strongly elevated than lower, greatest depth 2.4 to 2.5 
times in length; depth of head a little greater than its length 
which is 2.7 to 2.8 times in length of head and body together, 
upper profile rather steep and very slightly concave in front 
of eyes; the moderately and evenly convex interorbital 4 to 4.1 
times in head and a little narrower than diameter of eye, which 
is contained 3.8 times; snout slightly elongate and pointed, 1.7 
to 1.9 times in head or 2 to 2.2 times eye; maxillary extends 
almost to a perpendicular from posterior nostril and is con- 
tained 1.4 to 1.5 times in snout or 2.5 times in head; greatest 
width of preorbital 2.2 to 2.4 times in head ; canines moderate, 
those of upper jaw markedly curved; the anterior teeth on sides 



418 The Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

of each jaw conical, the hind ones distinct molars, some of 
them with a distinct longitudinal groove on crown; anterior 
nostril small and in a low tube, the hind one a simple, rather 
elongate opening, which is closer to eye than to anterior nostril ; 
two flat bluntish spines on outer margin of opercle; caudal 
peduncle much compressed, its least depth 2.5 to 2.7 times in 
head, 6.9 to 7.4 times in length. 

A patch of scales on each side of nape and another imme- 
diately behind eye above preopercle; fourth, fifth, and sixth 
dorsal spines highest, 2.7 to 2.8 times in length of head; last 
dorsal spine slightly lower than third anal spine, which is con- 
tained 2.7 to 3.2 times in head ; the anal rays a little higher than 
long; pectoral extends to above base of anal spines and is con- 
siderably shorter than head or 3.1 to 3.2 times in length of body; 
ventral fin is a little shorter than pectoral, twice the length of 
its spine, and reaches to base of anal spines; caudal fin a little 
emarginate, with slightly pointed lobes, 3.2 to 3.4 times in 
length, 1.14 to 1.24 times in head. 

The color of a fresh specimen was reddish brown with eight 
broad, vertical, clear yellowish green crossbands, plainest on 
middle and lower portions of sides and on caudal peduncle; 
the head was greenish brown, with two reddish bands extending 
forward from eyes ; the dorsal and anal were reddish violet near 
base, clear elsewhere ; the deep reddish violet caudal was broadly 
tipped with dark gray; the ventral and pectoral rays were red- 
dish violet basally, grayish near the tips, the membranes 
transparent. 

In alcohol the reddish coloration on head, sides, and fins has 
faded, turning to brownish violet; the lighter crossbands on 
trunk and caudal peduncle have remained greenish ; the pectoral 
has become clear, with a brown spot at its base. 

Here described from six specimens, 118 to 228 millimeters 
long, collected at Subic Bay, Tayabas Province, and Bantayan Is- 
land. 

According to Giinther the head is very high and somewhat 
gibbous between the eyes; in adults 330 millimeters long the 
canines are very large. Riippell, in his admirable description of 
this fish, states that it is excellent food. 

Giinther had specimens from the Philippines and the Pelew, 
Fiji, and Seychelle Islands, and recorded it also from the Hervey 
and Paumotu Islands; Dr. A. B. Meyer collected it at Cebu. 
It was originally described from the Red Sea. 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 419 

LETHRINUS HYPSELOPTERUS Sleeker. Plate 4, fijr. 1. 

Lethriniis hypselopterus Bleeker, Ned. Tijd. Dierk. 4 (1873) 326; 
Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 144, pi. 330, fig. 3; Evermann and Sealb, 
Bull. Bur. Fisheries 26 (1907) 86. 

Dorsal X~9; anal III-8; 46 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 5 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

The oblong, compressed body rather high, its depth 2.4 times 
in length and its upper profile more arched than the lower; 
head as long as deep and shorter than depth of body, 2.7 to 
2.8 times in length, its upper profile before eyes concave; width 
of the evenly arched interorbital about twice in snout, which 
is contained 1.8 times in head and has a concave upper profile; 
diameter of the rounded eye a little shorter than width of 
interorbital, and 3.8 to 4 times in head; maxillary, which is 2.5 
times in head, almost extends to below posterior nostril ; greatest 
width of preorbital 2.1 times in length of head; lips thick and 
fleshy; four slightly curved, rather stout canines in front of 
each jaw, the two in the middle shorter than the outer ones; 
the anterior lateral teeth conical and the posterior ones large 
molars with distinct longitudinal depression along the middle; 
anterior nostril in a fleshy tube which is highest behind, and the 
posterior one a simple oval opening, situated halfway between 
anterior nostril and front rim of eye; opercle armed behind 
with two rather flat spines ; depth of caudal peduncle contained 
from 2.5 to 2.6 times in length of head and 6.6 to 7.1 times 
in that of body. 

Two patches of scales behind each eye, one above preopercle 
and the other just below nape; dorsal spines moderately strong, 
fourth to sixth highest, the last one 3.2 to 3.5 times in head; 
third anal spine slightly higher than last dorsal, 3 to 3.1 times in 
head, and the rayed anal longer than high; caudal fin slightly 
emarginate, with the lobes pointed; pectoral fin shorter than 
head, 3 to 3.2 times in length of body and extending to above 
anterior third of third anal; ventral spine 2.4 to 2.5 times in 
head and the rayed portion ends at base of anal spines. 

Alcoholic specimens yellowish brown, with a deep violet- 
brown edge to each scale ; the naked portion of head deep violet ; 
the spinous dorsal and anal yellowish near base and blackish 
outwardly ; rays of vertical and caudal fins blackish violet, mem- 
branous portions yellowish ; ventral spine and rays washed with 
violet on their outward half and yellowish near base; pectoral 
fin whitish. 



420 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Here described from four fine specimens, 113 to 213 milli- 
meters long, taken at Zamboanga and Davao, Mindanao; and 
Tambagaan and Bungau Islands, Sulu Archipelago. 

This species, which is recorded for the first time in the Phil- 
ippines, has, in common with Lethrinus kallopterus, the anal 
higher than long, but differs from it in having a proportionately- 
deeper body, the vertical fins not spotted or banded, and the 
caudal lobes pointed. 

Bleeker had specimens of this fine Lethrinus from Sumatra 
to Waigiou, off the coast of New Guinea. 

LETHRINUS OPERCULARIS Cuvier and Valenciennes. Plate 9, fiar. 3. 

Lethrinus opercularis CuviER and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 
6 (1830) 214; Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen. 23 (1853) 14; Gunther, 
Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 461; Day, Fishes of India (1875) 136; 
Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 119, pi. 335, fig. 5. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III-8; 47 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 6 or 7 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 16 
between lateral line and origin of anal. 

The oblong compressed body moderately deep, depth 2.5 to 
2.8 times in length, dorsal and ventral profiles evenly and 
about equally arched; head slightly longer than deep, its length 
slightly less than depth of body and contained 2.7 to 2.9 times 
in length; the convex interorbital 3.8 to 4.1 times in head and 
nearly as wide as eye, which is contained 3.7 to 4.3 times ; snout 
pointed and somewhat elongate, nearly twice width of interor- 
bital space and 1.8 to 2.3 times in length of head; maxillary 
extends posteriorly to or a little before vertical below front 
nostril, its length 2.6 to 2.9 times in head and much exceeded 
by greatest width of preorbital which is contained 2.2 to 2.4 
times; canines of moderate size; lateral teeth of lower jaw 
conical in front and obtusely pointed behind; those of upper 
jaw conical to obtusely pointed in front and rounded behind; 
in front of each eye two small nostrils, the front one with a 
fleshy rim which is highest behind and the other a simple oval 
opening; opercle has two flat blunt spines at its hind margin; 
depth of caudal penducle contained from 7.9 to 8.5 times in 
length of body. 

Two small patches of scales behind each eye, one above pre- 
opercle and the other just below nape; fourth, fifth, and sixth 
dorsal spines highest, the last one 3.4 to 3.6 times in head; 
third anal spine higher than second and contained 3.4 to 4 
times in head; pectoral, which extends to above base of anal 
spines, about twice ventral spine, which is contained 2.3 to 2.5 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 421 

times in length of head; ventral reaches to anus; caudal fin 
slightly emarginate, with the lobes pointed. 

Fresh specimens light greenish brown, with pearl white spots 
on scales along back and on middle of sides; two bluish white 
lines extend forward from lower anterior margin of eye and 
another one from suborbital; dorsal fin colorless, irregularly 
barred with pinkish; anal and ventrals uniformly colorless; 
caudal fin crossbarred alternately with pinkish and with bluish ; 
a reddish bar at base of the yellowish pectoral; posterior 
margin of opercle reddish and inside of mouth bright carmine 
red. 

The fish is yellowish brown in alcohol, with pearl white spots 
on scales along back and middle of sides; anterior and pos- 
terior edges of opercle reddish; dorsal fin yellowish, with 
diagonal bars of blackish; caudal fin also yellow with blackish 
transverse bars; all the other fins yellowish; a rather obscure 
deep violet bar at base of pectoral. 

The fourteen fine specimens in the Bureau of Science collec- 
tion, forming the basis of this description, range from 100 to 
255 millimeters in length and were collected in Manila Bay; 
Subic Bay; Calapan, Mindoro; Tacloban, Leyte; Zamboanga, 
Mindanao; and Jolo and Sitankai Islands, Sulu Archipelago. 
This species is common in the Manila market and occurs abun- 
dantly throughout the East Indies from Sumatra and Singapore 
to Amboina. 

LETHRINUS LEUTJANUS Bleeker. Plate 4, fig. 2. 

? Lethrinus leutjanus CuviER and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 

6 (1830) 231. 
Lethrinus leutjanus Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Gen. 23 (1850) 14; GuN- 

THER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 461; Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 120, pi. 

354, fig. 5. 

Dorsal X~9; anal III-8; 46 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 16 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

Body oblong and compressed, dorsal and ventral profiles 
evenly and about equally elevated; depth 2.6 to 2.8 times in 
length ; head longer than deep and almost as long as depth of 
body, its upper profile nearly straight, 2.7 to 2.9 times in length ; 
interorbital space strongly convex and rather narrow, its width 
4.1 to 4.3 times in length of head and slightly exceeding eye, 
which is contained 4.3 to 4.7 times in head ; snout rather elongate 
and pointed, its length 1.8 to 2.1 times in head; maxillary, which 
extends posteriorly nearly to below front nostril, 1.4 to 1.5 



422 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

times in snout and shorter than greatest width of preorbital 
which is 2.2 to 2.4 times in head; canines moderate in size and 
almost completely hidden in the thick fleshy lips; on each side 
of jaws there are conical to obtusely pointed teeth in front and 
molars behind, each having a distinct longitudinal impression; 
two small nostrils in front of each eye, the anterior having a 
fleshy rim which is highest behind and the other a simple oval 
opening situated a little more superiorly and about halfway be- 
tween front nostril and anterior edge of eye; opercle armed 
behind with two flat blunt spines; depth of caudal peduncle 7.9 
to 9.8 times in length of body or 2.9 to 3.3 times in that of head. 

A patch of scales behind eye on uppermost portion of preo- 
percle, and another one immediately above it; dorsal spines 
moderately high and compressed, fourth the highest and almost 
equal to third anal spine, which is 3.7 to 3.8 times in head; 
caudal fin emarginate; pectoral fin, which terminates poste- 
riorly above base of anterior anal rays, much shorter than head 
and 3.3 to 3.5 times in length of body; ventral fin extends to 
origin of anal fin, its spine almost twice in pectoral. 

The ground color in alcohol yellowish olive; head slightly 
olivaceous; the yellowish pectoral has a deep olive longitudinal 
stripe on its first two upper rays; the ventral is lightly washed 
with grayish posteriorly and the caudal along the middle rays ; 
all the other fins yellowish ; there is a trace of reddish color on 
posterior edge of opercle. 

Here described from two specimens, 178 to 270 millimeters 
long, collected at Banaran and Sitankai Islands, Sulu Archi- 
pelago. 

This species, here recorded for the first time from the Philip- 
pines, was described by Bleeker from specimens collected in 
Sumatra, Java, and Amboina. 

LETHRINUS ORNATUS Cuvier and Valenciennes. Plate 9, figr. 1. 

Lethrinus omatus Cuvieir and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 
(1830) 231; Day, Fishes of India (1875) 137, pro parte; Bleeker, 
Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 118, pi. 350, fig. 4; Evermann and Seale, 
Bull. Bur. Fisheries 26 (1907) 87. 

Lethrinus xanthotaenia Bleeker, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind. 2 (1851) 
176; GuNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 461; Seale and Bean, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. 33 (1907) 244. 

Dorsal X-9 ; anal 111-8 ; 45 or 46 scales on lateral line to base 
of caudal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 
betv^een lateral line and origin of anal. 

Body oblong and compressed, back strongly elevated, abdo- 
men nearly horizontal, depth 2.3 to 2.5 times in length; length 



33, 4< Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 423 

of head equals its depth, 2.8 to 3 times in length of body and 
slightly less than body depth; anterior dorsal profile strongly 
convex, forming a broad steep curve from dorsal to the tip of 
the obtuse snout, which is from 1.6 to 2.1 times in length of 
head, and is much longer than maxillary, which reaches below 
posterior nostril and is from 2.5 to 2.6 times in head ; the nearly 
flat interorbital equals the large, nearly circular eye, which is 
contained from 3.1 to 3.2 times in head; preorbital wider than 
eye and 2.3 to 3 times in head; mouth nearly horizontal; the 
curved canines rather small, those in upper jaw the longer, the 
anterior teeth on each side of upper jaw conical and pointed, 
and the remaining molars with a distinct longitudinal impres- 
sion ; the two nostrils in front of each eye rather small, the one 
in front with a low fleshy tube and the posterior one a simple 
oval opening; two flat blunt spines on posterior margin of 
preopercle; depth of caudal peduncle 7.6 to 8.4 times in length 
and 2.7 to 3 times in head. 

Two patches of scales behind each eye, and ten vertical rows 
on opercle; the dorsal spines of moderate strength, fourth and 
fifth highest, the last one slightly lower than third anal spine 
which is contained from 2.8 to 3.2 times in head; the rayed 
anal about as high as long; caudal fin forked, with pointed 
lobes; pectoral a little shorter than head; ventral fin extends 
to anus, its spine 2.1 to 2.6 times in head.. 

Fresh specimens are greenish brown, with reddish longi- 
tudinal bands on sides; opercle edged with deep cherry red in 
front and behind; the dorsal fin has grayish spots along its 
base, its spinous portion almost colorless and narrowly margined 
with reddish, the rayed portion uniformly reddish; anal fin 
uniformly yellowish and caudal pinkish red; the pectoral has 
a reddish bar at base, its rays golden and the membranous por- 
tion colorless; inside of mouth bright carmine red. 

In alcohol the ground color varies from greenish olive to 
brownish olive, with five or six reddish or yellowish longitudi- 
nal bands; the opercular membrane and the dorsal and caudal 
fins reddish or grayish; all the other fins golden yellow or 
paler, the pectoral with a blackish violet bar at base and 
axil; in some specimens the color of head is deeper than the 
body color. 

The above account is based upon thirty examples, 30 to 203 
millimeters long, collected at Luna, La Union; Manila Bay; 
Calapan, Mindoro; Halsey Harbor, Culion Island; Bantayan 
Island; Zamboanguita, Oriental Negros; and Malangas, Min- 



424 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

danao. Evermann and Seale recorded it from Bulan, Sorsogon 
Province, and Seale and Bean from Zamboanga, Mindanao. 

This species occurs throughout the East Indies from Sumatra 
to New Guinea and ranges westward to the Andaman Islands. 

LETHRINUS INSULINDICUS Bleeker. Plate 5, fig. 1. 

LethHniis insulindicus Bleeker, Ned. Tijd. Dierk. 4 (1873) 334; 
Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 117; 7 (1876) pi. 38, fig. 3. 

? Lethrinus mahsenoides Ehrenberg in CuviER and Valenciennes, 
Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 (1830) 212. 

Lethrinus mahsenoides Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Gen. 23 (1850) 15; 
GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 464; Jordan and Seale, Bull. Bur. 
Fisheries 26 (1907) 24; Evermann and Seale, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 
26 (1907) 87; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 31 (1907) 508; Seale and 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 33 (1907) 244; Jordan and Richard- 
son, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 27 (1908) 259. 

Dorsal X-9; anal III-8; 45 scales on lateral line, 6 between 
lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 between lateral line 
and origin of anal. 

The oblong compressed body rather deep, with the back more 
strongly arched than the ventral and the depth 2.3 times in 
length or much greater than length of head which is contained 
2.9 times; head as deep as long, its upper profile much elevated 
and its lower profile almost straight; interorbital space is very 
slightly convex, its width 3.7 times in head and exceeded by 
length of eye, which is contained 3.3 times; snout 1.4 times 
in maxillary, which is 2.8 times in head; greatest width of 
preorbital exceeds length of maxillary and is 2.3 times in head ; 
the canine teeth moderate in size, the lateral teeth in each jaw 
becoming conical and acutely pointed anteriorly and rounded 
posteriorly; anterior nostril has a fleshy rim which is highest 
posteriorly, and the other, which is a simple oval opening, is 
closer to eye than to anterior nostril; two flat blunt spines on 
posterior border of opercle; depth of caudal peduncle 7.6 times 
in length of body. 

Behind each eye two patches of scales, one above preopercle 
and the other below nape; dorsal spines rather compressed and 
broad on one side, fourth highest and 2.9 times in head or 
slightly higher than second or third anal spines, which are 
contained 3.1 times; the rayed anal as high as long; caudal 
fin emarginate; pectoral fin extends posteriorly to above base 
of third anal spine and is almost equal to head; ventral fin 
terminates at origin of anal fin, its spines about twice in pectoral. 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 425 

The ground color in alcohol yellowish brown; cheeks, snout, 
and top of head dark olive brown ; the posterior part of opercle 
reddish; all the fins yellowish. 

Here described from a single specimen, 160 millimeters long, 
from Zamboanga, Mindanao. Under the name of Lethrinus 
mahsenoides previous Philippine records are as follows: 

Giinther had a fine specimen of this species from the "Phil- 
ippines," and Jordan and Scale and Evermann and Scale listed 
it also from the Phihppines. Evermann and Scale recorded 
it from Jolo, Jordan and Richardson from Cuyo, and Scale and 
Bean from Zamboanga. Bleeker had it from the Philippines, 
Timor, Amboina, Celebes, and Java and, according to him, it 
ranges westward to the coast of Mozambique. It is very close 
to Lethrinus ornatu^, from which it differs in the absence of 
the reddish or yellowish longitudinal bands, and in the greater 
depth of the body. 

Genus MONOTAXIS Bennett 

Monotaxis Bennett, Life of Raffles, Fishes (1830) 688. 
Sphaerodon Ruppell, Neue Wirbelt., Fische (1838) 112. 

This genus is separated from Lethrinus by the scaly cheeks, 
and is recognized at a glance by the very large eye and the 
broad interorbital with a prominent lateral bulge on the very 
steep, boldly convex profile; the teeth in front of jaws are acute, 
in several rows, the external row of conical canines; a single 
row of molars laterally and posteriorly. 

Only one species known, of very wide distribution in the 
Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is a very toothsome and valuable 
food fish. 

MONOTAXIS GRANDOCULIS (Forsk&l). Plate 5, figs. 2 and 3. 

Sciaena grandoculis ForskAl, Descr. Anim. (1775) 53. 
Spams grandoculis Block and Schneider (1801) 276. 
Chrysophrys grandoculis Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 

6 (1830) 98. 
Sphaerodon grandoculis Ruppell, Neue Wirbelt., Fische (1840) 113, 

pi. 28, fig. 2; Gunther, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 465; Fische der Siid- 

see 1 (1873) 67. 
Monotaxis grandoculis Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 105; 7 

(1876) pi. 299, fig. 1; Jordan and Evermann, Bull. U. S. Fish 

Comm. 23' (1903) (1905) 243, fig. 101; Jordan and Seale, Bull. 

Bur. Fisheries 25 (1905) (1906) 271. 
Lethrinus latidens Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 

(1830) 236. 



426 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Movotaxis indica Bennett, Life of Raffles, Fishes (1830) 683. 
Pagrus heterodon Bleeker, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind. 6 (1854) 54. 
Sphaerodon latidens Kner, Novara, Fische (1865) 83, pi. 4, fig. 1. 
Sphaerodon heterodon Gunther, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 465; Bleeker, 

Atlas Ichth. 7 (1875) pi. 299, fig. 1; Meyer, Ann., Soc. Espaiia Hist. 

Nat. 14 (1885) 19. 

Common names. — English, big-eye; Tagalog^ malaking mata; 
Visayan, lagao and gapas-gapas. 

Dorsal X-10; anal III-9; 47 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 6 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 15 
between lateral line and origin of anal. 

Depth of the oblong compressed body contained from 2.3 to 
2.5 times in length, dorsal outline a little more elevated than 
ventral; depth of head equals its length which is 2.8 to 3.1 
times in length of body; upper profile very much elevated and 
more or less swollen and protuberant over anterior and superior 
edge of orbit; interorbital space flat and contained from 2.6 
to 2.8 times in head; eye large and rounded, its diameter 2.5 
to 2.9 times in length of head ; snout equal to or longer than eye, 

2.2 to 2.6 times in head, its upper profile straight and almost 
vertical; maxillary, which is a little longer than snout, 2 to 

2.3 times in head and extends posteriorly nearly to below center 
of pupil; greatest width of preorbital 1.3 to 1.6 times in length 
of maxillary and 2.6 to 3.4 times in that of head ; mouth almost 
horizontal; upper jaw has six conical curved canines in front, 
four in lower jaw; a single series of broad molars laterally in 
each jaw; the two nostrils in front of each eye very small, the 
one in front provided with a wide flap behind and the other a 
simple cavity ; two flat, blunt spines on posterior border of oper- 
cle; depth of caudal peduncle 7.2 to 7.8 times in legth of body. 

The preopercular bones scaly, five rows of scales on each side : 
middle dorsal spines highest, the last one 2.5 to 2.8 times in 
head; third anal spine contained from 2.2 to 3.1 times in head; 
caudal deeply forked; pectoral, which is about as long as head, 
ends posteriorly above base of anterior anal rays; ventral fin 
extends to base of anal spines, its spine about twice in length 
of pectoral. 

In alcohol the ground color varies from yellowish violet to 
brownish violet, and blackish brown, usually darker along back, 
the scales with violet margins; the membranous portions of 
dorsal, anal, and caudal dark brownish violet; ventral and pec- 
toral yellowish, the latter fin with a violet spot at its base and 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 427 

a larger one at its axil; in the young there are two white 
transverse bands on each side of body, descending below spinous 
portion of dorsal, the anterior from the first three spines and 
the other from the last two spines; these soon disappear and 
are never present in specimens of any great size. Most of the 
published figures are of immature specimens and give an erro- 
neous idea of the species. 

The eleven examples above described vary from 73 to 365 
millimeters in length, and were collected at the following local- 
ities: Olongapo, Zambales; Ambil Island; Gaspar Island, Ma- 
rinduque ; Simara Island, Romblon Province ; Agutaya, one of the 
Cuyo Islands; Samal Island, Gulf of Davao, Mindanao; and 
Tango and Gungao Islands, Sulu Archipelago. The only previous 
Philippine record is that by Meyer, who collected it at Cebu. 

This fish is very abundant about rocky reefs and large quan- 
tities are at times brought to the Manila market, caught by 
Japanese fishermen using the muro-ami method. It is an ex- 
cellent food fish, as the flesh is of a very superior quality. 

It has a wide geographical range, occurring from the Red 
Sea eastward throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans to Ha- 
waii, the Society Islands, and the south coast of Australia. 
Wherever known it is called by a name signifying big eye. 

Genus PAGRUS Cuvier 

Pagrus CuviER, Regne Anim., ed. 1 2 (1872) 272. 

The oblong compressed body covered with large or moderate 
scales; head large, with scaly cheeks, preopercle entire; mouth 
low, terminal, the anterior teeth coarse and sharp, the outer 
series generally enlarged, caninelike, not compressed, the teeth 
behind the canines slender and acute; upper jaw with two rows 
of molars on each side, lower jaw with two or three rows of 
molars on each side; no teeth on vomer or palatines; posterior 
nostril not slitlike, much larger than anterior; dorsal rather 
low, spines 12, rarely 11, depressible in a groove; no antrorse 
dorsal spine ; anal spines 3, the second one not greatly enlarged ; 
caudal fin forked; air bladder simple; branchiostegals 6; pyloric 
caeca few, in one species none. 

Carnivorous fishes, mostly of Europe and Africa; also oc- 
curring on the Atlantic coast of North and South America, 
and in East Indian and Australian waters. 

Only one species is known from the Philippines. 



428 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

PAGRUS SPINIFER (Forsk&l). Plate 8, fig. 2. 

Sparus spinifer Forskal, Descr. Anim. (1775) 32. 

Pagrus spinifer Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 (1830) 

115; GiJNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 472; Day, Fishes of India 

(1875) 138, pi. 33, fig. 5. 
Sparus spinifer Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 109, pi. 313, fig. 3. 
Pagrus longifilis CuviER and VALENCIENNES, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 (1830) 

118. 

Dorsal XI-10; anal III-8; 54 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 8 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 18 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

The very deep, compressed body has the dorsal outline much 
more elevated than the ventral, its depth greatest at base of 
ventral fin and contained 1.8 times in length; head much deeper 
than long, its length 3.2 times in length of body, dorsal profile 
nearly vertical from middle of interorbital space to tip of snout 
and very steeply and strongly convex from origin of dorsal to 
interorbital ; the convex interorbital has a rather prominent pro- 
tuberance in front of eyes, its least width exceeding very slight- 
ly the diameter of the rounded, moderate eye which is contained 
3.3 times in head; snout nearly vertical above and contained 
1.7 times in head; maxillary, which is 1.4 times in length of 
snout, ends posteriorly below anterior margin of eye and is a 
little shorter than greatest width of preorbital which is twice in 
head; mouth horizontal and moderate in size, its jaws about 
equal; four conical canines in front of each jaw, and two rows 
of rather obtusely pointed teeth anteriorly, and of rounded mo- 
lars posteriorly, on each side; the hindmost molars are rather 
small and appear to be arranged in three rows in lower jaw; 
anterior nostril a small rounded opening with a rather high 
fleshy flap behind, the posterior one elliptical and oblique; pre- 
opercle crenulated at its angle and lower limb ; opercle has two 
flat bluntish points posteriorly; depth of caudal peduncle 7.3 
times in total length or 2.3 times in that of head. 

Scales of moderate size; six rows of scales between orbit 
and angle of preopercle ; scales on head extend to a little behind 
front of eyes, leaving each side and anterior portion of interor- 
bital space naked; snout, jaws, orbital ring, and chin naked; 
preopercle naked anteriorly and on its vertical and lower limbs ; 
no scales on anterior edge of opercle; dorsal spines compressed 
and of moderate strength, first very short, second highest and 
produced into a filament which extends to base of middle dorsal 
rays when depressed ; third, fourth, and fifth dorsal spines also 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 429 

filamentous, the last 3.1 times in head; first anal spine very- 
short and about 3 times in second, which is a little higher than 
third and contained 2.5 times in head; the rayed dorsal and anal 
similar and of nearly the same height, their last rays slightly 
higher than the rest; the lobes of the forked caudal pointed, 
the upper slightly the longer; the long pectoral is 1.4 times in 
head and extends to above base of posterior anal rays; ventral 
fin reaches origin of anal fin, its spine 1.4 times in length of 
head. 

The fish when fresh was silvery white, with a light wash of 
pinkish, the middle of the longitudinal rows of scales appearing 
more brilliant than the ground color ; the scales along back and 
middle of sides had bluish white spots forming longitudinal 
lines between the rows of scales; all the fins were pinkish, with 
the exception of anal, which was almost colorless; premaxillary 
and posterior edge of opercle were reddish ; a reddish spot pres- 
ent above axil of pectoral. 

In alcohol the upper half of body has turned silvery pink, 
the lower half remaining unchanged; the brilliant silvery color 
on scales has become golden and forms continuous bands on 
the middle of the longitudinal rows of scales; the bluish white 
lines between the rows of scales have become rather obscure; 
there are short, golden, longitudinal bands on the scaly portions 
of preopercle and opercle, narrowly edged above and below with 
pinkish red and alternating also with short bluish white bands ; 
anal, pectoral, and ventrals have become very pale yellowish; 
dorsal and caudal fins have turned very light pinkish red; base 
of pectoral pinkish red as is upper jaw. 

Here described from the only specimen in the Bureau of 
Science collection. It was purchased in a Manila public market 
and was caught in Manila Bay. 

This fish, now recorded for the first time from the Philippines, 
ranges from the Red Sea and the east coast of Africa through 
the Indian seas to Celebes and north to the coast of southern 
China. It is said to reach a length of over 600 millimeters. The 
delicately flavored flesh is greatly esteemed. 

Genus SPARUS Linnaeus 

Spams LiNN^us, Syst. Nat., ed. 10 1 (1758) 277, after Artedi. 

There are four to eight conical or compressed teeth anteriorly 
and three or four rows of rounded molars laterally in each jaw ; 
scales moderate, extending over the cheeks, 44 to 60 in lateral 



430 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

series ; body oblong, laterally compressed ; dorsal fin single, with 
11 to 13 spines, which fold into a scaly basal sheath; air bladder 
sometimes notched or with very short appendages. 

A small genus, found in the warmer seas of Asia, Africa, 
Europe, and Australia, some individuals entering rivers. 

Key to the Philippine species of Spams. 

a\ Mouth with an outer row of rounded compressed teeth and four irreg- 
ular rows on each side above, the anterior teeth small, granular; 
posteriorly large rounded molars S. berda. 

a^ Mouth with an outer row of rounded to obtuse molars and four rows 
of broad flat molars on each side S. datnia. 

SPARUS BERDA Forsk&l. Plate 6, fi?. 2. 

Sparus berda Forskal, Descr. Anim. (1775) 32; Jordan and Richard- 
son, Check List Phil. Fishes (1910) 31. 

Chrysophrys berda Ruppell^ Neue Wirbelt., Fische (1840) 120, pi. 
27, fig. 4; Cirviim and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 6 (1830) 
83; GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 494; Day, Fishes of India 
(1875) 140, pi. 34, fig. 2, and pi. 35, fig. 2. 

Sparus hasta Bloch and Schneider, Syst. Ichth. (1801) 275; Blee- 
KER, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 108, pi. 345, fig. 3. 

Sparus calamara Russell, Fishes Corom. 1 (1803) 63, pi. 92; Ever- 
mann and Sbale, BuH. Bur. Fisheries 26 (1907) 86. 

Chrysophrys calamara Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 
6 (1830) 85; GuNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 493. 

Dorsal XI-11; anal III-8; 44 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 4 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 10 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

Body markedly deep and much compressed, especially along 
back, its greatest depth above origin of ventrals and contained 

2.1 times in length, dorsal profile very strongly arched from 
snout to caudal, nuchal region often much elevated and ap- 
pressed until it is rather sharp and ridgelike, ventral profile 
nearly straight from tip of lower jaw to origin of anal fin; head 
about as long as deep, its length less than depth of body and 
2.7 to 3 times in length, its upper profile very steep and almost 
straight; interorbital space moderately convex, its least width 

3.2 to 3.5 times, eye 3.9 to 4.9 times in head; snout, which is 
somewhat pointed, 2.3 to 2.8 times in length of head; maxillary 
is much longer than snout and reaches to below anterior edge 
of pupil, 2.2 to 2.5 times in head and 1.3 to 1.4 times greatest 
width of preorbital, the last named 3.1 to 3.3 times in head; 
lips broad, thick, fleshy, jaws strong and heavy, with 6 incisors 
in the front of each; those of upper jaw close together, forming 
a continuous row; in lower jaw a median interspace; behind 



33,4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 431 

the canines an outer row of rounded, rather high teeth, more 
or less compressed; within these and covering roof of mouth 
are numerous teeth irregularly disposed in four rows, the an- 
terior teeth small and granular posteriorly, becoming large mo- 
lars with rounded crowns ; three irregular rows of similar teeth 
on each side of lower jaw, within outer row, the posterior teeth 
of inner row much the largest; two nostrils in front of eye, 
the front one very small and provided with a fleshy rim and 
the other an elongate oblique slit which is closer to eye than to 
the former; opercle armed with only a single flat blunt spine 
at its hind border; depth of caudal peduncle 7.2 to 7.5 times 
in length of body. 

Scales moderately large, head scaled above eyes, on preopercle, 
opercle, and interopercle ; six rows of scales on preopercle ; dorsal 
spines compressed on sides, the fourth highest, 2 to 2.2 times in 
head; third anal spine longer and much stronger than second, 
1.4 to 2 times in head; caudal forked; pectoral fin, which 
nearly reaches to above origin of rayed anal, longer than head, 
2.3 to 2.6 times in length of body; ventral fin ends posteriorly 
at anus, its spine 2.2 to 2.3 times in length of pectoral. 

The ground color of alcoholic specimens varies from silvery 
gray to dark grayish, with the scales much darker at their 
bases; there is a deep violet spot at axil of pectoral; anal fin 
and posterior two-thirds of ventral blackish; dorsal fin in the 
largest specimen blackish, in the smaller ones edged with black- 
ish; the naked portions of head deep violet; a blackish spot on 
shoulder behind opercle, which has faded in some specimens. 
The Malum River specimen, the only one observed alive, was 
very dark, blackish gray. 

Here described from five examples, 141 to 277 millimeters 
long, coming from Paraoir, La Union; Subic Bay; Manila 
and Pasay, Manila Bay ; and Malum River, a fresh-water stream 
in Tawitawi Island, Sulu Archipelago. Evermann and Seale 
had a specimen from Bulan, Sorsogon. The Bureau of Science 
collection contains two fairly large specimens from Sandakan, 
Borneo. 

This large and excellent food fish reaches a length of more 
than three-fourths of a meter. It occurs from the Red Sea east- 
ward to Celebes and the Philippines. 

SPARUS DATNIA (Buchanan Hamilton). Plate 6, figr. 1. 

Coins datnia Buchanan Hamilton, Fishes Ganges (1822) 88, 369, 

pi. 9, fig. 29. 
Spams datnia Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 8 (1877) 109, pi. 361, fig. 4. 



432 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Chrysophrys datum Day, Fishes of India (1875) 140, pi, 34, fig. 1. 
Chrysophrys longispinis CuviER and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 

6 (1830) 85. 
Chrysophrys hasta GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 490, not Sparus 

hasta Bloch and Schneider; Kner, Reise Novara, Fische (1865) 88. 

Dorsal X-11; anal III-8; 42 scales on lateral line to base of 
caudal, 4 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 10 be- 
tween lateral line and origin of anal. 

Dorsal profile more strongly arched anteriorly and ventral 
outline nearly straight from lower jaw to anal fin ; depth of the 
oblong compressed body 2.4 times in length; head as long as 
deep, much shorter than depth of body and 3 times in length; 
interorbital space markedly convex, its least width 3.2 times 
eye, 3.8 times in head ; the short, rather rounded snout 2.7 times 
in head and a little shorter than maxillary which is contained 
2.5 times and extends posteriorly to below anterior edge of 
pupil; greatest width of preorbital equal to least width of in- 
terorbital space; six incisors in front of each jaw; the lateral 
series of teeth in upper jaw consists of an outer row of rounded 
to obtuse molars, and within this four rows of broad flat molars 
on each side; lower jaw with four rows of molars on each side, 
those of outer row almost all rounded; anterior nostril very 
small and provided with a narrow fleshy rim; the posterior one 
is a simple, rather elongate slit obliquely in front of eye; depth 
of caudal peduncle 8.1 times in length of body. 

Head naked behind eye and on interorbital space, snout, or- 
bital ring, upper and lower jaws, chin, and outer edges of pre- 
opercle; dorsal spines compressed, broader on one side, fourth 
highest and contained 1.3 times in second anal spine, which is 
higher than third and 3.3 times in head; pectoral fin extends to 
above base of anal spines, and is more than twice ventral spine, 
which is 1.9 times in head; the rayed portion of ventral reaches 
to origin of anal fin; caudal fin emarginate. 

The ground color in alcohol is silvery olive, the scales darkest 
at their bases ; dorsal and outer two-thirds of ventrals blackish ; 
ventral also blackish excepting its outer margin which is whitish ; 
caudal fin blackish near base and at its outer portion; pectoral 
is yellowish and has a blackish spot superiorly at its axil. 

Here described from a single specimen, 174 millimeters long, 
collected at Paraoir, La Union. There are several examples 
from Amoy and Hongkong in the Bureau of Science collection. 
Kner had a specimen from Manila. 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 433 

This species is found from the Red Sea throughout the seas 
of India and the East Indies to Celebes and the Philippines. It 
grows to a length of nearly 500 millimeters. 

KYPHOSID^ 

RUDDER FISHES 

This small group, sometimes divided into two families, in- 
cludes a few species of herbivorous fishes. They occur chiefly 
in the warmer parts of the Pacific Ocean, the West Indies, and 
the Mediterranean Sea, where they occur about reefs, feeding 
principally, if not entirely, on marine algae. They are all eaten, 
and some are much prized for food. They occur in schools, 
sporting in the current about submerged rocks and coral masses 
in the interstices of which they feed, much as a flock of sheep 
gambols on the green. 

The oblong or somewhat elevated body is covered with mod- 
erate-sized or small scales, ctenoid or cycloid. The small mouth 
is without molars, the anterior teeth resembling incisors ; teeth 
may be present or absent on the vomer and palatines; the pre- 
maxillaries are protractile ; the narrow preorbital forms a sheath 
for the maxillary; the dorsal fin is continuous, with 10 to 15 
rather strong spines, the soft dorsal naked or scaly; anal with 
3 spines; ventral thoracic, 1-5, an accessory scale at the base; 
the caudal lunate or forked; all the pectoral rays branched. 
Opercles entire ; gills 4, a slit behind the fourth ; gill membranes 
separate, free from the isthmus; gill rakers moderate; pseudo- 
branchiae well developed ; air bladder usually with two posterior 
horns; vertebrae 24 to 28; post-temporal of ordinary percoid 
form, the stout forks not adnate to the cranium. 

Key to the Philippine genera of Kyphosidse, 

a^. Soft part of dorsal and anal naked, dorsal base partly covered with 
scales; teeth all movable, Incisors all tricuspid Girella. 

a^ Soft parts of vertical fins closely scaled; teeth not freely movable; fine 
teeth on vomer, palatine bones, and tongue Kyphosus. 

Genus GIRELLA Gray 

Girella Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. 2 (1833) 98. 

The laterally compressed, oblong-ovate body covered with 

rather large scales; scales on cheeks very small, opercles and 

top of head chiefly naked ; mouth small, with a series of tricuspid, 

movable incisors, behind which is a broad band of similar, smaller 



434 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

ones; no molars, and no teeth on tongue or vomer; the lower 
pharyngeal teeth slender. 

Dorsal fin tolerably low, with 14 or 15 spines, its base partly 
covered with scales which form an imperfect sheath ; anal spines 
small, graduated ; caudal lunate ; gill rakers slender ; pyloric cseca 
numerous, the intestinal canal elongate; the air bladder divided 
posteriorly into two horns; peritoneum black; vertebrae 11 + 
16 or 17 = 27 or 28. 

This is a genus of herbivorous fishes, feeding on seaweeds, and 
confined to the Pacific Ocean. Several species are known from 
the coasts of Japan, China, Formosa, and Australia, and one 
is known from the rocky coast of California. 

GIRELLA PUNCTATA Gray. Plate 7, fig. 1. 

Girella punctata Gray, 111. Ind. Zool. 1 (1830) pi. 98, figs. 3 and 4; 

GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 427, pro parte; Steindachner and 

DODERLEiN, Denkschr. K. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien 47 (1883) 231; 

Jordan and Starks, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 32 (1907) 497, fig. 5; 

Jordan and Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 41 (1912) 589, fig. 

12. 
Crenidens punctatus Richardson, Ichth., China, Rept. Brit. Assoc. 

Ad. Sci. (1845) 242. 

Dorsal XV-13; anal III-12; 56 scales on lateral line to base 
of caudal, 10 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 18 
between lateral line and origin of anal. 

The oblong-ovate body compressed, with profiles evenly and 
about equally arched ; greatest depth at about middle of ventral 
and contained 2.4 times in length; head slightly longer than 
deep, its length 3.1 to 3.2 times in length of body ; width of the 
convex interorbital 3.2 to 3.3 times in head and equal to diameter 
of the almost circular eye; the slightly rounded snout 2.8 to 
3.1 times in head and a little longer than maxillary, which is 
contained 3 to 3.2 times in head and extends to below anterior 
rim of eye; preorbital 3.8 to 4.2 times in head at its greatest 
width; mouth small, with strongly oblique gape and equal jaws; 
in front of each jaw is a single row of tricuspid incisorlike 
teeth, behind which is a band of much smaller ones; two small 
rounded nostrils in front of each eye, the front one with a rather 
fleshy flap behind and the other a simple opening; preopercle 
minutely serrated on its hind limb and only posteriorly on its 
lower limb ; opercle has a rather sharp spine at its posterior edge. 

Scales roughly ctenoid and rather small; snout, jaws, orbital 
ring, subopercle, lower half of opercle, and anterior portion of 
interorbital space naked, rest of head scaled; dorsal spines in- 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 435 

crease in height toward the last, which is 2.1 to 2.6 times in 
head; dorsal rays slightly higher; third anal spine highest, 2.2 
to 2.8 times in head and much lower than anal rays; caudal 
fin slightly emarginate; the rounded pectoral is 1.2 to 1.4 times 
in head and does not reach to vertical from anus; ventral fin 
almost reaches anus, its spine 1.4 to 1.5 times in head. 

The ground color uniformly brown, slightly lighter along ven- 
tral edge of body and head; vertical fins and ventral almost as 
dark as body, caudal and pectoral lighter colored; a narrow 
brownish bar at base of pectoral. 

This species is here described from three specimens, 46 to 
66 millimeters long, taken at Dodd Island, Amoy, and Hongkong. 
So far as is known, it is found along the coasts of China and 
southern Japan. In all probability it also occurs in Philippine 
waters and is to be expected in the Batan Islands. 

Genus KYPHOSUS Lacepede 

Kyphosics LACEPt)DB, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 3 (1802) 114. 
Pimelepterus LacepIide, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 4 (1803) 429. 

The moderately appressed body elongate-ovate, with short 
head, blunt snout, and large eye ; mouth small, horizontal, maxil- 
lary barely reaching a perpendicular from front of eye ; in both 
jaws outer row of teeth of rather narrow, obtusely lanceolate 
incisors, implanted with conspicuous compressed horizontal 
processes or roots posteriorly; behind these a narrow band of 
villif orm teeth ; fine teeth on vomer, palatine bones, and tongue ; 
preopercle generally denticulate; the narrow preorbital covers 
but little of maxillary ; entire body covered with thick, medium- 
sized or smallish scales, which also cover most of head; 50 to 
70 scales in lateral line; the soft parts of vertical fins thickly 
covered by small to minute scales, which also extend upon cau- 
dal and paired fins; dorsal fin low, with 11 spines, which are 
depressible in a groove of scales, the fin continuous but the last 
spines low so that a depression occurs between the spinous and 
soft portions; soft dorsal low or elevated anteriorly, pointed 
behind; anal like soft dorsal, with 3 spines; caudal fin moder- 
ately forked; pectorals small, ventrals well behind them; bran- 
chiostegals 7; gill rakers long; pyloric caeca usually very nu- 
merous, intestinal canal long; air bladder notched posteriorly 
and sometimes anteriorly; vertebrae 9 or 10 + 15 or 16 = 25. 

A small genus of herbivorous fishes, found in tropical waters 
and ranging northward occasionally to Japan and New England. 



436 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

Key to the Philippine species of Kyphosus, 

a\ Dorsal rays 12, highest anteriorly, much higher than spinous part; 

base of dorsal rays shorter than spinous base K. cinerascens. 

a^ Dorsal rays 14, uniform in height, lower than spinous part.... K. lembus. 

KYPHOSUS CINERASCENS (Forsk&l). Plate 7, fig. 3. 

Sciaena cinerascens Forskal, Descr. Anim. (1775) 53. 
Pimelepterus cinerascens Day, Fishes of India (1875) 143, pi. 35, 

fig. 3; Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. 9 (1877) 15, pi. 364, fig. 4. 
Kyphosus cinerascens Jordan and Richardson, Bull. Bur. Fisheries 

27 (1907) (1908) 260; Weber, Siboga Exp., Fische (1913) 194. 
Pimelepterus indicus Kuhl and Van Hasselt in Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 7 (1831) 201. 
Pimelepterus altipinnis Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 

7 (1831) 201. 
Pimelepterus dussumieri CuviER and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 

7 (1831) 203; Cuvier, Regne Anim., Poiss., Disciples Ed. (1836) 

pi. 43, fig. 1. 
Pimelepterus tahmel Ruppell, Neue Wirbelt., Fische (1840) 35, pi. 

10, fig. 4; GUNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 499. 

Dorsal XI-12; anal III-ll; 53 scales on lateral line to base 
of caudal, 10 between lateral line and origin of dorsal, and 18 
between lateral line and origin of anal. 

The elongate-ovate body moderately compressed, evenly arched 
above and below, its greatest depth 2.2 to 2.3 times in length; 
length of the short head a little longer than its depth and con- 
tained 3.4 to 3.7 times in length of body; upper profile more 
strongly elevated than ventral; the convex interorbital has a 
swelling in front of eyes, its least width 2.4 to 2.6 times in head 
and slightly exceeding the length of the blunt, rounded snout 
which is contained 2.7 to 2.8 times; diameter of the large 
rounded eye 3.2 to 3.5 times in head and slightly shorter than 
maxillary which is contained 3.1 to 3.3 times and extends to 
below anterior rim or orbit; widest portion of preorbital 3.4 to 
3.9 times in length of head; mouth rather small, its gape hor- 
izontal; the compressed incisors in a single row in each jaw, 
their horizontal portions longer than the vertical ; a narrow band 
of villiform teeth behind incisors, and minute teeth on vomer, 
tongue, and palatines; the two small nostrils overhung by the 
prefrontals have a low fleshy rim; preopercle minutely serrated 
behind and below, the serration more noticeable at the angle; 
a flat, blunt spine at hind edge of opercle and an indication of 
a smaller one above it; caudal peduncle compressed, its least 
depth 7 to 7.6 times in length of body and 2 to 2.1 times in that 
of head. 



33,4 



Herre and Montalban: Sparoid and Rudder Fishes 437 



Scales moderate in size, those thickly covering head and fins 
very small to minute; head naked on snout and jaws, and scaled 
on the remaining portions; dorsal spines increase in height to 
sixth or seventh, which is 2.4 to 2.6 times in head and much 
lower than anterior dorsal rays which are much the highest of 
the soft portion ; base of dorsal rays shorter than that of spinous 
portion; third anal spine highest; soft anal equal to or a little 
higher than soft dorsal, contained 1.5 to 1.7 times in head, its 
outline much like that of dorsal ; base of rayed dorsal longer than 
that of soft anal but shorter than head ; caudal emarginate with 
pointed lobes; the short pectoral a trifle longer than ventral, 
which is 1.8 to 1.9 times its spine and 1.5 times in length of 
head. 

Color in alcohol varies from silvery gray to blackish, with 
silvery or whitish centers to the scales, forming longitudinal 
bands which alternate with dark bands between the longitudinal 
rows of scales; the fins are darker than the ground color; the 
dark longitudinal bands on the sides were bright golden in 
life. 

Of this species the Bureau of Science collection has eleven 
specimens, described above. They range from 32 to 320 mil- 
limeters long and were collected at the following localities: 
Iba and Subic Bay, Zambales; Tanao and Taylon Islands, Ca- 
marines Norte; Dumaguete, Oriental Negros; and Tubigan and 
Bungau Islands, Sulu Archipelago. A fine specimen from the 
Philippine Islands was recorded by GUnther as Kyphosus tahmel, 
and another from Calayan Island of the Babuyan group by 
Jordan and Richardson. 

The species occurs from Sumatra to New Guinea, and north- 
ward to southern Japan. 

KYPHOSUS LEMBUS (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Plate 7, flgr. 2. 

Pimelepterus lembus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss. 7 
(1831) 201; GuNTHER, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 498; Bleeker, Atlas 
Ichth. 9 (1877) 15, pi. 364, fig. 1. 

Pimelepterus tematensis Bleeker, Nat. Tijd. Ned. Ind. 4 (1853) 
605; Gunther, Cat. Fishes 1 (1859) 499. 

Samal name, ilak. 

Dorsal XI-14; anal IIt-12 or 13; 53 to 55 scales on lateral 
line to base of caudal, 11 or 12 between lateral line and origin 
of dorsal, and 18 or 19 between lateral line and origin of anal. 

The elongate-ovate body moderately compressed, with the 
profiles evenly and equally arched, its greatest depth at middle 
and contained 2.2 to 2.5 times in length ; the short head a trifle 



438 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1927 

longer than deep, its profiles convex and its length 3.3 to 3.9 
times in length of body; interorbital space convex and rather 
prominent in front of eyes, its least v^idth 2.2 to 2.8 times in 
length of head and greater than the length of the blunt, rounded 
snout which is contained 2.7 to 3.3 times; eye rounded and 
moderate in size, its diameter 3.4 to 4 times in head ; maxillary, 
v^hich barely reaches vertical from front margin of eye, slightly 
longer than greatest v^idth of the smooth preorbital which is 
contained 3.3 to 3.9 times in length of head; mouth horizontal 
and rather small, each jaw with a series of rather narrow 
compressed, folded or bent incisors, their horizontal posterior 
part longer than vertical portion; behind them a narrow band 
of villif orm teeth ; minute teeth on vomer, tongue, and palatines ; 
the two small nostrils in front of each eye each provided with 
a fleshy rim ; preopercle minutely serrated on its lower and hind 
edges, and opercle armed behind with a flat, blunt spine; depth 
of caudal peduncle 8.1 to 9.4 times in length of body or 2.4 to 
2.5 times in that of head. 

Sides of body covered with moderate scales; snout and jaws 
naked, as are the membranous portions of dorsal and anal; 
the soft vertical fins, caudal, ventrals, and pectoral have a 
thick cover of very small to minute scales ; the lateral line skips 
several scales on anterior portion of body; sixth or seventh 
dorsal spine highest, 2.3 to 2.6 times in head and perceptibly 
higher than soft portion which is nearly uniform in height 
throughout and longer than head ; rayed anal much higher than 
third anal spine or soft dorsal, and contained 2.1 to 2.5 times 
in head, its base a little shorter than head; caudal fin forked, 
with acutely pointed lobes; the short pectoral 1.4 to 1.7 times 
in head; ventral still shorter than pectoral and 1.6 to 2 times 
its spine, which is 2.8 to 3.2 times in head. 

Color in alcohol uniformly silvery gray, much darker above; 
the sides have longitudinal dark bands passing between the rows 
of scales, alternating with silvery bands running through their 
centers; the fins blackish; the dark longitudinal bands were 
golden in life. 

We have examined twelve specimens of this species in the 
Bureau of Science collection, measuring 34.5 to 330 millimeters 
in length. They were obtained at the following localities : Iba, 
Zambales; Calapan, Mindoro; Tablas Island; Iloilo, Panay; Du- 
maguete. Oriental Negros; Zamboanga, Mindanao; and Siasi 
and Sibutu Islands, Sulu Archipelago. 



33, 4 Herre and Montalban: Spar old and Rudder Fishes 439 

The fish of this species go in small or moderately large schools 
and delight to play and feed in strong currents on coral reefs 
rising abruptly out of considerable depths. Such places as the 
dock at Sibutu, where the overhanging reef drops off to a depth 
of 85 or 90 fathoms, are excellent places from which to observe 
them. 

This handsome fish occurs from the western coast of the 
Malay Peninsula to Amboina and other islands of the Moluccas. 

SUMMARY OF PHILIPPINE SPAROID AND RUDDER FISHES DESCRIBED 

IN THIS PAPER 

1. SPARID^ 

1. Genus LETHRINUS Cuvier 

1. moensi (Bleeker). 

2. nematacanthus Bleeker. 

3. miniatus (Forster, MS.). 

4. amboinensis Bleeker. 

5. richardsoni Giinther. 

6. cutambi Seale. 

7. kallopterus Bleeker. 

8. variegatus Ehrenberg. 

9. ramak (Forskal). 

10. atkinsoni Seale. 

11. harak (Forskal). 

12. haematopterus Schlegel. 

13. mahsena (Forskal). 

14. hypselopterus Bleeker. 

15. opercularis Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

16. leutjanus Bleeker. 

17. ornatus Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

18. insulindicus Bleeker. 

2. Genus MONOTAXIS Bennett 

19. grandoculis (Forskal). 

3. Genus PAGRUS Cuvier 

20. spinifer (Forskal). 

4. Genus SPARUS LinnaBus 

21. berda Forskal. 

22. datnia (Buchanan Hamilton). 

2. KYPHOSIDuE 

5. Genus GIRELLA Gray 

23. punctata Gray. 

6. Genus KYPHOSUS Lacepede 

24. cinerascens (Forskal). 

25. lembus (Cuvier and Valencinnes). 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate 1 
Fig. 1. Lethrinus moensi (Bleeker). (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

2. Lethrinus nematacanthus Bleeker. (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

3. Lethrinus miniatus (Forster, MS.). (Dra^ving by P. Bravo.) 

Plate 2 
Fig. 1. Lethrinus amboinensis Bleeker. (Drawing by J. Nievera.) 

2. Lethrinus richardsoni Giinther. (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

3. Lethrinus kallopterus Bleeker. (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

Plate 3 
Fig. 1. Lethrinus variegatus Ehrenberg. (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

2. Lethrinus harak (Forskal). (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

3. Lethrinus haematopterus Schlegel. (Drawing by J. L. Nievera.) 

Plate 4 
Fig. 1. Lethrinus hypselopterus Bleeker. (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 
2. Lethrinus leutjanus Bleeker. (Drawing by J. Nievera.) 

Plate 5 
Fig. 1. Lethrinus insuUndicus Bleeker. (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

2. Monotaxis grandoculis (Forskal), young. (Drawing by J. L. Nie- 

vera.) 

3. Monotaxis grandoculis (Forskal). (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

Plate 6 
Fig. 1. Spams datnia (Buchanan Hamilton). (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 
2. Sparus berda Forskal. (Drawing by A. L. Canlas.) 

Plate 7 
Fig. 1. Girella punctata Gray. (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

2. Kyphosus lembus (Cuvier and Valenciennes). (Drawing by A. L. 

Canlas.) 

3. Kyphosus cinerascens (Forskal). (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

Plate 8 
Fig. 1. Lethrinus mahsena (Forskal). (Drawing by A. L. Canlas.) 
2. Pagrus spinifer (Forskal). (Drawing by A. L. Canlas.) 

Plate 9 
Fig. 1. Lethrinus ornatus Cuvier and Valenciennes. (Drawing by A. L. 
Canlas.) 

2. Lethrinus ramak (Forskal). (Drawing by P. Bravo.) 

3. Lethrinus opercularis Cuvier and Valenciennes. (Drawing by A. L. 

Canlas.) 

441 



Herre and Montalban : Sparoid and Rudder Fishes.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 

"~i 




PLATE 1. 



Herrb and Montalban : Sparoid and Rudder Fishes.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 




PLATE 2. 



Herre and Montalban : Sparoid and Ri:dder Fishes.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 




PLATE 3. 



y^ 



\ '^^. r_ 



Hbrrb and Montalban : Sparoid and Rudder Fishes.] [Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 





PLATE 4. 



Herre and Montalban : Sparoid and Rudder Fishes.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 




PLATE 5. 



Herre and Montalban : Sparoid anh Rudder Fishes.] [Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 




PLATE 6. 



Herrb and Montalban : Sparoid and Rudder P'ishes.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 




PLATE 7. 



Herre and Montalban : Sparoid and Rudder Fishes.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 





PLATE 8. 



Herbe and Montalban : Sparoid and Rudder Fishes.] 



[Philip. Journ. Sci., 33, No. 4. 



/^.^y 







,/x^- 





PLATE 9. 



ERRATA 

VOLUME 29 

Page 549, between lines 13 and 14 insert Lomanius minimus sp. 
nov. 

VOLUME 31 

Page 466, line 27, for correctly exserted read porrectly ex- 
serted. 

228858 8 443 



INDEX 



FNew generic and specific names and new combinations are printed in boldface; synonyms 
and names of species incidentally mentioned in the text are printed in itcUicl 



Abaca plant, nomenclature of the, 141. 

Acalypha stipulacea, 115. 

Agaonini, 309. 

AGUILAR, R. H., Composition and com- 
parative service value under Philip- 
pine conditions of some imported 
prepared paints, 177. 

Akle, 382, 384, 386, 390. 

Albizzia acle Merr., 382. 

Aleurites moluccana, 170, 258, 349. 

ALEXANDER, CHARLES P., New or little- 
known Tipulidaj from the Philippines 
(Diptera), Part IV, 291. 

Almon, 382, 383, 385, 389. 

ALMORADIE, PEDRO R., and AUGUSTUS 
P. WEST, Salts of linolenic hexa- 
bromide (calcium, magnesium, stron- 
tium, and nickel) from Philippine 
lumbang oil, 257. 

Alophorophasia Tyl.-Towns., 287. 
alata Tyl.-Towns., 287, 288. 

Amamanit, 382, 384, 390. 

Amugis, 382, 384, 386, 390. 

Analysis of phenol (carbolic acid), 363. 

Ancylostoma, 48, 54, 55. 
braziliense, 52, 56, 58. 
caninum, 42. 
ceylonica, 58. 
duodenale, 42. 

Ancylostomiasis : Relation between number 
of ova per gram of formed stool and 
number of female worms harbored 
by the host, 35, 47. 

Androcyptera Tyl.-Towns., 286. 

anorbitalis Tyl.-Towns., 286, 287. 

Anisoptera thurifera Bl., 382, 

Anthophora korotonensis CkU., 271. 

Antirabic preventive treatment, inquiry into 
the serologic side-effects of the, 233. 

Apis binghami Ckll., 271. 

Apitong, 382-386, 389, 390. 

Aranga, 382-385, 389, 390. 

Aringuit, 151. 

Ascaris ova, observations on the development 
of, 249. 

B 

Bacillus avisepticua, 342. 
bipolaris septicus, 342. 
bovisepticus, 342, 343. 
coli, 333, 342, 344. 



Bacillus — Continued. 

dysenteriss, 332. 

oviscpticus, 344. 

paratyphosus, 333. 

pestis, 343, 344. 

pollorum, 343, 344. 
Bacterium paratyphoid, 342. 
Bagtikan, 382, 383, 385, 389. 
Bandala, 143. 

Bansalagin, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Banuyo, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Batete, 382, 384, 390. 
Benguet pine, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Binacol, 144. 
Big-eye, 426. 
Blastophaga browni Ashm., 326. 

contubernalis Grnd., 309. 
Blood-chemistry studies in leprosy, II, 155. 
Bondoy, 144. 

Boulengerina Fowler, 200. 
Borkenkafer, 67. 
Bruguiera sp., 382. 



Campsomeris aurcicollis Lepel., 274. 

aureicollis mcgregori CkU., 274. 

ceylonica W. F. Kby., 275. 

thoracica (F.), 274. 
Carbolic acid, analysis of, 363. 
Cebu coals, 376. 

Centropomus rupestria Lacep., 205. 
Centrotoscelus brunneus Funkh., 117. 
Ceratosolen bakeri Grnd., 312. 

imbecillus Grnd., 315. 

jucundus Grnd., 320. 

pygmaeus Grnd., 317. 
Chaulmoogra an Hides, 265. 
Chaulmoogryl amino benzoic acids and chaul- 
moogra anilides, 265. 
Chrysididse, 275. 
Chrysophrya berda Riipp., 430. 

calamara Cuv. & Val., 430. 

datnia Day, 432. 

grandoculia Cuv. & Val., 425. 

hasta Gthr., 432. 

longiapinia Cuv. & Val., 432. 
Clydonodozua End., 305. 
Clytiomya, 288. 
Coals, Cebu, 375. 

COCKERELL, T. D. A., Hymenoptera from 
Lucban, Philippine Islands, 271. 



445 



446 



Index 



Coelioxys genalis Ckll., 271. 

philippinensis Bingham, 271. 
Coiu8 datnia Buch. Ham., 431. 
Conosia ansrustissima Alex., 306. 

irrorata (Wied.), 299, 305. 
COPELAND, E. B., Nomenclature of the 

abaca plant, 141. 
Crenidens punctatus Richardson, 434. 
Crocisa crucifera Ckll., 271. 
Crane flies, see Tipulidse. 
Cryphalomorphus bangensis Eggers, 75, 76. 

buruensia Eggers, 75. 

minor Eggers, 76. 
Cryphalus minimus Eggers, 76. 
Cryptaspidia minuta Funkh., 118. 

D 

Dao, 382, 384, 390. 

DEL MUNDO, SALVADOR, Notes on the 
analysis of phenol (carbolic acid), 
363. 
Diamerus puncticollis Eggers, 68. 

striatus Eggers, 67, 68. 
Dicranomyia (Thrypticomyia) apicalis 

(Wied.), 298, 299, 301, 303, 305. 
Thrypticomyia arachnophila, 299, 301. 
(Thrypticomyia) fumidapicalis Alex., 
301. 
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Blco., 382. 
Dolichomutilla Ashm., 277. 
Douglas fir, 383, 384. 

Dracontomelum dao Merr. & Rolfe, 382. 
Dudu dudu, 266. 
Dules argenteus Klzgr., 200. 
bennetti Peters, 200. 
ciliatus MacL., 203. 
fuscus Cuv. & Val., 205. 
guamensis Cuv. & Val., 205. 
haswelli MacL., 205. 
maculatua Cuv. & Val., 203. 
malo Cuv. & Val., 202. 
malo Hombr. Jacq., 203. 
marginatus Cuv. & Val., 203. 
marginatus Day, 205. 
maroinatus Gthr., 202, 203. 
mato Lesson, 202. 
papuensis MacL,, 203. 
rupeatris Cuv. & Val., 205. 
taeniurua Cuv. & Val., 200. 
vanicolenais Cuv. & Val., 205. 
Dungon, 382, 384, 386, 390. 

E 

EGGERS, HANS, Neue Indo-Malayische Bor- 
kenkafer (Ipidse) II. Nachtrag, 67. 

ELLIOTT, E. A., New Stephanidse from 
Borneo and the Philippine Islands, II, 
211. 

Emphusis rugosus Funkh., 111. 

Entamoeba hystolitica, 60. 

Epseudocyptera Tyl.-Towns., 283. 
epalpata Tyl.-Towns., 283. 

Eriocera, 292. 

Errata, 443. 



ESPINOSA, J0S6 C, Comparative strength 
properties of the principal Philippine 
commercial woods, 381. 

Eucalyptus deglupta Bl., 382. 

Euglochina Alex., 299, 300. 

Eupristina bakeri Grnd., 323. 
graaaii Grnd., 325. 

Evynnia, 397. 

F 

FAUSTINO, LEOPOLDO A., Philippine coal 
resources and their exhaustion, 1 ; 
Notes on Cebu coals, 375. 
Ficua chartacea Wall., 317. 

foratenii, 325. 

hauili Blco., 323. 

heterophylla L., 326. 

megacarpa Merr., 312. 

minahaaaae Miq., 320. 

paeudopalma Blco., 314. 

ulmifolia, 326. 
FUNKHOUSER, W. D., New Philippine 

Membracidae (Homoptera), 109. 



Gapas-gapas, 426. 

GARCIA, ONOFRE, A pleomorphic and 
gas-forming bipolar bacillus isolated 
from the lymph glands of slaughtered 
cattle, 331. 
Gargara fasceifrontis Funkh., 122. 
fragila Funkh., 121. 
gracila Funkh., 120. 
granulata Funkh., 123. 
nigroapica Funkh., 119, 124. 
nodinervis Funkh., 122. 
varicolor Stal, 119, 124. 
Geranomyia flavicosta Brun., 298. 
Girella Gray, 433. 

punctata Gray, 434. 
GRANDI, GUIDO, Hymenopteres Sycophiles 
recoltes aux lies Philippines par. C. 
F. Baker, I. Agaonini ; 22'"«^ contri- 
bution a la connaissance des insectes 
des figuiers, 309. 
Guijo, 382-386, 389, 390. 
Guinarras, 143. 

H 

Halictus banahaonis macerula Ckll., 272. 

Hedychnidium tayabicum Ckll., 275. 
wroughtoni du Buys., 275. 

Hedychrum atantoni Ashm., 275. 

Heliconia, 145. 

Hemiatepkanua, 211. 

HERRE, ALBERT W., and HERACLIO, R. 
MONTALBAN, The Philippine species 
of Kuhliidse, 199, Philippine sparoid 
and rudder fishes, 397. 

Homalium luzoniense F. Vill., 382. 

Homoptera, 109. 

Hopea acuminata Merr., 382. 
basilanica Foxw., 382. 



Index 



447 



Hydnocarpus alcalae C. DC, 266. 

wightiana, 162. 
Hyleainus papuanus, 70. 

persimilis loggers, 70. 
Hymenoptera from Lucban, 271. 
Hymenopteres Sycophiles recoltes aux lies 
Philippines, 309. 



Ichneumonops, 286. 

Ilak, 437. 

Intsia bijuga O. Klze., 382. 

Ipidse, 67. 

Ipil, 382, 384, 386, 390. 

Ips bicaudatus Eggers, 80. 

bispinosus Eggers, 78. 

insularis Eggers, 78. 

laricis, 79. 

perexiguus Blandford, 78. 

philippinensis Eggers, 78. 

tuberculatus Eggers, 79. 



JOVELLANOS, CEFERINO M., and AU- 
GUSTUS P. WEST, Salts of alpha 
linolic tetrabromide (cadmium, cobalt, 
copper, magnesium, and manganese) 
from Philippine lumbang oil, 349. 

K 

Kalamansanai, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Kingiodendron alternsefolium Merr,, 382. 
Koordersiodendron pinnatum Merr., 382. 
Kuhlia Gill, 199. 

arge Jordan & Bollman, 201. 

ciliata Gill, 205. 

malo Boul., 200, 202. 

malo (Cuv. & Val.), 202. 

marginata Boul., 200, 203. 

marginata (Cuv. & Val.), 203. 

rupestris Boul., 200, 205. 

rupestris (Lacep.), 205. 

taeniura (Cuv. & Val.), 200. 

taeniura Jordan & Bollman, 200. 
Kuhliidae, 199. 
Kyphosidse, 433. 
Kyphosus Lacep., 433, 435. 

cinerascens (Forsk.), 436. 

cinerascens Jordan & Richardson, 436. 

lembus (Cuv. & Val.), 436, 437. 

tahmel Gthr., 437. 



Lagao, 426. 

Lamog, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Leprosy, blood chemistry in, 165. 
Leptocentrus antilope St&l, 113. 

arcuatus Funkh., 113. 

manilacnsis Funkh., 112. 

reponens Walk., 113. 
Lethrinella Fowler, 398. 

miniata Fowler, 403. 



Lethrinus Cuv., 398, 425. 

amboinensis Bleeker, 399, 404, 405. 

atkinsoni Seale, 399, 412. 

bonhamensis Gthr., 413-415. 

cutambi Seale, 399, 407. 

ehrenbergii Cuv. & Val., 411. 

flavescens Cuv. & Val., 411. 

genivittatua Playfair, 400. 

haematopterus Richardson, 399, 405, 407, 
417. 

haematopterus Schlegel, 405, 407, 416, 
417. 
- harak (Forsk.), 399, 413, 415. 

harak Riipp., 413. 

hypselopterus Bleeker, 899, 409, 419. 

insulindicus Bleeker, 400, 424. 

jagorii Peters, 404, 405. 

kallopterus Bleeker, 399, 408, 420. 

latidcns Cuv. & Val., 425. 

latifrons Riipp., 409. 

leutjanus Bleeker, 399, 421. 

longirostria Playfair & Gthr., 403. 

mahsena Cuv. & Val., 399, 417. 

mahsena (Forsk.), 417. 

mahsenoides Bleeker, 424, 425. 

mahscnoides Ehrenb., 424. 

miniatus Cuv. & Val., 389, 403. 

miniatus (Forst.), 402. 

moensi (Bleeker), 399-401. 

vtoensi Evermann & Seale, 400. 

moensii (Bleeker), 400. 

nematacanthus Bleeker, 399, 401. 

opercularis Cuv. & Val., 399, 420. 

ornatus Cuv. & Val,, 400, 422, 425. 

ramak (Forsk.), 399, 411, 412. 

ramak Riipp., 411. 

reticulatus, 405. 

richardsoni Gthr., 399, 405, 417. 

rostratus Cuv. & Val., 403. 

variegatus Ehrenb., 399, 405, 409. 

xanthotaenia Bleeker, 422. 
Libnotes, 292. 
Limnobia apicalia Wied., 298. 

irrorata Wied., 305. 

trentepohlii Wied., 303. 
Limoniinae, 298. 

Lumbang oil, salts from, 169, 257, 349. 
Lumbayao, 382-386, 389, 390. 
Lupis, 143. 
Lutianus, 398. 

M 

MACFARLANE, J. M., The Philippine spe- 
cies of Nepenthes, 127. 

Makabuhay, the bitter principle of, 357. 

Malaking mata, 426. 

Malugay, 382, 384, 386, 390. 

MANALANG, C, Ancylostomiasis : Relation 
between number of ova per gram of 
formed stool and number of female 
worms harbored by the host, I, 35 ; II, 
47 ; Observations on the development 
of ascaris ova, 249. 

Manggachapui, 382, 384, 386, 390. 



448 



Index 



Manggasinoro, 382-385, 389, 390. 
Mangifera altissima Blco., 382. 
MARA5J0N, JOAQUIN, The bitter princi- 
ple of makabuhay, Tinospora rumphii 
Boerlage, 357. 
Mayapis, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Megachile bakeri Ckll., 271. 

rufofulva Ckll., 271. 
Megischus ducalis Westw., 222. 

nigricauda Sichel, 214. 

tarsatus Sichel, 218. 
Meigenia, 289. 
Membracidse, 109. 
Mesotrichia amauroptera Perez, 272. 

bakeriana Ckll., 272. 

bluethgeni, 273. 

bombiformis Sm., 272. 

bombiformis Sm., var. a, 272. 

canaria Ckll., 273. 

euchlora Perez, 273. 

ghilianii (Grib.), 273. 

lucbanensis Ckll., 273. 

major Maidl., 272, 273. 

philippinensis chlorina Ckll., 272. 

unicolor (Sm.), 272. 
Mimusops parvifolia R. B., 382. 
Minthomyia, 279. 
Molave, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Mongoma Westw., 302. 

pennipes O. S., 303. 

tenera O. S., 302. 
Mongomioides, 303. 
Monotaxis Benn., 398, 425. 

grandoculis Bleeker, 425. 

grandoculis (Forsk.), 425. 

indica Benn., 426. 
MONTALBAN, HERACLIO R., see Herre 

and MONTALBAN. 

Morinda, 151. 
Moronopsis Gill, 200. 

argenteus Klzgr., 201. 

ciliatus Bleeker, 203. 

fuscus Steind., 205. 

rupestris Bleeker, 205. 

sandvicensis Steind., 202. 

taeniurus Bleeker, 200. 
Muscoidea, 279. 
Musa, 147. 

abaca Perr., 141, 148, 149. 

balbisiana Collad., 152. 

mindanensis Rumph., 152. 

mindanensis "Rumph" Miquel, 141. 

paradisiaca, 152. 

ailvestre, 145. 

ailvestria, 146, 152, 153. 

sylveatris CoUa, 141, 151. 

sylvestris mindanenaia Rumph., 152. 

textUia Nee, 141, 145, 146, 148, 149, 
151-153. 

troglodytarum B. WiUd., 149, 151, 152. 

troglodytarum errans, 149, 151. 

troglodytarum textoria Blco., 141, 150. 

uranoacopos Rumph., 151. 



Mutilla analia Lepel., 277. 

bicolor, 277. 

dimidiata Lepel., 277. 

europaea Linn., 277. 

fuacipennis F., 277. 

luzonica Rad., 276, 277. 
Mutillidse, 275. 

N 

Narig, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Narra, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Nate, 382, 383, 385, 389. 
Necator, 42, 48, 54, 55, 61, 65. 
Negritus minor Eggers, 69. 

major Eggers, 69. 
Neolethrinua, 397. 
Neonauclea calycina Merr., 382. 
Neostephanua, 211. 
Neoxyloctonus pusillus Eggers, 88. 
Nepenthes Linn., 127. 

alata Blco., 127, 129, 136, 137. 

alata Blco. var. ecristata Macf., 137. 

alata var. biflora Macf., 137. 

blancoi Blm., 128-130. 

brachycarpa Merr., 130, 131. 

burkei Mast., 128, 134. 

copelandii Merr., 128, 131. 

deaniana Macf., 128, 134. 

decurrena, 133. 

graciflora Elm., 137. 

gracilia Korth., 140. 

maxima, 133. 

merrilliana Macf., 127, 128, 132, 133, 
I 140. 

pervillei, 127. 

philippinensis Macf., 128, 130. 

phyllamphora Willd., 128, 135. 

rajah, 133. 

surigaonensis Elm., 132, 133. 

truncata Macf., 127, 129, 133, 137, 140. 

veitchii, 140. 

ventricosa Blco., 127-129, 133, 134. 
Nephrotoma, 296. 
Nesopeza Alex., 298. 

cinctitarsis Alex., 296, 297. 

costalia Brun., 298. 

geniculata Alex., 298. 

gracilia de Meij., 298. 
Neue Indo-Malayische Borkenkafer (Ipidae), 

II. Nachtrag, 67. 
Nipis, 143. 

Nipponomyia Alex., 298. 
Nomia longitarsis Ckll., 271. 
recessa Ckll., 271. 

o 

Ochrophasia Tyl.-Towns., 288. 

atripennis Tyl.-Towns., 288. 
Ocypteropaia, 283. 
Ocypterula, 284. 
Opsocyptera Tyl.-Towns., 284. 

optima Tyl.-Towns., 284, 285. 



Index 



449 



ORETA, ADELAIDA T., and AUGUSTUS 
P. WEST, Salts of alpha linolic tet- 
rabromide (sodium, potassium, zinc, 
barium, calcium, and strontium) from 
Philippine lumbang oil, 169. 
Oxydexiops Tyl.-Towns., 289. 

uramyoides Tyl.-Towns., 289. 
Ozopemon fuscicollis Hagedorn, 87. 
similis Eggers, 87. 



Pagatpat, 382, 384, 386, 390. 
Pagrus Cuv., 398, 427. 

heterodon Bleeker, 426. 
longifilis Cuv. & Val., 428. 
spinifer Cuv. & Val., 428. 
spinifer (Forsk.), 428. 
Pahudia rhomboidea Prain, 382. 
Pahutan, 382, 383, 385, 389. 
Paints, composition and comparative service 
value under Philippine conditions of 
some imported prepared, 177. 
Palaquium luzoniense Vid., 382. 
Palosapis, 382-385, 387, 389, 390. 
Palpocyptera Tyl.-Towns., 283. 

pulchra Tyl.-Towns., 283, 284. 
Paradulea Bleeker, 200. 

marginatus Bleeker, 203. 
rupestris Bleeker, 205. 
PARAS, ERNESTO M., Blood-chemistry 
studies in leprosy, II. The alkali re- 
serve, 155. 
Parashorea plicata Brand, 382. 
Pasteurella, 343, 344. 

boviseptica, 342, 343. 
Payanguit, 151. 
Pelicerus brevier Eggers, 86. 
elongatus Eggers, 85. 
philippinensis Eggers, 87. 
Pentacme contorta Merr. & Rolfe, 382. 
Perca argentea Benn., 200. 
ciliata Cuv. & Val., 205. 
Percichthys ciliata Gthr., 205. 
Phenol, analysis of, 363. 

Philippine coal resources and their exhaus- 
tion, 1. 
commercial woods, comparative strength 

properties of the principal, 381. 
Kuhliidse, 199. 

lumbang oil, salts of alpha linolic tet- 
rabromide (sodium, potassium, zinc, 
barium, calcium, and strontium) from, 
169. 
lumbang oil, salts of linolenic hexa- 
bromide (calcium, magnesium, stron- 
tium, and nickel) from, 257. 
lumbang oil, salts of alpha linolic tet- 
rabromide (cadmium, cobalt, copper, 
magnesium, and manganese) from, 
349. 
Membracidse, 109. 
Muscoidea, 279. 
rudder fishes, 397, 433. 
sparoid fishes, 397. 



Philippoformosia Tyl.-Towns., 282. 

splendida Tyl.-Towns., 282. 
Phloeosinus imitans Eggers, 75. 

Iatu8 Eggers, 75. 
Pimelepterus Lacep., 435. 

altipinnis Cuv. & Val., 436. 

cinerascena Day, 436. 

dussumieri Cuv. & Val., 436. 

indicua K. & Van H., 436. 

lembus Cuv. & Val., 437. 

tahmel Riipp., 436. 

ternatensia Bleeker, 437. 
Pimpla coronator F., 227. 
Pinus insularis Endl., 382. 
Piring-piting, 144. 
Planchonia spectabilis Merr., 382. 
Pleomorphic and gas-forming bipolar bacil- 
lus isolated from the lymph glands of 
slaughtered cattle, 331. 
Poecilips brevier Eggers, 48. 

lengior Eggers, 83. 

medius Eggers, 84. 

eblongus Eggers, 83, 84. 

punctatus Eggers, 85. 

aannio Schauf., 83. 
Pometia pinnata Forst., 382. 
Pototan, 382. 
Paelliophora, 292. 

pumila Alex., 292. 
Pseudocyptera, 283. 
Paeudodexia, 280. 
Pterocarpus indicus Willd., 382. 
Pyrgonota binedis Funkh., 110. 

brevifurca Funkh., 110. 

bulbiturris Funkh., 109. 

R 

Red lauan, 382-385, 387, 389, 390. 
Rutilodexia, 282. 

s 

Safole Jordan, 200. 
Saguing na ligao, 150. 

SANTIAGO, SIMEONA, and AUGUSTUS 
P. WEST, Chaulmoogryl amino ben- 
zoic acids and chaulmoogra anilides, 
265. 
Scamboneura O. S., 292, 293. 

dotata O. S., 293. 

faceta Alex., 294, 295, 296. 

plumbea Alex., 294. 

psarophanes Alex., 294. 

quadrata de Meij., 294, 296. 

unicolor Bezzi, 294. 

vittifrona (Walk.), 294. 
Sciaena cineraacena Forsk., 436. 

grandoculis Forsk., 425. 

Juirak Forsk., 413. 

mahsena Forsk., 417. 

ramak Forsk., 411. 
Scolia aureicollia, 274. 

incerta Rohwer, 274. 

acutellaria Grib., 274. 

(Dielia) lindenii ceylonica Kby., 275. 

(Scolia) panayensis Ckll., 274. 



450 



Index 



Scoliidse, 274. 

Shorea eximia Scheff., 382. 

guiso BL, 382. 

negrosensis Foxw., 382. 

palosapis Merr., 382. 

polysperma Merr., 382. 

8p., 382. 
Sindora supa Merr., 382. 
Sipylus rotundatus Funkh., 118. 
Sisyropododexia Tyl.-Towns., 281. 

luteicornis Tyl.-Towns., 281, 282. 
Skuseomyia Alex., 298. 
Smicromyrme Thorns., 277. 
Sogon sogon, 129. 
Sonneratia caseolaris Engl., 382. 
Sparidae, 397. 
Sparus Linn., 398, 429. 

berda Forsk., 430. 

calamara Russell, 430. 

datnia Bleeker, 430, 431. 

datnia (Buch. Ham.), 431. 

grandoculis Bl. & Schn., 425. 

haata Bl. & Schn., 430, 432. 

miniatus (Forst.) Bl. & Schn., 402. 

spinifer Bleeker, 428. 

spinifer Forsk., 428. 
Spathidexia, 281. 
Sphaerodon Riipp., 425. 

grandoculis Rupp., 425. 

heterodon Gthr., 426. 

latidens Kner, 426. 
Sphaerotrypes bangensis Eggers, 73. 

bicolor Eggers, 70. 

bland fordi Schauf., 72. 

boettcheri Eggers, 72, 74. 

carinatus Eggers, 71. 

coimbatorensis Stebbing, 74, 

globulus Blandford, 74. 

insularis Eggers, 74. 

moseri Eggers, 73. 

palawanus Eggers, 74. 

philippinensis, 74. 

pila Blandford, 74. 

quadrituherculatus Sampson, 70, 71. 
StephanidsB from Borneo and the Philippine 

Islands, 211. 
Stephanoderes bakeri Eggers, 77. 
Stephanus Jurine, 211. 

aequalis Elliott, 212, 214, 221, 225, 229. 

aequalis var. ruficanda Elliott, 222. 

atriceps (Kieff.), 212, 213, 217. 

brevicoxis Elliott, 212, 216. 

coUectivus Elliott, 213, 223. 

coronator (F.), 213, 214, 227, 228. 

curticauda, 217. 

curtus Elliott, 212, 214, 216, 231. 

ducalis Schlett., 222. 

ducalis Westw., 213, 214. 222, 224. 

elegans Elliott, 212, 216. 

glabricoxis Elliott, 213, 222. 

hirsutus Elliott, 214, 231. 
impressus Elliott, 212, 222. 



Stephanus Jurine — Continued. 

inaequalis Elliott, 212, 218. 

lepidus Elliott, 214, 230. 

linearis Elliott, 214, 230. 

nigricauda Schlett., 214. 

nigricauda (Sichel), 211, 214, 215. 

nigripes Elliott, 212, 220. 

panayanus Elliott, 213, 225. 

petiolatns Elliott, 213, 214, 224, 225. 

philippinensis Ceballos, 212, 219. 

punctatus Elliott, 212, 219, 224. 

quadraticollis Elliott, 212, 214, 215, 224. 

reticulatus Elliott, 213, 214, 227. 

ruber Elliott, 213, 224, 226. 

rufus Elliott, 214, 229. 

rugicaput Elliott, 213, 228. 

samaris Elliott, 213, 227. 

similis Elliott, 213, 214, 222, 224. 

sulcatus Elliott, 212, 222. 

sulcifrons Schlett., 212, 215. 

tarsatus Schlett., 218. 

tarsatus (Sichel), 212, 214, 218. 

tinctipes Kieff., 211, 212, 214, 220. 

tinctipes var. atriceps Kieff., 217, 218. 

tinctipes var. rubripes Kieff., 212, 214, 
220. 

tricolor Elliot, 213, 228. 

unicolor Schlett., 212, 215. 

variantius Elliott, 213, 214, 227, 228. 
Sulud sulud, 129. 
Summary of Philippine sparoid and rudder 

fishes, 439. 
Supa, 382-384, 387, 389, 390. 



Tangile, 382-385, 387, 389, 390. 
Tarrietia javanica Bl., 382. 

sylvatica Merr., 382. 
Thamnurgides calapanus Eggers, 81. 

curtus Eggers, 80, 81. 

depressus Eggers, 82. 

myristicae Roepke, 81. 

punctatus Eggers, 82. 

striatus Eggers, 82. 

sundaensis Eggers, 80-82. 

ternatensis Eggers, 80. 

vulgaris Eggers, 82. 
Thrypticomyia Skuse, 299, 300. 

apicalis Wied., 299, 301. 

cuneiformis de Meij., 299. 

saltens Doleschall, 299. 
Tinagsad, 144. 

Tindalo, 382, 384, 387, 390. 
Tinospora cordifolia Miers, 357. 

reticulata Miers, 357. 

rumphii Boerl., 357, 360. 
Tipula riverai Alex., 292, 293. 
Tipulidae from the Philippines, 291. 
Tipulinae, 292. 
Trentepohlia Bigot, 292, 302. 

albogeniculata Brun., 305. 

mcgregori, 304. 



Index 



451 



Trentepohlia Bigot — Continued. 

nigroapicalis, 304. 

pallidiventris, 303. 

aeptentrionis, 304. 

trentepohlii Wied., 299. 

(Mongoma) luzonensis Edwards, 302. 

(Mongoma) pennipes O. S., 302, 303. 

(Mongoma) tenera O. S., 302, 303. 

(Trentepohlia) bakeri Alex., 302, 304. 

(Trentepholia) mcgregori Alex., 302, 303. 

(Trentepohlia) media Alex., 303. 

(Trentepohlia) nigroapicalis Brun., 304. 

(Trentepohlia) pictipennis Bezzi, 302. 

(Trentepohlia) septentrionis Alex., 304. 

(Trentepohlia) trentepohlii (Wied.), 
302, 303. 

(Trentipohlia) doddi O. S., 303. 
Tricentrus aequicornis Funkh., 116. 

manilaensis Funkh., 115. 

panayensis Funkh., 114. 

spininervis Funkh., 115. 
Trogaspidia analis Lepel., 277. 

bicolor Ashm., 276, 277. 

dimidiata Lepel., 277. 

itambusa Ckll., 275, 277. 

luzonica Rad., 277. 

medon Sm., 276. 

minor Ashm., 276, 277. 
Tupoz, 143. 

TYLER-TOWNSEND, CHARLES H., New 
Philippine Muscoidea, 279. 

u 

Urodexiomima Tyl.-Towns. 280. 

uramyoides Tyl.-Towns., 280, 281. 
Uroeuantha Tyl.-Towns., 279. 

longipes Tyl.-Towns., 279, 280. 



Vatica mangachapoi Blco,, 382. 
Vitex parviflora Juss., 382. 

w 

Wallaceodendron celebicum Koord., 382. 
Webbia canaliculatus Eggers, 106, 107. 

confinis Eggers, 106, 107. 

dentatus Eggers, 108. 

imitator Eggers, 105. 

medius Eggers, 104, 105. 

mucronatus Eggers, 107, 108. 

pabo Sampson, 105, 106. 

platypoides Eggers, 105. 

pusillus Eggers, 108. 

sublaevis Eggers, 104. 
WEST, AUGUSTUS P., see Almoradib and 
West; see also Jovellanos and West; 
see also Oreta and West; see also 
Santiago and West. 
White ash, 383, 384. 

lauan, 382, 383, 385, 389, 390. 



Xanthosyntomogaster, 287. 
Xyleborus amanicua Hagedorn, 101. 

amphicranoides, 95. 

amphicranoides Hagedorn latecavatus Eg- 
gers, 95. 

artestriatus Eichhoff, 101. 

balbalanus Eggers, 95. 

batoensis Eggers, 101. 

bimaculatus Eggers, 88. 

borneensis Eggers, 97. 

cinchonae, 95. 

cuneatus Eichhoff, 92, 93. 

cuneolus Eggers, 92, 93. 

cylindricus Eggers, 94. 

cylindromorphus Eggers, 96. 

defensus Blandford, 96. 

destruens Blandford, 98. 

dolosus Blandford, 97, 98. 

erinaceus Eggers, 103. 

exesus, 95. 

exsculptus Eggers, 101. 

fallax, 94, 95. 

forsteri Hagedorn, 93, 94. 

gracilipes Eichhoff, 102, 103. 

hybridus Eggers, 90. 

impar Eggers, 89. 

indicus subcoriaceus Eggers, 92. 

insulindicus Eggers, 101. 

irregularis Eggers, 99. 

lugubris (Eichhoff i. 1.) Eggers, 98. 

major Sampson, 99. 

marginatus Eggers, 91. 

melas Eggers, 93. 

mindanaensis Eggers, 93, 94. 

obliquesectus Eggers, 99. 

obiusus Eggers, 100. 

persimilis Eggers, 97. 

pilosulus Eggers, 100. 

quadraticollis Eggers, 94. 

semirudis, 90. 

sexspinosus Motsch., 102. 

similis Eggers, 101. 

solidus Eichhoff, 88. 

aordicauda Eichhoff (Motsch.), 91. 

sordicaudulus Eggers, 91, 92. 

sublongns Eggers, 99. 
Xylocopa bluethgeni Dusmet, 273. 

fuliginata Perez, 272. 



Yakal, 382-385, 387, 389, 890. 
YASUYAMA, K., Inquiry into the serologic 

side-effects of the antirabic preventive 

treatment, 233. 



Zambesa, 285. 

Zambesoides Tyl.-Towns., 285. 

samarensis Tyl.-Towns., 285, 286. 



O 



OCT 4 1927 



Vol. 3B, No. 4 



August, 1927 



>■»■■■ 



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The Philippine 
Journal of Science 




MANILA 

BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1927 



22S858 



THE PHILIPPINE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

Published by the Bureau of Science of the Goyernmsnt of th« Philippint Islands 

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Geology 
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Experimental Medicine 

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Clinical Medicine 

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CONTENTS 

Paare 

GARCIA, ONOFRE. A pleomorphic and gas-forming bi- 
polar bacillus isolated from the lymph glands of 
slaughtered cattle .-. 331 

JOVELLANO'S, CEFERINO M., and AUGUSTUS P. 
WEST. Salts of alpha linolic tetrabromide (cad- 
mium, cobalt, copper, magnesium, and manganese) 
from Philippine lumbang oil : 349 

MARARON, JOAQUIN. The bitter principle of maka- 

buhay, Tin .^pora rumphii Boerlage , 357 

DEL MUNDO, SALVADOR. Notes on the analysis of 

phenol (carbolic acid) _ 363 

PAUSTINO, LEOPOLDO A. Notes on Cebu coals... 375 

ESPINOSA, JOSfi C. Comparative strength proper- 
ties of the principal Philippine commercial woods.. 381 

HERRE, ALBERT W., and HERACLIO R. MONTAL- 

BAN. Philippine sparoid and rudder fishes 397 

ERRATA 443 

INDEX . 445 



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